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authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2010-05-21 18:14:52 (GMT)
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2010-05-21 18:14:52 (GMT)
commit59534f7298c5e28aaa64e6ed550e247f64ee72ae (patch)
treeb9fef7756abf897d9e1b10950cdf10bf6dfe5cb7 /Documentation/DocBook
parentac3ee84c604502240122c47b52f0542ec8774f15 (diff)
parentb486787ee4797d6e42a9bd3a6f079385ad0f4472 (diff)
Merge branch 'drm-for-2.6.35' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/airlied/drm-2.6
* 'drm-for-2.6.35' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/airlied/drm-2.6: (207 commits) drm/radeon/kms/pm/r600: select the mid clock mode for single head low profile drm/radeon: fix power supply kconfig interaction. drm/radeon/kms: record object that have been list reserved drm/radeon: AGP memory is only I/O if the aperture can be mapped by the CPU. drm/radeon/kms: don't default display priority to high on rs4xx drm/edid: fix typo in 1600x1200@75 mode drm/nouveau: fix i2c-related init table handlers drm/nouveau: support init table i2c device identifier 0x81 drm/nouveau: ensure we've parsed i2c table entry for INIT_*I2C* handlers drm/nouveau: display error message for any failed init table opcode drm/nouveau: fix init table handlers to return proper error codes drm/nv50: support fractional feedback divider on newer chips drm/nv50: fix monitor detection on certain chipsets drm/nv50: store full dcb i2c entry from vbios drm/nv50: fix suspend/resume with DP outputs drm/nv50: output calculated crtc pll when debugging on drm/nouveau: dump pll limits entries when debugging is on drm/nouveau: bios parser fixes for eDP boards drm/nouveau: fix a nouveau_bo dereference after it's been destroyed drm/nv40: remove some completed ctxprog TODOs ...
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/DocBook')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/DocBook/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/DocBook/drm.tmpl839
2 files changed, 840 insertions, 1 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/DocBook/Makefile b/Documentation/DocBook/Makefile
index 325cfd1..c7e5dc7 100644
--- a/Documentation/DocBook/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/DocBook/Makefile
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ DOCBOOKS := z8530book.xml mcabook.xml device-drivers.xml \
genericirq.xml s390-drivers.xml uio-howto.xml scsi.xml \
mac80211.xml debugobjects.xml sh.xml regulator.xml \
alsa-driver-api.xml writing-an-alsa-driver.xml \
- tracepoint.xml media.xml
+ tracepoint.xml media.xml drm.xml
###
# The build process is as follows (targets):
diff --git a/Documentation/DocBook/drm.tmpl b/Documentation/DocBook/drm.tmpl
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7583dc7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/DocBook/drm.tmpl
@@ -0,0 +1,839 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
+ "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd" []>
+
+<book id="drmDevelopersGuide">
+ <bookinfo>
+ <title>Linux DRM Developer's Guide</title>
+
+ <copyright>
+ <year>2008-2009</year>
+ <holder>
+ Intel Corporation (Jesse Barnes &lt;jesse.barnes@intel.com&gt;)
+ </holder>
+ </copyright>
+
+ <legalnotice>
+ <para>
+ The contents of this file may be used under the terms of the GNU
+ General Public License version 2 (the "GPL") as distributed in
+ the kernel source COPYING file.
+ </para>
+ </legalnotice>
+ </bookinfo>
+
+<toc></toc>
+
+ <!-- Introduction -->
+
+ <chapter id="drmIntroduction">
+ <title>Introduction</title>
+ <para>
+ The Linux DRM layer contains code intended to support the needs
+ of complex graphics devices, usually containing programmable
+ pipelines well suited to 3D graphics acceleration. Graphics
+ drivers in the kernel can make use of DRM functions to make
+ tasks like memory management, interrupt handling and DMA easier,
+ and provide a uniform interface to applications.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ A note on versions: this guide covers features found in the DRM
+ tree, including the TTM memory manager, output configuration and
+ mode setting, and the new vblank internals, in addition to all
+ the regular features found in current kernels.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ [Insert diagram of typical DRM stack here]
+ </para>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <!-- Internals -->
+
+ <chapter id="drmInternals">
+ <title>DRM Internals</title>
+ <para>
+ This chapter documents DRM internals relevant to driver authors
+ and developers working to add support for the latest features to
+ existing drivers.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ First, we'll go over some typical driver initialization
+ requirements, like setting up command buffers, creating an
+ initial output configuration, and initializing core services.
