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2011-06-16rcu: Move RCU_BOOST #ifdefs to header filePaul E. McKenney1-0/+5
The commit "use softirq instead of kthreads except when RCU_BOOST=y" just applied #ifdef in place. This commit is a cleanup that moves the newly #ifdef'ed code to the header file kernel/rcutree_plugin.h. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paul.mckenney@linaro.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2011-06-15rcu: use softirq instead of kthreads except when RCU_BOOST=yPaul E. McKenney1-2/+6
This patch #ifdefs RCU kthreads out of the kernel unless RCU_BOOST=y, thus eliminating context-switch overhead if RCU priority boosting has not been configured. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2011-06-14rcu: Use softirq to address performance regressionShaohua Li1-0/+1
Commit a26ac2455ffcf3(rcu: move TREE_RCU from softirq to kthread) introduced performance regression. In an AIM7 test, this commit degraded performance by about 40%. The commit runs rcu callbacks in a kthread instead of softirq. We observed high rate of context switch which is caused by this. Out test system has 64 CPUs and HZ is 1000, so we saw more than 64k context switch per second which is caused by RCU's per-CPU kthread. A trace showed that most of the time the RCU per-CPU kthread doesn't actually handle any callbacks, but instead just does a very small amount of work handling grace periods. This means that RCU's per-CPU kthreads are making the scheduler do quite a bit of work in order to allow a very small amount of RCU-related processing to be done. Alex Shi's analysis determined that this slowdown is due to lock contention within the scheduler. Unfortunately, as Peter Zijlstra points out, the scheduler's real-time semantics require global action, which means that this contention is inherent in real-time scheduling. (Yes, perhaps someone will come up with a workaround -- otherwise, -rt is not going to do well on large SMP systems -- but this patch will work around this issue in the meantime. And "the meantime" might well be forever.) This patch therefore re-introduces softirq processing to RCU, but only for core RCU work. RCU callbacks are still executed in kthread context, so that only a small amount of RCU work runs in softirq context in the common case. This should minimize ksoftirqd execution, allowing us to skip boosting of ksoftirqd for CONFIG_RCU_BOOST=y kernels. Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com> Tested-by: "Alex,Shi" <alex.shi@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2011-05-28rcu: Remove waitqueue usage for cpu, node, and boost kthreadsPeter Zijlstra1-7/+10
It is not necessary to use waitqueues for the RCU kthreads because we always know exactly which thread is to be awakened. In addition, wake_up() only issues an actual wakeup when there is a thread waiting on the queue, which was why there was an extra explicit wake_up_process() to get the RCU kthreads started. Eliminating the waitqueues (and wake_up()) in favor of wake_up_process() eliminates the need for the initial wake_up_process() and also shrinks the data structure size a bit. The wakeup logic is placed in a new rcu_wait() macro. Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2011-05-28rcu: Avoid acquiring rcu_node locks in timer functionsPaul E. McKenney1-1/+3
This commit switches manipulations of the rcu_node ->wakemask field to atomic operations, which allows rcu_cpu_kthread_timer() to avoid acquiring the rcu_node lock. This should avoid the following lockdep splat reported by Valdis Kletnieks: [ 12.872150] usb 1-4: new high speed USB device number 3 using ehci_hcd [ 12.986667] usb 1-4: New USB device found, idVendor=413c, idProduct=2513 [ 12.986679] usb 1-4: New USB device strings: Mfr=0, Product=0, SerialNumber=0 [ 12.987691] hub 1-4:1.0: USB hub found [ 12.987877] hub 1-4:1.0: 3 ports detected [ 12.996372] input: PS/2 Generic Mouse as /devices/platform/i8042/serio1/input/input10 [ 13.071471] udevadm used greatest stack depth: 3984 bytes left [ 13.172129] [ 13.172130] ======================================================= [ 13.172425] [ INFO: possible circular locking dependency detected ] [ 13.172650] 2.6.39-rc6-mmotm0506 #1 [ 13.172773] ------------------------------------------------------- [ 13.172997] blkid/267 is trying to acquire lock: [ 13.173009] (&p->pi_lock){-.-.-.}, at: [<ffffffff81032d8f>] try_to_wake_up+0x29/0x1aa [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] but task is already holding lock: [ 13.173009] (rcu_node_level_0){..-...}, at: [<ffffffff810901cc>] rcu_cpu_kthread_timer+0x27/0x58 [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] which lock already depends on the new lock. [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] the existing dependency chain (in reverse order) is: [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] -> #2 (rcu_node_level_0){..-...}: [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810679b9>] check_prevs_add+0x8b/0x104 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81067da1>] validate_chain+0x36f/0x3ab [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8106846b>] __lock_acquire+0x369/0x3e2 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81068a0f>] lock_acquire+0xfc/0x14c [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff815697f1>] _raw_spin_lock+0x36/0x45 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81090794>] rcu_read_unlock_special+0x8c/0x1d5 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8109092c>] __rcu_read_unlock+0x4f/0xd7 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81027bd3>] rcu_read_unlock+0x21/0x23 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8102cc34>] cpuacct_charge+0x6c/0x75 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81030cc6>] update_curr+0x101/0x12e [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810311d0>] check_preempt_wakeup+0xf7/0x23b [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8102acb3>] check_preempt_curr+0x2b/0x68 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81031d40>] ttwu_do_wakeup+0x76/0x128 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81031e49>] ttwu_do_activate.constprop.63+0x57/0x5c [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81031e96>] scheduler_ipi+0x48/0x5d [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810177d5>] smp_reschedule_interrupt+0x16/0x18 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff815710f3>] reschedule_interrupt+0x13/0x20 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810b66d1>] rcu_read_unlock+0x21/0x23 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810b739c>] find_get_page+0xa9/0xb9 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810b8b48>] filemap_fault+0x6a/0x34d [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810d1a25>] __do_fault+0x54/0x3e6 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810d447a>] handle_pte_fault+0x12c/0x1ed [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810d48f7>] handle_mm_fault+0x1cd/0x1e0 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8156cfee>] do_page_fault+0x42d/0x5de [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8156a75f>] page_fault+0x1f/0x30 [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] -> #1 (&rq->lock){-.-.-.