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authorJohann Baudy <johann.baudy@gnu-log.net>2009-05-19 05:11:22 (GMT)
committerDavid S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>2009-05-19 05:11:22 (GMT)
commit69e3c75f4d541a6eb151b3ef91f34033cb3ad6e1 (patch)
tree24920f17ea435627978af9d5fe0e99763bf6a533 /Documentation/networking
parentf67f34084914144de55c785163d047d5d8dddd2d (diff)
net: TX_RING and packet mmap
New packet socket feature that makes packet socket more efficient for transmission. - It reduces number of system call through a PACKET_TX_RING mechanism, based on PACKET_RX_RING (Circular buffer allocated in kernel space which is mmapped from user space). - It minimizes CPU copy using fragmented SKB (almost zero copy). Signed-off-by: Johann Baudy <johann.baudy@gnu-log.net> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/networking')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/packet_mmap.txt140
1 files changed, 121 insertions, 19 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/packet_mmap.txt b/Documentation/networking/packet_mmap.txt
index 07c53d5..a22fd85 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/packet_mmap.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/packet_mmap.txt
@@ -4,16 +4,18 @@
This file documents the CONFIG_PACKET_MMAP option available with the PACKET
socket interface on 2.4 and 2.6 kernels. This type of sockets is used for
-capture network traffic with utilities like tcpdump or any other that uses
-the libpcap library.
-
-You can find the latest version of this document at
+capture network traffic with utilities like tcpdump or any other that needs
+raw access to network interface.
+You can find the latest version of this document at:
http://pusa.uv.es/~ulisses/packet_mmap/
-Please send me your comments to
+Howto can be found at:
+ http://wiki.gnu-log.net (packet_mmap)
+Please send your comments to
Ulisses Alonso CamarĂ³ <uaca@i.hate.spam.alumni.uv.es>
+ Johann Baudy <johann.baudy@gnu-log.net>
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ Why use PACKET_MMAP
@@ -25,19 +27,24 @@ to capture each packet, it requires two if you want to get packet's
timestamp (like libpcap always does).
In the other hand PACKET_MMAP is very efficient. PACKET_MMAP provides a size
-configurable circular buffer mapped in user space. This way reading packets just
-needs to wait for them, most of the time there is no need to issue a single
-system call. By using a shared buffer between the kernel and the user
-also has the benefit of minimizing packet copies.
-
-It's fine to use PACKET_MMAP to improve the performance of the capture process,
-but it isn't everything. At least, if you are capturing at high speeds (this
-is relative to the cpu speed), you should check if the device driver of your
-network interface card supports some sort of interrupt load mitigation or
-(even better) if it supports NAPI, also make sure it is enabled.
+configurable circular buffer mapped in user space that can be used to either
+send or receive packets. This way reading packets just needs to wait for them,
+most of the time there is no need to issue a single system call. Concerning
+transmission, multiple packets can be sent through one system call to get the
+highest bandwidth.
+By using a shared buffer between the kernel and the user also has the benefit
+of minimizing packet copies.
+
+It's fine to use PACKET_MMAP to improve the performance of the capture and
+transmission process, but it isn't everything. At least, if you are capturing
+at high speeds (this is relative to the cpu speed), you should check if the
+device driver of your network interface card supports some sort of interrupt
+load mitigation or (even better) if it supports NAPI, also make sure it is
+enabled. For transmission, check the MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) used and
+supported by devices of your network.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-+ How to use CONFIG_PACKET_MMAP
++ How to use CONFIG_PACKET_MMAP to improve capture process
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
From the user standpoint, you should use the higher level libpcap library, which
@@ -57,7 +64,7 @@ the low level details or want to improve libpcap by including PACKET_MMAP
support.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-+ How to use CONFIG_PACKET_MMAP directly
++ How to use CONFIG_PACKET_MMAP directly to improve capture process
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
From the system calls stand point, the use of PACKET_MMAP involves
@@ -66,6 +73,7 @@ the following process:
[setup] socket() -------> creation of the capture socket
setsockopt() ---> allocation of the circular buffer (ring)
+ option: PACKET_RX_RING
mmap() ---------> mapping of the allocated buffer to the
user process
@@ -97,13 +105,75 @@ also the mapping of the circular buffer in the user process and
the use of this buffer.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++ How to use CONFIG_PACKET_MMAP directly to improve transmission process
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Transmission process is similar to capture as shown below.
+
+[setup] socket() -------> creation of the transmission socket
+ setsockopt() ---> allocation of the circular buffer (ring)
+ option: PACKET_TX_RING
+ bind() ---------> bind transmission socket with a network interface
+ mmap() ---------> mapping of the allocated buffer to the
+ user process
+
+[transmission] poll() ---------> wait for free packets (optional)
+ send() ---------> send all packets that are set as ready in
+ the ring
+ The flag MSG_DONTWAIT can be used to return
+ before end of transfer.