+ Subsequent sections will cover core internals in more detail,
+ providing implementation notes and examples.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ The DRM layer provides several services to graphics drivers,
+ many of them driven by the application interfaces it provides
+ through libdrm, the library that wraps most of the DRM ioctls.
+ These include vblank event handling, memory
+ management, output management, framebuffer management, command
+ submission &amp; fencing, suspend/resume support, and DMA
+ services.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ The core of every DRM driver is struct drm_device. Drivers
+ will typically statically initialize a drm_device structure,
+ then pass it to drm_init() at load time.
+ </para>
+
+ <!-- Internals: driver init -->
+
+ <sect1>
+ <title>Driver initialization</title>
+ <para>
+ Before calling the DRM initialization routines, the driver must
+ first create and fill out a struct drm_device structure.
+ </para>
+ <programlisting>
+ static struct drm_driver driver = {
+ /* don't use mtrr's here, the Xserver or user space app should
+ * deal with them for intel hardware.
+ */
+ .driver_features =
+ DRIVER_USE_AGP | DRIVER_REQUIRE_AGP |
+ DRIVER_HAVE_IRQ | DRIVER_IRQ_SHARED | DRIVER_MODESET,
+ .load = i915_driver_load,
+ .unload = i915_driver_unload,
+ .firstopen = i915_driver_firstopen,
+ .lastclose = i915_driver_lastclose,
+ .preclose = i915_driver_preclose,
+ .save = i915_save,
+ .restore = i915_restore,
+ .device_is_agp = i915_driver_device_is_agp,
+ .get_vblank_counter = i915_get_vblank_counter,
+ .enable_vblank = i915_enable_vblank,
+ .disable_vblank = i915_disable_vblank,
+ .irq_preinstall = i915_driver_irq_preinstall,
+ .irq_postinstall = i915_driver_irq_postinstall,
+ .irq_uninstall = i915_driver_irq_uninstall,
+ .irq_handler = i915_driver_irq_handler,
+ .reclaim_buffers = drm_core_reclaim_buffers,
+ .get_map_ofs = drm_core_get_map_ofs,
+ .get_reg_ofs = drm_core_get_reg_ofs,
+ .fb_probe = intelfb_probe,
+ .fb_remove = intelfb_remove,
+ .fb_resize = intelfb_resize,
+ .master_create = i915_master_create,
+ .master_destroy = i915_master_destroy,
+#if defined(CONFIG_DEBUG_FS)
+ .debugfs_init = i915_debugfs_init,
+ .debugfs_cleanup = i915_debugfs_cleanup,
+#endif
+ .gem_init_object = i915_gem_init_object,
+ .gem_free_object = i915_gem_free_object,
+ .gem_vm_ops = &amp;i915_gem_vm_ops,
+ .ioctls = i915_ioctls,
+ .fops = {
+ .owner = THIS_MODULE,
+ .open = drm_open,
+ .release = drm_release,
+ .ioctl = drm_ioctl,
+ .mmap = drm_mmap,
+ .poll = drm_poll,
+ .fasync = drm_fasync,
+#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
+ .compat_ioctl = i915_compat_ioctl,
+#endif
+ },
+ .pci_driver = {
+ .name = DRIVER_NAME,
+ .id_table = pciidlist,
+ .probe = probe,
+ .remove = __devexit_p(drm_cleanup_pci),
+ },
+ .name = DRIVER_NAME,
+ .desc = DRIVER_DESC,
+ .date = DRIVER_DATE,
+ .major = DRIVER_MAJOR,
+ .minor = DRIVER_MINOR,
+ .patchlevel = DRIVER_PATCHLEVEL,
+ };
+ </programlisting>
+ <para>
+ In the example above, taken from the i915 DRM driver, the driver
+ sets several flags indicating what core features it supports.