}: [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810679b9>] check_prevs_add+0x8b/0x104 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81067da1>] validate_chain+0x36f/0x3ab [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8106846b>] __lock_acquire+0x369/0x3e2 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81068a0f>] lock_acquire+0xfc/0x14c [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff815697f1>] _raw_spin_lock+0x36/0x45 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81027e19>] __task_rq_lock+0x8b/0xd3 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81032f7f>] wake_up_new_task+0x41/0x108 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810376c3>] do_fork+0x265/0x33f [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81007d02>] kernel_thread+0x6b/0x6d [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8153a9dd>] rest_init+0x21/0xd2 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81b1db4f>] start_kernel+0x3bb/0x3c6 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81b1d29f>] x86_64_start_reservations+0xaf/0xb3 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81b1d393>] x86_64_start_kernel+0xf0/0xf7 [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] -> #0 (&p->pi_lock){-.-.-.}: [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81067788>] check_prev_add+0x68/0x20e [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810679b9>] check_prevs_add+0x8b/0x104 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81067da1>] validate_chain+0x36f/0x3ab [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8106846b>] __lock_acquire+0x369/0x3e2 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81068a0f>] lock_acquire+0xfc/0x14c [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff815698ea>] _raw_spin_lock_irqsave+0x44/0x57 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81032d8f>] try_to_wake_up+0x29/0x1aa [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81032f3c>] wake_up_process+0x10/0x12 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810901e9>] rcu_cpu_kthread_timer+0x44/0x58 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81045286>] call_timer_fn+0xac/0x1e9 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8104556d>] run_timer_softirq+0x1aa/0x1f2 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8103e487>] __do_softirq+0x109/0x26a [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8157144c>] call_softirq+0x1c/0x30 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81003207>] do_softirq+0x44/0xf1 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8103e8b9>] irq_exit+0x58/0xc8 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81017f5a>] smp_apic_timer_interrupt+0x79/0x87 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81570fd3>] apic_timer_interrupt+0x13/0x20 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810bd51a>] get_page_from_freelist+0x2aa/0x310 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810bdf03>] __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x178/0x243 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8101fe2f>] pte_alloc_one+0x1e/0x3a [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810d27fe>] __pte_alloc+0x22/0x14b [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810d48a8>] handle_mm_fault+0x17e/0x1e0 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8156cfee>] do_page_fault+0x42d/0x5de [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8156a75f>] page_fault+0x1f/0x30 [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] other info that might help us debug this: [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] Chain exists of: [ 13.173009] &p->pi_lock --> &rq->lock --> rcu_node_level_0 [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] Possible unsafe locking scenario: [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] CPU0 CPU1 [ 13.173009] ---- ---- [ 13.173009] lock(rcu_node_level_0); [ 13.173009] lock(&rq->lock); [ 13.173009] lock(rcu_node_level_0); [ 13.173009] lock(&p->pi_lock); [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] *** DEADLOCK *** [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] 3 locks held by blkid/267: [ 13.173009] #0: (&mm->mmap_sem){++++++}, at: [<ffffffff8156cdb4>] do_page_fault+0x1f3/0x5de [ 13.173009] #1: (&yield_timer){+.-...}, at: [<ffffffff810451da>] call_timer_fn+0x0/0x1e9 [ 13.173009] #2: (rcu_node_level_0){..-...}, at: [<ffffffff810901cc>] rcu_cpu_kthread_timer+0x27/0x58 [ 13.173009] [ 13.173009] stack backtrace: [ 13.173009] Pid: 267, comm: blkid Not tainted 2.6.39-rc6-mmotm0506 #1 [ 13.173009] Call Trace: [ 13.173009] <IRQ> [<ffffffff8154a529>] print_circular_bug+0xc8/0xd9 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81067788>] check_prev_add+0x68/0x20e [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8100c861>] ? save_stack_trace+0x28/0x46 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810679b9>] check_prevs_add+0x8b/0x104 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81067da1>] validate_chain+0x36f/0x3ab [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8106846b>] __lock_acquire+0x369/0x3e2 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81032d8f>] ? try_to_wake_up+0x29/0x1aa [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81068a0f>] lock_acquire+0xfc/0x14c [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81032d8f>] ? try_to_wake_up+0x29/0x1aa [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810901a5>] ? rcu_check_quiescent_state+0x82/0x82 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff815698ea>] _raw_spin_lock_irqsave+0x44/0x57 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81032d8f>] ? try_to_wake_up+0x29/0x1aa [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81032d8f>] try_to_wake_up+0x29/0x1aa [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810901a5>] ? rcu_check_quiescent_state+0x82/0x82 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81032f3c>] wake_up_process+0x10/0x12 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810901e9>] rcu_cpu_kthread_timer+0x44/0x58 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810901a5>] ? rcu_check_quiescent_state+0x82/0x82 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81045286>] call_timer_fn+0xac/0x1e9 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810451da>] ? del_timer+0x75/0x75 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810901a5>] ? rcu_check_quiescent_state+0x82/0x82 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8104556d>] run_timer_softirq+0x1aa/0x1f2 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8103e487>] __do_softirq+0x109/0x26a [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8106365f>] ? tick_dev_program_event+0x37/0xf6 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810a0e4a>] ? time_hardirqs_off+0x1b/0x2f [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8157144c>] call_softirq+0x1c/0x30 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81003207>] do_softirq+0x44/0xf1 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8103e8b9>] irq_exit+0x58/0xc8 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81017f5a>] smp_apic_timer_interrupt+0x79/0x87 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81570fd3>] apic_timer_interrupt+0x13/0x20 [ 13.173009] <EOI> [<ffffffff810bd384>] ? get_page_from_freelist+0x114/0x310 