+
+[shutdown] close() --------> destruction of the transmission socket and
+ deallocation of all associated resources.
+
+Binding the socket to your network interface is mandatory (with zero copy) to
+know the header size of frames used in the circular buffer.
+
+As capture, each frame contains two parts:
+
+ --------------------
+| struct tpacket_hdr | Header. It contains the status of
+| | of this frame
+|--------------------|
+| data buffer |
+. . Data that will be sent over the network interface.
+. .
+ --------------------
+
+ bind() associates the socket to your network interface thanks to
+ sll_ifindex parameter of struct sockaddr_ll.
+
+ Initialization example:
+
+ struct sockaddr_ll my_addr;
+ struct ifreq s_ifr;
+ ...
+
+ strncpy (s_ifr.ifr_name, "eth0", sizeof(s_ifr.ifr_name));
+
+ /* get interface index of eth0 */
+ ioctl(this->socket, SIOCGIFINDEX, &s_ifr);
+
+ /* fill sockaddr_ll struct to prepare binding */
+ my_addr.sll_family = AF_PACKET;
+ my_addr.sll_protocol = ETH_P_ALL;
+ my_addr.sll_ifindex = s_ifr.ifr_ifindex;
+
+ /* bind socket to eth0 */
+ bind(this->socket, (struct sockaddr *)&my_addr, sizeof(struct sockaddr_ll));
+
+ A complete tutorial is available at: http://wiki.gnu-log.net/
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ PACKET_MMAP settings
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
To setup PACKET_MMAP from user level code is done with a call like
+ - Capture process
setsockopt(fd, SOL_PACKET, PACKET_RX_RING, (void *) &req, sizeof(req))
+ - Transmission process
+ setsockopt(fd, SOL_PACKET, PACKET_TX_RING, (void *) &req, sizeof(req))
The most significant argument in the previous call is the req parameter,
this parameter must to have the following structure:
@@ -117,11 +187,11 @@ this parameter must to have the following structure:
};
This structure is defined in /usr/include/linux/if_packet.h and establishes a
-circular buffer (ring) of unswappable memory mapped in the capture process.
+circular buffer (ring) of unswappable memory.
Being mapped in the capture process allows reading the captured frames and
related meta-information like timestamps without requiring a system call.
-Captured frames are grouped in blocks. Each block is a physically contiguous
+Frames are grouped in blocks. Each block is a physically contiguous
region of memory and holds tp_block_size/tp_frame_size frames. The total number
of blocks is tp_block_nr. Note that tp_frame_nr is a redundant parameter because
@@ -336,6 +406,7 @@ struct tpacket_hdr). If this field is 0 means that the frame is ready
to be used for the kernel, If not, there is a frame the user can read
and the following flags apply:
++++ Capture process:
from include/linux/if_packet.h
#define TP_STATUS_COPY 2
@@ -391,6 +462,37 @@ packets are in the ring:
It doesn't incur in a race condition to first check the status value and
then poll for frames.
+
+++ Transmission process
+Those defines are also used for transmission:
+
+ #define TP_STATUS_AVAILABLE 0 // Frame is available
+ #define TP_STATUS_SEND_REQUEST 1 // Frame will be sent on next send()
+ #define TP_STATUS_SENDING 2 // Frame is currently in transmission
+ #define TP_STATUS_WRONG_FORMAT 4 // Frame format is not correct
+
+First, the kernel initializes all frames to TP_STATUS_AVAILABLE. To send a
+packet, the user fills a data buffer of an available frame, sets tp_len to
+current data buffer size and sets its status field to TP_STATUS_SEND_REQUEST.
+This can be done on multiple frames. Once the user is ready to transmit, it
+calls send(). Then all buffers with status equal to TP_STATUS_SEND_REQUEST are
+forwarded to the network device. The kernel updates each status of sent
+frames with TP_STATUS_SENDING until the end of transfer.
+At the end of each transfer, buffer status returns to TP_STATUS_AVAILABLE.
+
+ header->tp_len = in_i_size;
+ header->tp_status = TP_STATUS_SEND_REQUEST;
+ retval = send(this->socket, NULL, 0, 0);
+
+The user can also use poll() to check if a buffer is available:
+(status == TP_STATUS_SENDING)
+
+ struct pollfd pfd;
+ pfd.fd = fd;
+ pfd.revents = 0;
+ pfd.events = POLLOUT;
+ retval = poll(&pfd, 1, timeout);
+
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ THANKS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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