+ We'll go over the individual callbacks in later sections. Since
+ flags indicate which features your driver supports to the DRM
+ core, you need to set most of them prior to calling drm_init(). Some,
+ like DRIVER_MODESET can be set later based on user supplied parameters,
+ but that's the exception rather than the rule.
+ </para>
+ <variablelist>
+ <title>Driver flags</title>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DRIVER_USE_AGP</term>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Driver uses AGP interface
+ </para></listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DRIVER_REQUIRE_AGP</term>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Driver needs AGP interface to function.
+ </para></listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DRIVER_USE_MTRR</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>
+ Driver uses MTRR interface for mapping memory. Deprecated.
+ </para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DRIVER_PCI_DMA</term>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Driver is capable of PCI DMA. Deprecated.
+ </para></listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DRIVER_SG</term>
+ <listitem><para>
+ Driver can perform scatter/gather DMA. Deprecated.
+ </para></listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DRIVER_HAVE_DMA</term>
+ <listitem><para>Driver supports DMA. Deprecated.</para></listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DRIVER_HAVE_IRQ</term><term>DRIVER_IRQ_SHARED</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>
+ DRIVER_HAVE_IRQ indicates whether the driver has a IRQ
+ handler, DRIVER_IRQ_SHARED indicates whether the device &amp;
+ handler support shared IRQs (note that this is required of
+ PCI drivers).
+ </para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DRIVER_DMA_QUEUE</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>
+ If the driver queues DMA requests and completes them
+ asynchronously, this flag should be set. Deprecated.
+ </para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DRIVER_FB_DMA</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>
+ Driver supports DMA to/from the framebuffer. Deprecated.
+ </para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>DRIVER_MODESET</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>
+ Driver supports mode setting interfaces.
+ </para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ <para>
+ In this specific case, the driver requires AGP and supports
+ IRQs. DMA, as we'll see, is handled by device specific ioctls
+ in this case. It also supports the kernel mode setting APIs, though
+ unlike in the actual i915 driver source, this example unconditionally
+ exports KMS capability.
+ </para>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <!-- Internals: driver load -->
+
+ <sect1>
+ <title>Driver load</title>
+ <para>
+ In the previous section, we saw what a typical drm_driver
+ structure might look like. One of the more important fields in
+ the structure is the hook for the load function.
+ </para>
+ <programlisting>
+ static struct drm_driver driver = {
+ ...
+ .load = i915_driver_load,
+ ...
+ };
+ </programlisting>
+ <para>
+ The load function has many responsibilities: allocating a driver
+ private structure, specifying supported performance counters,
+ configuring the device (e.g. mapping registers &amp; command
+ buffers), initializing the memory manager, and setting up the
+ initial output configuration.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Note that the tasks performed at driver load time must not
+ conflict with DRM client requirements. For instance, if user
+ level mode setting drivers are in use, it would be problematic
+ to perform output discovery &amp; configuration at load time.
+ Likewise, if pre-memory management aware user level drivers are
+ in use, memory management and command buffer setup may need to
+ be omitted. These requirements are driver specific, and care
+ needs to be taken to keep both old and new applications and
+ libraries working. The i915 driver supports the "modeset"
+ module parameter to control whether advanced features are
+ enabled at load time or in legacy fashion. If compatibility is
+ a concern (e.g. with drivers converted over to the new interfaces
+ from the old ones), care must be taken to prevent incompatible
+ device initialization and control with the currently active
+ userspace drivers.