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810bd51a>] ? get_page_from_freelist+0x2aa/0x310 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff812220e7>] ? clear_page_c+0x7/0x10 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810bd1ef>] ? prep_new_page+0x14c/0x1cd [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810bd51a>] get_page_from_freelist+0x2aa/0x310 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810bdf03>] __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x178/0x243 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810d46b9>] ? __pmd_alloc+0x87/0x99 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8101fe2f>] pte_alloc_one+0x1e/0x3a [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810d46b9>] ? __pmd_alloc+0x87/0x99 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810d27fe>] __pte_alloc+0x22/0x14b [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810d48a8>] handle_mm_fault+0x17e/0x1e0 [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8156cfee>] do_page_fault+0x42d/0x5de [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810d915f>] ? sys_brk+0x32/0x10c [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff810a0e4a>] ? time_hardirqs_off+0x1b/0x2f [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff81065c4f>] ? trace_hardirqs_off_caller+0x3f/0x9c [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff812235dd>] ? trace_hardirqs_off_thunk+0x3a/0x3c [ 13.173009] [<ffffffff8156a75f>] page_fault+0x1f/0x30 [ 14.010075] usb 5-1: new full speed USB device number 2 using uhci_hcd Reported-by: Valdis Kletnieks <Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paul.mckenney@linaro.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2011-05-26rcu: Decrease memory-barrier usage based on semi-formal proofPaul E. McKenney1-6/+3
(Note: this was reverted, and is now being re-applied in pieces, with this being the fifth and final piece. See below for the reason that it is now felt to be safe to re-apply this.) Commit d09b62d fixed grace-period synchronization, but left some smp_mb() invocations in rcu_process_callbacks() that are no longer needed, but sheer paranoia prevented them from being removed. This commit removes them and provides a proof of correctness in their absence. It also adds a memory barrier to rcu_report_qs_rsp() immediately before the update to rsp->completed in order to handle the theoretical possibility that the compiler or CPU might move massive quantities of code into a lock-based critical section. This also proves that the sheer paranoia was not entirely unjustified, at least from a theoretical point of view. In addition, the old dyntick-idle synchronization depended on the fact that grace periods were many milliseconds in duration, so that it could be assumed that no dyntick-idle CPU could reorder a memory reference across an entire grace period. Unfortunately for this design, the addition of expedited grace periods breaks this assumption, which has the unfortunate side-effect of requiring atomic operations in the functions that track dyntick-idle state for RCU. (There is some hope that the algorithms used in user-level RCU might be applied here, but some work is required to handle the NMIs that user-space applications can happily ignore. For the short term, better safe than sorry.) This proof assumes that neither compiler nor CPU will allow a lock acquisition and release to be reordered, as doing so can result in deadlock. The proof is as follows: 1. A given CPU declares a quiescent state under the protection of its leaf rcu_node's lock. 2. If there is more than one level of rcu_node hierarchy, the last CPU to declare a quiescent state will also acquire the ->lock of the next rcu_node up in the hierarchy, but only after releasing the lower level's lock. The acquisition of this lock clearly cannot occur prior to the acquisition of the leaf node's lock. 3. Step 2 repeats until we reach the root rcu_node structure. Please note again that only one lock is held at a time through this process. The acquisition of the root rcu_node's ->lock must occur after the release of that of the leaf rcu_node. 4. At this point, we set the ->completed field in the rcu_state structure in rcu_report_qs_rsp(). However, if the rcu_node hierarchy contains only one rcu_node, then in theory the code preceding the quiescent state could leak into the critical section. We therefore precede the update of ->completed with a memory barrier. All CPUs will therefore agree that any updates preceding any report of a quiescent state will have happened before the update of ->completed. 5. Regardless of whether a new grace period is needed, rcu_start_gp() will propagate the new value of ->completed to all of the leaf rcu_node structures, under the protection of each rcu_node's ->lock. If a new grace period is needed immediately, this propagation will occur in the same critical section that ->completed was set in, but courtesy of the memory barrier in #4 above, is still seen to follow any pre-quiescent-state activity. 6. When a given CPU invokes __rcu_process_gp_end(), it becomes aware of the end of the old grace period and therefore makes any RCU callbacks that were waiting on that grace period eligible for invocation. If this CPU is the same one that detected the end of the grace period, and if there is but a single rcu_node in the hierarchy, we will still be in the single critical section. In this case, the memory barrier in step #4 guarantees that all callbacks will be seen to execute after each CPU's quiescent state. On the other hand, if this is a different CPU, it will acquire the leaf rcu_node's ->lock, and will again be serialized after each CPU's quiescent state for the old grace period. On the strength of this proof, this commit therefore removes the memory barriers from rcu_process_callbacks() and adds one to rcu_report_qs_rsp(). The effect is to reduce the number of memory barriers by one and to reduce the frequency of execution from about once per scheduling tick per CPU to once per grace period. This was reverted do to hangs found during testing by Yinghai Lu and Ingo Molnar. Frederic Weisbecker supplied Yinghai with tracing that located the underlying problem, and Frederic also provided the fix. The underlying problem was that the HARDIRQ_ENTER() macro from lib/locking-selftest.c invoked irq_enter(), which in turn invokes rcu_irq_enter(), but HARDIRQ_EXIT() invoked __irq_exit(), which does not invoke rcu_irq_exit(). This situation resulted in calls to rcu_irq_enter() that were not balanced by the required calls to rcu_irq_exit(). Therefore, after these locking selftests completed, RCU's dyntick-idle nesting count was a large number (for example, 72), which caused RCU to to conclude that the affected CPU was not in dyntick-idle mode when in fact it was. RCU would therefore incorrectly wait for this dyntick-idle CPU, resulting in hangs. In contrast, with Frederic's patch, which replaces the irq_enter() in HARDIRQ_ENTER() with an __irq_enter(), these tests don't ever call either rcu_irq_enter() or rcu_irq_exit(), which works because the CPU running the test is already marked as not being in dyntick-idle mode. This means that the rcu_irq_enter() and rcu_irq_exit() calls and RCU then has no problem working out which CPUs are in dyntick-idle mode and which are not. The reason that the imbalance was not noticed before the barrier patch was applied is that the old implementation of rcu_enter_nohz() ignored the nesting depth. This could still result in delays, but much shorter ones. Whenever there was a delay, RCU would IPI the CPU with the unbalanced nesting level, which would eventually result in rcu_enter_nohz() being called, which in turn would force RCU to see that the CPU was in dyntick-idle mode. The reason that very few people noticed the problem is that the mismatched irq_enter() vs. __irq_exit() occured only when the kernel was built with CONFIG_DEBUG_LOCKING_API_SELFTESTS. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2011-05-19Revert "rcu: Decrease memory-barrier usage based on semi-formal proof"Paul E. McKenney1-3/+6