+ </para>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Driver private &amp; performance counters</title>
+ <para>
+ The driver private hangs off the main drm_device structure and
+ can be used for tracking various device specific bits of
+ information, like register offsets, command buffer status,
+ register state for suspend/resume, etc. At load time, a
+ driver can simply allocate one and set drm_device.dev_priv
+ appropriately; at unload the driver can free it and set
+ drm_device.dev_priv to NULL.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ The DRM supports several counters which can be used for rough
+ performance characterization. Note that the DRM stat counter
+ system is not often used by applications, and supporting
+ additional counters is completely optional.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ These interfaces are deprecated and should not be used. If performance
+ monitoring is desired, the developer should investigate and
+ potentially enhance the kernel perf and tracing infrastructure to export
+ GPU related performance information to performance monitoring
+ tools and applications.
+ </para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Configuring the device</title>
+ <para>
+ Obviously, device configuration will be device specific.
+ However, there are several common operations: finding a
+ device's PCI resources, mapping them, and potentially setting
+ up an IRQ handler.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Finding &amp; mapping resources is fairly straightforward. The
+ DRM wrapper functions, drm_get_resource_start() and
+ drm_get_resource_len() can be used to find BARs on the given
+ drm_device struct. Once those values have been retrieved, the
+ driver load function can call drm_addmap() to create a new
+ mapping for the BAR in question. Note you'll probably want a
+ drm_local_map_t in your driver private structure to track any
+ mappings you create.
+<!-- !Fdrivers/gpu/drm/drm_bufs.c drm_get_resource_* -->
+<!-- !Finclude/drm/drmP.h drm_local_map_t -->
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ if compatibility with other operating systems isn't a concern
+ (DRM drivers can run under various BSD variants and OpenSolaris),
+ native Linux calls can be used for the above, e.g. pci_resource_*
+ and iomap*/iounmap. See the Linux device driver book for more
+ info.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Once you have a register map, you can use the DRM_READn() and
+ DRM_WRITEn() macros to access the registers on your device, or
+ use driver specific versions to offset into your MMIO space
+ relative to a driver specific base pointer (see I915_READ for
+ example).
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ If your device supports interrupt generation, you may want to
+ setup an interrupt handler at driver load time as well. This
+ is done using the drm_irq_install() function. If your device
+ supports vertical blank interrupts, it should call
+ drm_vblank_init() to initialize the core vblank handling code before
+ enabling interrupts on your device. This ensures the vblank related
+ structures are allocated and allows the core to handle vblank events.
+ </para>
+<!--!Fdrivers/char/drm/drm_irq.c drm_irq_install-->
+ <para>
+ Once your interrupt handler is registered (it'll use your
+ drm_driver.irq_handler as the actual interrupt handling
+ function), you can safely enable interrupts on your device,
+ assuming any other state your interrupt handler uses is also
+ initialized.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Another task that may be necessary during configuration is
+ mapping the video BIOS. On many devices, the VBIOS describes
+ device configuration, LCD panel timings (if any), and contains
+ flags indicating device state. Mapping the BIOS can be done
+ using the pci_map_rom() call, a convenience function that
+ takes care of mapping the actual ROM, whether it has been
+ shadowed into memory (typically at address 0xc0000) or exists
+ on the PCI device in the ROM BAR. Note that once you've
+ mapped the ROM and extracted any necessary information, be
+ sure to unmap it; on many devices the ROM address decoder is
+ shared with other BARs, so leaving it mapped can cause
+ undesired behavior like hangs or memory corruption.
+<!--!Fdrivers/pci/rom.c pci_map_rom-->
+ </para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Memory manager initialization</title>
+ <para>
+ In order to allocate command buffers, cursor memory, scanout
+ buffers, etc., as well as support the latest features provided
+ by packages like Mesa and the X.Org X server, your driver
+ should support a memory manager.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ If your driver supports memory management (it should!), you'll
+ need to set that up at load time as well. How you intialize
+ it depends on which memory manager you're using, TTM or GEM.
+ </para>
+ <sect3>
+ <title>TTM initialization</title>
+ <para>
+ TTM (for Translation Table Manager) manages video memory and
+ aperture space for graphics devices. TTM supports both UMA devices
+ and devices with dedicated video RAM (VRAM), i.e. most discrete
+ graphics devices. If your device has dedicated RAM, supporting
+ TTM is desireable. TTM also integrates tightly with your
+ driver specific buffer execution function. See the radeon
+ driver for examples.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ The core TTM structure is the ttm_bo_driver struct. It contains
+ several fields with function pointers for initializing the TTM,
+ allocating and freeing memory, waiting for command completion
+ and fence synchronization, and memory migration. See the
+ radeon_ttm.c file for an example of usage.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ The ttm_global_reference structure is made up of several fields:
+ </para>
+ <programlisting>
+ struct ttm_global_reference {
+ enum ttm_global_types global_type;
+ size_t size;
+ void *object;
+ int (*init) (struct ttm_global_reference *);
+ void (*release) (struct ttm_global_reference *);
+ };
+ </programlisting>
+ <para>
+ There should be one global reference structure for your memory
+ manager as a whole, and there will be others for each object
+ created by the memory manager at runtime. Your global TTM should
+ have a type of TTM_GLOBAL_TTM_MEM. The size field for the global
+ object should be sizeof(struct ttm_mem_global), and the init and
+ release hooks should point at your driver specific init and
+ release routines, which will probably eventually call
+ ttm_mem_global_init and ttm_mem_global_release respectively.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Once your global TTM accounting structure is set up and initialized
+ (done by calling ttm_global_item_ref on the global object you
+ just created), you'll need to create a buffer object TTM to
+ provide a pool for buffer object allocation by clients and the
+ kernel itself. The type of this object should be TTM_GLOBAL_TTM_BO,
+ and its size should be sizeof(struct ttm_bo_global). Again,
+ driver specific init and release functions can be provided,
+ likely eventually calling ttm_bo_global_init and
+ ttm_bo_global_release, respectively. Also like the previous
+ object, ttm_global_item_ref is used to create an initial reference
+ count for the TTM, which will call your initalization function.
+ </para>
+ </sect3>
+ <sect3>
+ <title>GEM initialization</title>
+ <para>
+ GEM is an alternative to TTM, designed specifically for UMA
+ devices. It has simpler initialization and execution requirements
+ than TTM, but has no VRAM management capability. Core GEM
+ initialization is comprised of a basic drm_mm_init call to create
+ a GTT DRM MM object, which provides an address space pool for
+ object allocation. In a KMS configuration, the driver will
+ need to allocate and initialize a command ring buffer following
+ basic GEM initialization. Most UMA devices have a so-called
+ "stolen" memory region, which provides space for the initial
+ framebuffer and large, contiguous memory regions required by the
+ device. This space is not typically managed by GEM, and must
+ be initialized separately into its own DRM MM object.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Initialization will be driver specific, and will depend on
+ the architecture of the device. In the case of Intel
+ integrated graphics chips like 965GM, GEM initialization can
+ be done by calling the internal GEM init function,
+ i915_gem_do_init(). Since the 965GM is a UMA device
+ (i.e. it doesn't have dedicated VRAM), GEM will manage
+ making regular RAM available for GPU operations. Memory set
+ aside by the BIOS (called "stolen" memory by the i915
+ driver) will be managed by the DRM memrange allocator; the
+ rest of the aperture will be managed by GEM.
+ <programlisting>
+ /* Basic memrange allocator for stolen space (aka vram) */
+ drm_memrange_init(&amp;dev_priv->vram, 0, prealloc_size);
+ /* Let GEM Manage from end of prealloc space to end of aperture */
+ i915_gem_do_init(dev, prealloc_size, agp_size);
+ </programlisting>
+<!--!Edrivers/char/drm/drm_memrange.c-->
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Once the memory manager has been set up, we can allocate the
+ command buffer. In the i915 case, this is also done with a
+ GEM function, i915_gem_init_ringbuffer().
+ </para>
+ </sect3>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Output configuration</title>
+ <para>
+ The final initialization task is output configuration. This involves
+ finding and initializing the CRTCs, encoders and connectors
+ for your device, creating an initial configuration and
+ registering a framebuffer console driver.