This reverts commit e59fb3120becfb36b22ddb8bd27d065d3cdca499. This reversion was due to (extreme) boot-time slowdowns on SPARC seen by Yinghai Lu and on x86 by Ingo . This is a non-trivial reversion due to intervening commits. Conflicts: Documentation/RCU/trace.txt kernel/rcutree.c Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2011-05-07rcu: permit rcu_read_unlock() to be called while holding runqueue locksPaul E. McKenney1-4/+1
Avoid calling into the scheduler while holding core RCU locks. This allows rcu_read_unlock() to be called while holding the runqueue locks, but only as long as there was no chance of the RCU read-side critical section having been preempted. (Otherwise, if RCU priority boosting is enabled, rcu_read_unlock() might call into the scheduler in order to unboost itself, which might allows self-deadlock on the runqueue locks within the scheduler.) Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paul.mckenney@linaro.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2011-05-05rcu: fix spellingPaul E. McKenney1-1/+1
The "preemptible" spelling is preferable. May as well fix it. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2011-05-05rcu: add grace-period age and more kthread state to tracingPaul E. McKenney1-2/+5
This commit adds the age in jiffies of the current grace period along with the duration in jiffies of the longest grace period since boot to the rcu/rcugp debugfs file. It also adds an additional "O" state to kthread tracing to differentiate between the kthread waiting due to having nothing to do on the one hand and waiting due to being on the wrong CPU on the other hand. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paul.mckenney@linaro.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2011-05-05rcu: add tracing for RCU's kthread run states.Paul E. McKenney1-0/+11
Add tracing to help debugging situations when RCU's kthreads are not running but are supposed to be. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paul.mckenney@linaro.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2011-05-05rcu: Add boosting to TREE_PREEMPT_RCU tracingPaul E. McKenney1-0/+19
Includes total number of tasks boosted, number boosted on behalf of each of normal and expedited grace periods, and statistics on attempts to initiate boosting that failed for various reasons. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paul.mckenney@linaro.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2011-05-05rcu: priority boosting for TREE_PREEMPT_RCUPaul E. McKenney1-1/+30
Add priority boosting for TREE_PREEMPT_RCU, similar to that for TINY_PREEMPT_RCU. This is enabled by the default-off RCU_BOOST kernel parameter. The priority to which to boost preempted RCU readers is controlled by the RCU_BOOST_PRIO kernel parameter (defaulting to real-time priority 1) and the time to wait before boosting the readers who are blocking a given grace period is controlled by the RCU_BOOST_DELAY kernel parameter (defaulting to 500 milliseconds). Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paul.mckenney@linaro.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2011-05-05rcu: move TREE_RCU from softirq to kthreadPaul E. McKenney1-0/+8
If RCU priority boosting is to be meaningful, callback invocation must be boosted in addition to preempted RCU readers. Otherwise, in presence of CPU real-time threads, the grace period ends, but the callbacks don't get invoked. If the callbacks don't get invoked, the associated memory doesn't get freed, so the system is still subject to OOM. But it is not reasonable to priority-boost RCU_SOFTIRQ, so this commit moves the callback invocations to a kthread, which can be boosted easily. Also add comments and properly synchronized all accesses to rcu_cpu_kthread_task, as suggested by Lai Jiangshan. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paul.mckenney@linaro.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2011-05-05rcu: merge TREE_PREEPT_RCU blocked_tasks[] listsPaul E. McKenney1-6/+15
Combine the current TREE_PREEMPT_RCU ->blocked_tasks[] lists in the rcu_node structure into a single ->blkd_tasks list with ->gp_tasks and ->exp_tasks tail pointers. This is in preparation for RCU priority boosting, which will add a third dimension to the combinatorial explosion in the ->blocked_tasks[] case, but simply a third pointer in the new ->blkd_tasks case. Also update documentation to reflect blocked_tasks[] merge Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paul.mckenney@linaro.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2011-05-05rcu: Decrease memory-barrier usage based on semi-formal proofPaul E. McKenney1-6/+3
Commit d09b62d fixed grace-period synchronization, but left some smp_mb() invocations in rcu_process_callbacks() that are no longer needed, but sheer paranoia prevented them from being removed. This commit removes them and provides a proof of correctness in their absence. It also adds a memory barrier to rcu_report_qs_rsp() immediately before the update to rsp->completed in order to handle the theoretical possibility that the compiler or CPU might move massive quantities of code into a lock-based critical section. This also proves that the sheer paranoia was not entirely unjustified, at least from a theoretical point of view. In addition, the old dyntick-idle synchronization depended on the fact that grace periods were many milliseconds in duration, so that it could be assumed that no dyntick-idle CPU could reorder a memory reference across an entire grace period. Unfortunately for this design, the addition of expedited grace periods breaks this assumption, which has the unfortunate side-effect of requiring atomic operations in the functions that track dyntick-idle state for RCU. (There is some hope that the algorithms used in user-level RCU might be applied here, but some work is required to handle the NMIs that user-space applications can happily ignore. For the short term, better safe than sorry.) This proof assumes that neither compiler nor CPU will allow a lock acquisition and release to be reordered, as doing so can result in deadlock. The proof is as follows: 1. A given CPU declares a quiescent state under the protection of its leaf rcu_node's lock. 2. If there is more than one level of rcu_node hierarchy, the last CPU to declare a quiescent state will also acquire the ->lock of the next rcu_node up in the hierarchy, but only after releasing the lower level's lock. The acquisition of this lock clearly cannot occur prior to the acquisition of the leaf node's lock. 3. Step 2 repeats until we reach the root rcu_node structure. Please note again that only one lock is held at a time through this process. The acquisition of the root rcu_node's ->lock must occur after the release of that of the leaf rcu_node. 4. At this point, we set the ->completed field in the rcu_state structure in rcu_report_qs_rsp(). However, if the rcu_node hierarchy contains only one rcu_node, then in theory the code preceding the quiescent state could leak into the critical section. We therefore precede the update of ->completed with a memory barrier. All CPUs will therefore agree that any updates preceding any report of a quiescent state will have happened before the update of ->completed. 