+ </para>
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Output discovery and initialization</title>
+ <para>
+ Several core functions exist to create CRTCs, encoders and
+ connectors, namely drm_crtc_init(), drm_connector_init() and
+ drm_encoder_init(), along with several "helper" functions to
+ perform common tasks.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Connectors should be registered with sysfs once they've been
+ detected and initialized, using the
+ drm_sysfs_connector_add() function. Likewise, when they're
+ removed from the system, they should be destroyed with
+ drm_sysfs_connector_remove().
+ </para>
+ <programlisting>
+<![CDATA[
+void intel_crt_init(struct drm_device *dev)
+{
+ struct drm_connector *connector;
+ struct intel_output *intel_output;
+
+ intel_output = kzalloc(sizeof(struct intel_output), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!intel_output)
+ return;
+
+ connector = &intel_output->base;
+ drm_connector_init(dev, &intel_output->base,
+ &intel_crt_connector_funcs, DRM_MODE_CONNECTOR_VGA);
+
+ drm_encoder_init(dev, &intel_output->enc, &intel_crt_enc_funcs,
+ DRM_MODE_ENCODER_DAC);
+
+ drm_mode_connector_attach_encoder(&intel_output->base,
+ &intel_output->enc);
+
+ /* Set up the DDC bus. */
+ intel_output->ddc_bus = intel_i2c_create(dev, GPIOA, "CRTDDC_A");
+ if (!intel_output->ddc_bus) {
+ dev_printk(KERN_ERR, &dev->pdev->dev, "DDC bus registration "
+ "failed.\n");
+ return;
+ }
+
+ intel_output->type = INTEL_OUTPUT_ANALOG;
+ connector->interlace_allowed = 0;
+ connector->doublescan_allowed = 0;
+
+ drm_encoder_helper_add(&intel_output->enc, &intel_crt_helper_funcs);
+ drm_connector_helper_add(connector, &intel_crt_connector_helper_funcs);
+
+ drm_sysfs_connector_add(connector);
+}
+]]>
+ </programlisting>
+ <para>
+ In the example above (again, taken from the i915 driver), a
+ CRT connector and encoder combination is created. A device
+ specific i2c bus is also created, for fetching EDID data and
+ performing monitor detection. Once the process is complete,
+ the new connector is regsitered with sysfs, to make its
+ properties available to applications.
+ </para>
+ <sect4>
+ <title>Helper functions and core functions</title>
+ <para>
+ Since many PC-class graphics devices have similar display output
+ designs, the DRM provides a set of helper functions to make
+ output management easier. The core helper routines handle
+ encoder re-routing and disabling of unused functions following
+ mode set. Using the helpers is optional, but recommended for
+ devices with PC-style architectures (i.e. a set of display planes
+ for feeding pixels to encoders which are in turn routed to
+ connectors). Devices with more complex requirements needing
+ finer grained management can opt to use the core callbacks
+ directly.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ [Insert typical diagram here.] [Insert OMAP style config here.]
+ </para>
+ </sect4>
+ <para>
+ For each encoder, CRTC and connector, several functions must
+ be provided, depending on the object type. Encoder objects
+ need should provide a DPMS (basically on/off) function, mode fixup
+ (for converting requested modes into native hardware timings),
+ and prepare, set and commit functions for use by the core DRM
+ helper functions. Connector helpers need to provide mode fetch and
+ validity functions as well as an encoder matching function for
+ returing an ideal encoder for a given connector. The core
+ connector functions include a DPMS callback, (deprecated)
+ save/restore routines, detection, mode probing, property handling,
+ and cleanup functions.
+ </para>
+<!--!Edrivers/char/drm/drm_crtc.h-->
+<!--!Edrivers/char/drm/drm_crtc.c-->
+<!--!Edrivers/char/drm/drm_crtc_helper.c-->
+ </sect3>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <!-- Internals: vblank handling -->
+
+ <sect1>
+ <title>VBlank event handling</title>
+ <para>
+ The DRM core exposes two vertical blank related ioctls:
+ DRM_IOCTL_WAIT_VBLANK and DRM_IOCTL_MODESET_CTL.
+<!--!Edrivers/char/drm/drm_irq.c-->
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ DRM_IOCTL_WAIT_VBLANK takes a struct drm_wait_vblank structure
+ as its argument, and is used to block or request a signal when a
+ specified vblank event occurs.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ DRM_IOCTL_MODESET_CTL should be called by application level
+ drivers before and after mode setting, since on many devices the
+ vertical blank counter will be reset at that time. Internally,
+ the DRM snapshots the last vblank count when the ioctl is called
+ with the _DRM_PRE_MODESET command so that the counter won't go
+ backwards (which is dealt with when _DRM_POST_MODESET is used).
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ To support the functions above, the DRM core provides several
+ helper functions for tracking vertical blank counters, and
+ requires drivers to provide several callbacks:
+ get_vblank_counter(), enable_vblank() and disable_vblank(). The
+ core uses get_vblank_counter() to keep the counter accurate
+ across interrupt disable periods. It should return the current
+ vertical blank event count, which is often tracked in a device
+ register. The enable and disable vblank callbacks should enable
+ and disable vertical blank interrupts, respectively. In the
+ absence of DRM clients waiting on vblank events, the core DRM
+ code will use the disable_vblank() function to disable
+ interrupts, which saves power. They'll be re-enabled again when
+ a client calls the vblank wait ioctl above.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Devices that don't provide a count register can simply use an
+ internal atomic counter incremented on every vertical blank
+ interrupt, and can make their enable and disable vblank
+ functions into no-ops.
+ </para>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1>
+ <title>Memory management</title>
+ <para>
+ The memory manager lies at the heart of many DRM operations, and
+ is also required to support advanced client features like OpenGL
+ pbuffers. The DRM currently contains two memory managers, TTM
+ and GEM.
+ </para>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>The Translation Table Manager (TTM)</title>
+ <para>
+ TTM was developed by Tungsten Graphics, primarily by Thomas
+ Hellström, and is intended to be a flexible, high performance
+ graphics memory manager.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Drivers wishing to support TTM must fill out a drm_bo_driver
+ structure.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ TTM design background and information belongs here.
+ </para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>The Graphics Execution Manager (GEM)</title>
+ <para>
+ GEM is an Intel project, authored by Eric Anholt and Keith
+ Packard. It provides simpler interfaces than TTM, and is well
+ suited for UMA devices.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ GEM-enabled drivers must provide gem_init_object() and
+ gem_free_object() callbacks to support the core memory
+ allocation routines. They should also provide several driver
+ specific ioctls to support command execution, pinning, buffer
+ read &amp; write, mapping, and domain ownership transfers.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ On a fundamental level, GEM involves several operations: memory
+ allocation and freeing, command execution, and aperture management
+ at command execution time. Buffer object allocation is relatively
+ straightforward and largely provided by Linux's shmem layer, which
+ provides memory to back each object. When mapped into the GTT
+ or used in a command buffer, the backing pages for an object are
+ flushed to memory and marked write combined so as to be coherent
+ with the GPU. Likewise, when the GPU finishes rendering to an object,
+ if the CPU accesses it, it must be made coherent with the CPU's view
+ of memory, usually involving GPU cache flushing of various kinds.
+ This core CPU&lt;-&gt;GPU coherency management is provided by the GEM
+ set domain function, which evaluates an object's current domain and
+ performs any necessary flushing or synchronization to put the object
+ into the desired coherency domain (note that the object may be busy,
+ i.e. an active render target; in that case the set domain function
+ will block the client and wait for rendering to complete before
+ performing any necessary flushing operations).
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Perhaps the most important GEM function is providing a command
+ execution interface to clients. Client programs construct command
+ buffers containing references to previously allocated memory objects
+ and submit them to GEM. At that point, GEM will take care to bind
+ all the objects into the GTT, execute the buffer, and provide
+ necessary synchronization between clients accessing the same buffers.