5. Regardless of whether a new grace period is needed, rcu_start_gp() will propagate the new value of ->completed to all of the leaf rcu_node structures, under the protection of each rcu_node's ->lock. If a new grace period is needed immediately, this propagation will occur in the same critical section that ->completed was set in, but courtesy of the memory barrier in #4 above, is still seen to follow any pre-quiescent-state activity. 6. When a given CPU invokes __rcu_process_gp_end(), it becomes aware of the end of the old grace period and therefore makes any RCU callbacks that were waiting on that grace period eligible for invocation. If this CPU is the same one that detected the end of the grace period, and if there is but a single rcu_node in the hierarchy, we will still be in the single critical section. In this case, the memory barrier in step #4 guarantees that all callbacks will be seen to execute after each CPU's quiescent state. On the other hand, if this is a different CPU, it will acquire the leaf rcu_node's ->lock, and will again be serialized after each CPU's quiescent state for the old grace period. On the strength of this proof, this commit therefore removes the memory barriers from rcu_process_callbacks() and adds one to rcu_report_qs_rsp(). The effect is to reduce the number of memory barriers by one and to reduce the frequency of execution from about once per scheduling tick per CPU to once per grace period. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2011-05-05rcu: Remove conditional compilation for RCU CPU stall warningsPaul E. McKenney1-12/+0
The RCU CPU stall warnings can now be controlled using the rcu_cpu_stall_suppress boot-time parameter or via the same parameter from sysfs. There is therefore no longer any reason to have kernel config parameters for this feature. This commit therefore removes the RCU_CPU_STALL_DETECTOR and RCU_CPU_STALL_DETECTOR_RUNNABLE kernel config parameters. The RCU_CPU_STALL_TIMEOUT parameter remains to allow the timeout to be tuned and the RCU_CPU_STALL_VERBOSE parameter remains to allow task-stall information to be suppressed if desired. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2010-12-17rcu: limit rcu_node leaf-level fanoutPaul E. McKenney1-20/+25
Some recent benchmarks have indicated possible lock contention on the leaf-level rcu_node locks. This commit therefore limits the number of CPUs per leaf-level rcu_node structure to 16, in other words, there can be at most 16 rcu_data structures fanning into a given rcu_node structure. Prior to this, the limit was 32 on 32-bit systems and 64 on 64-bit systems. Note that the fanout of non-leaf rcu_node structures is unchanged. The organization of accesses to the rcu_node tree is such that references to non-leaf rcu_node structures are much less frequent than to the leaf structures. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2010-11-29rcu,cleanup: simplify the code when cpu is dyingLai Jiangshan1-12/+4
When we handle the CPU_DYING notifier, the whole system is stopped except for the current CPU. We therefore need no synchronization with the other CPUs. This allows us to move any orphaned RCU callbacks directly to the list of any online CPU without needing to run them through the global orphan lists. These global orphan lists can therefore be dispensed with. This commit makes thes changes, though currently victimizes CPU 0 @@@. Signed-off-by: Lai Jiangshan <laijs@cn.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2010-09-23rcu: Add tracing data to support queueing modelsPaul E. McKenney1-0/+3
The current tracing data is not sufficient to deduce the average time that a callback spends waiting for a grace period to end. Add three per-CPU counters recording the number of callbacks invoked (ci), the number of callbacks orphaned (co), and the number of callbacks adopted (ca). Given the existing callback queue length (ql), the average wait time in absence of CPU hotplug operations is ql/ci. The units of wait time will be in terms of the duration over which ci was measured. In the presence of CPU hotplug operations, there is room for argument, but ql/(ci-co+ca) won't steer you too far wrong. Also fixes a typo called out by Lucas De Marchi <lucas.de.marchi@gmail.com>. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2010-08-20rcu: repair code-duplication FIXMEsPaul E. McKenney1-3/+0
Combine the duplicate definitions of ULONG_CMP_GE(), ULONG_CMP_LT(), and rcu_preempt_depth() into include/linux/rcupdate.h. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2010-08-20rcu: permit suppressing current grace period's CPU stall warningsPaul E. McKenney1-0/+1
When using a kernel debugger, a long sojourn in the debugger can get you lots of RCU CPU stall warnings once you resume. This might not be helpful, especially if you are using the system console. This patch therefore allows RCU CPU stall warnings to be suppressed, but only for the duration of the current set of grace periods. This differs from Jason's original patch in that it adds support for tiny RCU and preemptible RCU, and uses a slightly different method for suppressing the RCU CPU stall warning messages. Signed-off-by: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Tested-by: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com>
2010-08-19rcu: Allow RCU CPU stall warnings to be off at boot, but manually enablablePaul E. McKenney1-0/+6
Currently, if RCU CPU stall warnings are enabled, they are enabled immediately upon boot. They can be manually disabled via /sys (and also re-enabled via /sys), and are automatically disabled upon panic. However, some users need RCU CPU stalls to be disabled at boot time, but to be enabled without rebuilding/rebooting. For example, someone running a real-time application in production might not want the additional latency of RCU CPU stall detection in normal operation, but might need to enable it at any point for fault isolation purposes. This commit therefore provides a new CONFIG_RCU_CPU_STALL_DETECTOR_RUNNABLE kernel configuration parameter that maintains the current behavior (enable at boot) by default, but allows a kernel to be configured with RCU CPU stall detection built into the kernel, but disabled at boot time. Requested-by: Clark Williams <williams@redhat.com> Requested-by: John Kacur <jkacur@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2010-08-19rcu: make CPU stall warning timeout configurablePaul E. McKenney1-2/+3
Also set the default to 60 seconds, up from the previous hard-coded timeout of 10 seconds. This allows people who care to set short timeouts, while avoiding people with unusual configurations (make randconfig!!!) from being bothered with spurious CPU stall warnings. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2010-08-19rcu: simplify the usage of percpu dataLai Jiangshan1-1/+1
&percpu_data is compatible with allocated percpu data. And we use it and remove the "->rda[NR_CPUS]" array, saving significant storage on systems with large numbers of CPUs. This does add an additional level of indirection and thus an additional cache line referenced, but because ->rda is not used on the read side, this is OK. Signed-off-by: Lai Jiangshan <laijs@cn.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2010-05-10rcu: reduce the number of spurious RCU_SOFTIRQ invocationsPaul E. McKenney1-0/+1
Lai Jiangshan noted that up to 10% of the RCU_SOFTIRQ are spurious, and traced this down to the fact that the current grace-period machinery will uselessly raise RCU_SOFTIRQ when a given CPU needs to go through a quiescent state, but has not yet done so. In this situation, there might well be nothing that RCU_SOFTIRQ can do, and the overhead can be worth worrying about in the ksoftirqd case. This patch therefore avoids raising RCU_SOFTIRQ in this situation. Changes since v1 (http://lkml.org/lkml/2010/3/30/122 from Lai Jiangshan): o Omit the rcu_qs_pending() prechecks, as they aren't that much less expensive than the quiescent-state checks. o Merge with the set_need_resched() patch that reduces IPIs. o Add the new n_rp_report_qs field to the rcu_pending tracing output. o Update the tracing documentation accordingly. Signed-off-by: Lai Jiangshan <laijs@cn.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2010-05-10rcu: improve RCU CPU stall-warning messagesPaul E. McKenney1-0/+1
The existing RCU CPU stall-warning messages can be confusing, especially in the case where one CPU detects a single other stalled CPU. In addition, the console messages did not say which flavor of RCU detected the stall, which can make it difficult to work out exactly what is causing the stall. This commit improves these messages. Requested-by: Dhaval Giani <dhaval.giani@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2010-03-11rcu: Increase RCU CPU stall timeouts if PROVE_RCUPaul E. McKenney1-6/+15
CONFIG_PROVE_RCU imposes additional overhead on the kernel, so increase the RCU CPU stall timeouts in an attempt to allow for this effect. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <1267830207-9474-2-git-send-email-paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2010-02-27rcu: Fix accelerated grace periods for last non-dynticked CPUPaul E. McKenney1-0/+1
It is invalid to invoke __rcu_process_callbacks() with irqs disabled, so do it indirectly via raise_softirq(). This requires a state-machine implementation to cycle through the grace-period machinery the required number of times. Located-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <1267231138-27856-1-git-send-email-paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2010-02-25rcu: Add RCU_CPU_STALL_VERBOSE to dump detailed per-task informationPaul E. McKenney1-0/+1
When RCU detects a grace-period stall, it currently just prints out the PID of any tasks doing the stalling. This patch adds RCU_CPU_STALL_VERBOSE, which enables the more-verbose reporting from sched_show_task(). Suggested-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <1266887105-1528-21-git-send-email-paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2010-02-25rcu: Convert to raw_spinlocksPaul E. McKenney1-3/+3
The spinlocks in rcutree need to be real spinlocks in preempt-rt. Convert them to raw_spinlocks. Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <1266887105-1528-18-git-send-email-paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2010-02-25rcu: Stop overflowing signed integersPaul E. McKenney1-15/+18
The C standard does not specify the result of an operation that overflows a signed integer, so such operations need to be avoided. This patch changes the type of several fields from "long" to "unsigned long" and adjusts operations as needed. ULONG_CMP_GE() and ULONG_CMP_LT() macros are introduced to do the modular comparisons that are appropriate given that overflow is an expected event. Acked-by: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@efficios.com> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <1266887105-1528-17-git-send-email-paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2010-01-16rcu: Fix sparse warningsPaul E. McKenney1-4/+2
Rename local variable "i" in rcu_init() to avoid conflict with RCU_INIT_FLAVOR(), restrict the scope of RCU_TREE_NONCORE, and make __synchronize_srcu() static. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <12635142581560-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2010-01-13rcu: Make force_quiescent_state() start grace period if neededPaul E. McKenney1-0/+5
Grace periods cannot be started while force_quiescent_state() is active. This is OK in that the affected CPUs will try again later, but it does induce needless grace-period delays. This patch causes rcu_start_gp() to record a failed attempt to start a grace period. When force_quiescent_state() prepares to return, it then starts the grace period if there was such a failed attempt. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <12626465501854-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2010-01-13rcu: Remove leg of force_quiescent_state() switch statementPaul E. McKenney1-3/+2
The comparisons of rsp->gpnum nad rsp->completed in rcu_process_dyntick() and force_quiescent_state() can be replaced by the much more clear rcu_gp_in_progress() predicate function. After doing this, it becomes clear that the RCU_SAVE_COMPLETED leg of the force_quiescent_state() function's switch statement is almost completely a no-op. A small change to the RCU_SAVE_DYNTICK leg renders it a complete no-op, after which it can be removed. Doing so also eliminates the forcenow local variable from force_quiescent_state(). Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <12626465501781-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2010-01-13rcu: Eliminate local variable lastcomp from force_quiescent_state()Paul E. McKenney1-2/+0
Because rsp->fqs_active is set to 1 across force_quiescent_state()'s switch statement, rcu_start_gp() will refrain from starting a new grace period during this time. Therefore, rsp->gpnum is constant, and can be propagated to all uses of lastcomp, eliminating this local variable. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <12626465502985-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2010-01-13rcu: Prohibit starting new grace periods while forcing quiescent statesPaul E. McKenney1-0/+2
Reduce the number and variety of race conditions by prohibiting the start of a new grace period while force_quiescent_state() is active. A new fqs_active flag in the rcu_state structure is used to trace whether or not force_quiescent_state() is active, and this new flag is tested by rcu_start_gp(). If the CPU that closed out the last grace period needs another grace period, this new grace period may be delayed up to one scheduling-clock tick, but it will eventually get started. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <126264655052-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-12-03rcu: Add expedited grace-period support for preemptible RCUPaul E. McKenney1-3/+32