+ This often involves evicting some objects from the GTT and re-binding
+ others (a fairly expensive operation), and providing relocation
+ support which hides fixed GTT offsets from clients. Clients must
+ take care not to submit command buffers that reference more objects
+ than can fit in the GTT or GEM will reject them and no rendering
+ will occur. Similarly, if several objects in the buffer require
+ fence registers to be allocated for correct rendering (e.g. 2D blits
+ on pre-965 chips), care must be taken not to require more fence
+ registers than are available to the client. Such resource management
+ should be abstracted from the client in libdrm.
+ </para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ </sect1>
+
+ <!-- Output management -->
+ <sect1>
+ <title>Output management</title>
+ <para>
+ At the core of the DRM output management code is a set of
+ structures representing CRTCs, encoders and connectors.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ A CRTC is an abstraction representing a part of the chip that
+ contains a pointer to a scanout buffer. Therefore, the number
+ of CRTCs available determines how many independent scanout
+ buffers can be active at any given time. The CRTC structure
+ contains several fields to support this: a pointer to some video
+ memory, a display mode, and an (x, y) offset into the video
+ memory to support panning or configurations where one piece of
+ video memory spans multiple CRTCs.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ An encoder takes pixel data from a CRTC and converts it to a
+ format suitable for any attached connectors. On some devices,
+ it may be possible to have a CRTC send data to more than one
+ encoder. In that case, both encoders would receive data from
+ the same scanout buffer, resulting in a "cloned" display
+ configuration across the connectors attached to each encoder.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ A connector is the final destination for pixel data on a device,
+ and usually connects directly to an external display device like
+ a monitor or laptop panel. A connector can only be attached to
+ one encoder at a time. The connector is also the structure
+ where information about the attached display is kept, so it
+ contains fields for display data, EDID data, DPMS &amp;
+ connection status, and information about modes supported on the
+ attached displays.
+ </para>
+<!--!Edrivers/char/drm/drm_crtc.c-->
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1>
+ <title>Framebuffer management</title>
+ <para>
+ In order to set a mode on a given CRTC, encoder and connector
+ configuration, clients need to provide a framebuffer object which
+ will provide a source of pixels for the CRTC to deliver to the encoder(s)
+ and ultimately the connector(s) in the configuration. A framebuffer
+ is fundamentally a driver specific memory object, made into an opaque
+ handle by the DRM addfb function. Once an fb has been created this
+ way it can be passed to the KMS mode setting routines for use in
+ a configuration.
+ </para>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1>
+ <title>Command submission &amp; fencing</title>
+ <para>
+ This should cover a few device specific command submission
+ implementations.
+ </para>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1>
+ <title>Suspend/resume</title>
+ <para>
+ The DRM core provides some suspend/resume code, but drivers
+ wanting full suspend/resume support should provide save() and
+ restore() functions. These will be called at suspend,
+ hibernate, or resume time, and should perform any state save or
+ restore required by your device across suspend or hibernate
+ states.
+ </para>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1>
+ <title>DMA services</title>
+ <para>
+ This should cover how DMA mapping etc. is supported by the core.
+ These functions are deprecated and should not be used.
+ </para>
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <!-- External interfaces -->
+
+ <chapter id="drmExternals">
+ <title>Userland interfaces</title>
+ <para>
+ The DRM core exports several interfaces to applications,
+ generally intended to be used through corresponding libdrm
+ wrapper functions. In addition, drivers export device specific
+ interfaces for use by userspace drivers &amp; device aware
+ applications through ioctls and sysfs files.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ External interfaces include: memory mapping, context management,
+ DMA operations, AGP management, vblank control, fence
+ management, memory management, and output management.
+ </para>
+ <para>
+ Cover generic ioctls and sysfs layout here. Only need high
+ level info, since man pages will cover the rest.
+ </para>
+ </chapter>
+
+ <!-- API reference -->
+
+ <appendix id="drmDriverApi">
+ <title>DRM Driver API</title>
+ <para>
+ Include auto-generated API reference here (need to reference it
+ from paragraphs above too).
+ </para>
+ </appendix>
+
+</book>

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