Implement an synchronize_rcu_expedited() for preemptible RCU that actually is expedited. This uses synchronize_sched_expedited() to force all threads currently running in a preemptible-RCU read-side critical section onto the appropriate ->blocked_tasks[] list, then takes a snapshot of all of these lists and waits for them to drain. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <1259784616158-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-12-03rcu: Enable fourth level of TREE_RCU hierarchyPaul E. McKenney1-2/+13
Enable a fourth level of rcu_node hierarchy for TREE_RCU and TREE_PREEMPT_RCU. This is for stress-testing and experiemental purposes only, although in theory this would enable 16,777,216 CPUs on 64-bit systems, though only 1,048,576 CPUs on 32-bit systems. Normal experimental use of this fourth level will normally set CONFIG_RCU_FANOUT=2, requiring a 16-CPU system, though the more adventurous (and more fortunate) experimenters may wish to chose CONFIG_RCU_FANOUT=3 for 81-CPU systems or even CONFIG_RCU_FANOUT=4 for 256-CPU systems. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org> Acked-by: Lai Jiangshan <laijs@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <12597846161257-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-12-03rcu: Rename "quiet" functionsPaul E. McKenney1-1/+2
The number of "quiet" functions has grown recently, and the names are no longer very descriptive. The point of all of these functions is to do some portion of the task of reporting a quiescent state, so rename them accordingly: o cpu_quiet() becomes rcu_report_qs_rdp(), which reports a quiescent state to the per-CPU rcu_data structure. If this turns out to be a new quiescent state for this grace period, then rcu_report_qs_rnp() will be invoked to propagate the quiescent state up the rcu_node hierarchy. o cpu_quiet_msk() becomes rcu_report_qs_rnp(), which reports a quiescent state for a given CPU (or possibly a set of CPUs) up the rcu_node hierarchy. o cpu_quiet_msk_finish() becomes rcu_report_qs_rsp(), which reports a full set of quiescent states to the global rcu_state structure. o task_quiet() becomes rcu_report_unblock_qs_rnp(), which reports a quiescent state due to a task exiting an RCU read-side critical section that had previously blocked in that same critical section. As indicated by the new name, this type of quiescent state is reported up the rcu_node hierarchy (using rcu_report_qs_rnp() to do so). Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org> Acked-by: Lai Jiangshan <laijs@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <12597846163698-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-11-22rcu: Fix grace-period-stall bug on large systems with CPU hotplugPaul E. McKenney1-0/+3
When the last CPU of a given leaf rcu_node structure goes offline, all of the tasks queued on that leaf rcu_node structure (due to having blocked in their current RCU read-side critical sections) are requeued onto the root rcu_node structure. This requeuing is carried out by rcu_preempt_offline_tasks(). However, it is possible that these queued tasks are the only thing preventing the leaf rcu_node structure from reporting a quiescent state up the rcu_node hierarchy. Unfortunately, the old code would fail to do this reporting, resulting in a grace-period stall given the following sequence of events: 1. Kernel built for more than 32 CPUs on 32-bit systems or for more than 64 CPUs on 64-bit systems, so that there is more than one rcu_node structure. (Or CONFIG_RCU_FANOUT is artificially set to a number smaller than CONFIG_NR_CPUS.) 2. The kernel is built with CONFIG_TREE_PREEMPT_RCU. 3. A task running on a CPU associated with a given leaf rcu_node structure blocks while in an RCU read-side critical section -and- that CPU has not yet passed through a quiescent state for the current RCU grace period. This will cause the task to be queued on the leaf rcu_node's blocked_tasks[] array, in particular, on the element of this array corresponding to the current grace period. 4. Each of the remaining CPUs corresponding to this same leaf rcu_node structure pass through a quiescent state. However, the task is still in its RCU read-side critical section, so these quiescent states cannot be reported further up the rcu_node hierarchy. Nevertheless, all bits in the leaf rcu_node structure's ->qsmask field are now zero. 5. Each of the remaining CPUs go offline. (The events in step #4 and #5 can happen in any order as long as each CPU passes through a quiescent state before going offline.) 6. When the last CPU goes offline, __rcu_offline_cpu() will invoke rcu_preempt_offline_tasks(), which will move the task to the root rcu_node structure, but without reporting a quiescent state up the rcu_node hierarchy (and this failure to report a quiescent state is the bug). But because this leaf rcu_node structure's ->qsmask field is already zero and its ->block_tasks[] entries are all empty, force_quiescent_state() will skip this rcu_node structure. Therefore, grace periods are now hung. This patch abstracts some code out of rcu_read_unlock_special(), calling the result task_quiet() by analogy with cpu_quiet(), and invokes task_quiet() from both rcu_read_lock_special() and __rcu_offline_cpu(). Invoking task_quiet() from __rcu_offline_cpu() reports the quiescent state up the rcu_node hierarchy, fixing the bug. This ends up requiring a separate lock_class_key per level of the rcu_node hierarchy, which this patch also provides. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <12589088301770-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-11-10rcu: Rename dynticks_completed to completed_fqsPaul E. McKenney1-2/+2
This field is used whether or not CONFIG_NO_HZ is set, so the old name of ->dynticks_completed is quite misleading. Change to ->completed_fqs, given that it the value that force_quiescent_state() is trying to drive the ->completed field away from. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <12578890423298-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-11-10rcu: Remove inline from forward-referenced functionsPaul E. McKenney1-1/+1
Some variants of gcc are reputed to dislike forward references to functions declared "inline". Remove the "inline" keyword from such functions. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <12578890422402-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-11-10rcu: Fix synchronization for rcu_process_gp_end() uses of ->completed counterPaul E. McKenney1-0/+3
Impose a clear locking design on the rcu_process_gp_end() function's use of the ->completed counter. This is done by creating a ->completed field in the rcu_node structure, which can safely be accessed under the protection of that structure's lock. Performance and scalability are maintained by using a form of double-checked locking, so that rcu_process_gp_end() only acquires the leaf rcu_node structure's ->lock if a grace period has recently ended. This fix reduces rcutorture failure rate by at least two orders of magnitude under heavy stress with force_quiescent_state() being invoked artificially often. Without this fix, unsynchronized access to the ->completed field can cause rcu_process_gp_end() to advance callbacks whose grace period has not yet expired. (Bad idea!) Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com Cc: <stable@kernel.org> # .32.x LKML-Reference: <12571987494069-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-11-10rcu: Prepare for synchronization fixes: clean up for non-NO_HZ handling of ↵Paul E. McKenney1-4/+4
->completed counter Impose a clear locking design on non-NO_HZ handling of the ->completed counter. This increases the distance between the RCU and the CPU-hotplug mechanisms. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com Cc: <stable@kernel.org> # .32.x LKML-Reference: <12571987491353-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-11-02rcu: Fix long-grace-period race between forcing and initializationPaul E. McKenney1-3/+4
Very long RCU read-side critical sections (50 milliseconds or so) can cause a race between force_quiescent_state() and rcu_start_gp() as follows on kernel builds with multi-level rcu_node hierarchies: 1. CPU 0 calls force_quiescent_state(), sees that there is a grace period in progress, and acquires ->fsqlock. 2. CPU 1 detects the end of the grace period, and so cpu_quiet_msk_finish() sets rsp->completed to rsp->gpnum. This operation is carried out under the root rnp->lock, but CPU 0 has not yet acquired that lock. Note that rsp->signaled is still RCU_SAVE_DYNTICK from the last grace period. 3. CPU 1 calls rcu_start_gp(), but no one wants a new grace period, so it drops the root rnp->lock and returns. 4. CPU 0 acquires the root rnp->lock and picks up rsp->completed and rsp->signaled, then drops rnp->lock. It then enters the RCU_SAVE_DYNTICK leg of the switch statement. 5. CPU 2 invokes call_rcu(), and now needs a new grace period. It calls rcu_start_gp(), which acquires the root rnp->lock, sets rsp->signaled to RCU_GP_INIT (too bad that CPU 0 is already in the RCU_SAVE_DYNTICK leg of the switch statement!) and starts initializing the rcu_node hierarchy. If there are multiple levels to the hierarchy, it will drop the root rnp->lock and initialize the lower levels of the hierarchy. 6. CPU 0 notes that rsp->completed has not changed, which permits both CPU 2 and CPU 0 to try updating it concurrently. If CPU 0's update prevails, later calls to force_quiescent_state() can count old quiescent states against the new grace period, which can in turn result in premature ending of grace periods. Not good. This patch adds an RCU_GP_IDLE state for rsp->signaled that is set initially at boot time and any time a grace period ends. This prevents CPU 0 from getting into the workings of force_quiescent_state() in step 4. Additional locking and checks prevent the concurrent update of rsp->signaled in step 6. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <1256742889199-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-10-15rcu: Fix TREE_PREEMPT_RCU CPU_HOTPLUG bad-luck hangPaul E. McKenney1-3/+3
If the following sequence of events occurs, then TREE_PREEMPT_RCU will hang waiting for a grace period to complete, eventually OOMing the system: o A TREE_PREEMPT_RCU build of the kernel is booted on a system with more than 64 physical CPUs present (32 on a 32-bit system). Alternatively, a TREE_PREEMPT_RCU build of the kernel is booted with RCU_FANOUT set to a sufficiently small value that the physical CPUs populate two or more leaf rcu_node structures. o A task is preempted in an RCU read-side critical section while running on a CPU corresponding to a given leaf rcu_node structure. o All CPUs corresponding to this same leaf rcu_node structure record quiescent states for the current grace period. o All of these same CPUs go offline (hence the need for enough physical CPUs to populate more than one leaf rcu_node structure). This causes the preempted task to be moved to the root rcu_node structure. At this point, there is nothing left to cause the quiescent state to be propagated up the rcu_node tree, so the current grace period never completes. The simplest fix, especially after considering the deadlock possibilities, is to detect this situation when the last CPU is offlined, and to set that CPU's ->qsmask bit in its leaf rcu_node structure. This will cause the next invocation of force_quiescent_state() to end the grace period. Without this fix, this hang can be triggered in an hour or so on some machines with rcutorture and random CPU onlining/offlining. With this fix, these same machines pass a full 10 hours of this sort of abuse. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <20091015162614.GA19131@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-10-15rcu: Prevent RCU IPI storms in presence of high call_rcu() loadPaul E. McKenney1-0/+4
As the number of callbacks on a given CPU rises, invoke force_quiescent_state() only every blimit number of callbacks (defaults to 10,000), and even then only if no other CPU has invoked force_quiescent_state() in the meantime. This should fix the performance regression reported by Nick. Reported-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com Cc: jens.axboe@oracle.com LKML-Reference: <12555405592133-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-10-07rcu: Make hot-unplugged CPU relinquish its own RCU callbacksPaul E. McKenney1-1/+10
The current interaction between RCU and CPU hotplug requires that RCU block in CPU notifiers waiting for callbacks to drain. This can be greatly simplified by having each CPU relinquish its own callbacks, and for both _rcu_barrier() and CPU_DEAD notifiers to adopt all callbacks that were previously relinquished. This change also eliminates the possibility of certain types of hangs due to the previous practice of waiting for callbacks to be invoked from within CPU notifiers. If you don't every wait, you cannot hang. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: akpm@linux-foundation.org Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <1254890898456-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2009-10-05rcu: Clean up code based on review feedback from Josh Triplett, part 4Paul E. McKenney1-0/+12
These issues identified during an old-fashioned face-to-face code review extending over many hours. This group improves an existing abstraction and introduces two new ones. It also fixes an RCU stall-warning bug found while making the other changes. o Make RCU_INIT_FLAVOR() declare its own variables, removing the need to declare them at each call site. o Create an rcu_for_each_leaf() macro that scans the leaf nodes of the rcu_node tree. o Create an rcu_for_each_node_breadth_first() macro that does a breadth-first traversal of the rcu_node tree, AKA stepping through the array in index-number order. o If all CPUs corresponding to a given leaf rcu_node structure go offline, then any tasks queued on that leaf will be moved to the root rcu_node structure. Therefore, the stall-warning code must dump out tasks queued on the root rcu_node structure as well as those queued on the leaf rcu_node structures. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: laijs@cn.fujitsu.com Cc: dipankar@in.ibm.com Cc: akpm@linux-foundation.org Cc: mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: dvhltc@us.ibm.com Cc: niv@us.ibm.com Cc: peterz@infradead.org Cc: rostedt@goodmis.org Cc: Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu Cc: dhowells@redhat.com LKML-Reference: <12541491934126-git-send-email-> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>

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