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2010-10-26vmscan,tmpfs: treat used once pages on tmpfs as used onceKOSAKI Motohiro1-1/+1
When a page has PG_referenced, shrink_page_list() discards it only if it is not dirty. This rule works fine if the backing filesystem is a regular one. PG_dirty is a good signal that the page was used recently because the flusher threads clean pages periodically. In addition, page writeback is costlier than simple page discard. However, when a page is on tmpfs this heuristic doesn't work because flusher threads don't write back tmpfs pages. Consequently tmpfs pages always rotate around the lru twice at least and adds unnecessary lru churn. Simple tmpfs streaming io shouldn't cause large anonymous page swap-out. Remove this unncessary reclaim bonus of tmpfs pages. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26writeback: do not sleep on the congestion queue if there are no congested ↵Mel Gorman1-7/+35
BDIs or if significant congestion is not being encountered in the current zone If congestion_wait() is called with no BDI congested, the caller will sleep for the full timeout and this may be an unnecessary sleep. This patch adds a wait_iff_congested() that checks congestion and only sleeps if a BDI is congested else, it calls cond_resched() to ensure the caller is not hogging the CPU longer than its quota but otherwise will not sleep. This is aimed at reducing some of the major desktop stalls reported during IO. For example, while kswapd is operating, it calls congestion_wait() but it could just have been reclaiming clean page cache pages with no congestion. Without this patch, it would sleep for a full timeout but after this patch, it'll just call schedule() if it has been on the CPU too long. Similar logic applies to direct reclaimers that are not making enough progress. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26vmscan: isolate_lru_pages(): stop neighbour search if neighbour cannot be ↵KOSAKI Motohiro1-6/+11
isolated isolate_lru_pages() does not just isolate LRU tail pages, but also isolates neighbour pages of the eviction page. The neighbour search does not stop even if neighbours cannot be isolated which is excessive as the lumpy reclaim will no longer result in a successful higher order allocation. This patch stops the PFN neighbour pages if an isolation fails and moves on to the next block. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26vmscan: remove dead code in shrink_inactive_list()KOSAKI Motohiro1-8/+0
After synchrounous lumpy reclaim, the page_list is guaranteed to not have active pages as page activation in shrink_page_list() disables lumpy reclaim. Remove the dead code. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26vmscan: narrow the scenarios in whcih lumpy reclaim uses synchrounous reclaimKOSAKI Motohiro1-45/+75
shrink_page_list() can decide to give up reclaiming a page under a number of conditions such as 1. trylock_page() failure 2. page is unevictable 3. zone reclaim and page is mapped 4. PageWriteback() is true 5. page is swapbacked and swap is full 6. add_to_swap() failure 7. page is dirty and gfpmask don't have GFP_IO, GFP_FS 8. page is pinned 9. IO queue is congested 10. pageout() start IO, but not finished With lumpy reclaim, failures result in entering synchronous lumpy reclaim but this can be unnecessary. In cases (2), (3), (5), (6), (7) and (8), there is no point retrying. This patch causes lumpy reclaim to abort when it is known it will fail. Case (9) is more interesting. current behavior is, 1. start shrink_page_list(async) 2. found queue_congested() 3. skip pageout write 4. still start shrink_page_list(sync) 5. wait on a lot of pages 6. again, found queue_congested() 7. give up pageout write again So, it's useless time wasting. However, just skipping page reclaim is also notgood as x86 allocating a huge page needs 512 pages for example. It can have more dirty pages than queue congestion threshold (~=128). After this patch, pageout() behaves as follows; - If order > PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER Ignore queue congestion always. - If order <= PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER skip write page and disable lumpy reclaim. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26vmscan: synchronous lumpy reclaim should not call congestion_wait()KOSAKI Motohiro1-2/+0
congestion_wait() means "wait until queue congestion is cleared". However, synchronous lumpy reclaim does not need this congestion_wait() as shrink_page_list(PAGEOUT_IO_SYNC) uses wait_on_page_writeback() and it provides the necessary waiting. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26tracing, vmscan: add trace events for LRU list shrinkingMel Gorman1-0/+6
There have been numerous reports of stalls that pointed at the problem being somewhere in the VM. There are multiple roots to the problems which means dealing with any of the root problems in isolation is tricky to justify on their own and they would still need integration testing. This patch series puts together two different patch sets which in combination should tackle some of the root causes of latency problems being reported. Patch 1 adds a tracepoint for shrink_inactive_list. For this series, the most important results is being able to calculate the scanning/reclaim ratio as a measure of the amount of work being done by page reclaim. Patch 2 accounts for time spent in congestion_wait. Patches 3-6 were originally developed by Kosaki Motohiro but reworked for this series. It has been noted that lumpy reclaim is far too aggressive and trashes the system somewhat. As SLUB uses high-order allocations, a large cost incurred by lumpy reclaim will be noticeable. It was also reported during transparent hugepage support testing that lumpy reclaim was trashing the system and these patches should mitigate that problem without disabling lumpy reclaim. Patch 7 adds wait_iff_congested() and replaces some callers of congestion_wait(). wait_iff_congested() only sleeps if there is a BDI that is currently congested. Patch 8 notes that any BDI being congested is not necessarily a problem because there could be multiple BDIs of varying speeds and numberous zones. It attempts to track when a zone being reclaimed contains many pages backed by a congested BDI and if so, reclaimers wait on the congestion queue. I ran a number of tests with monitoring on X86, X86-64 and PPC64. Each machine had 3G of RAM and the CPUs were X86: Intel P4 2-core X86-64: AMD Phenom 4-core PPC64: PPC970MP Each used a single disk and the onboard IO controller. Dirty ratio was left at 20. I'm just going to report for X86-64 and PPC64 in a vague attempt to keep this report short. Four kernels were tested each based on v2.6.36-rc4 traceonly-v2r2: Patches 1 and 2 to instrument vmscan reclaims and congestion_wait lowlumpy-v2r3: Patches 1-6 to test if lumpy reclaim is better waitcongest-v2r3: Patches 1-7 to only wait on congestion waitwriteback-v2r4: Patches 1-8 to detect when a zone is congested nocongest-v1r5: Patches 1-3 for testing wait_iff_congestion nodirect-v1r5: Patches 1-10 to disable filesystem writeback for better IO The tests run were as follows kernbench compile-based benchmark. Smoke test performance sysbench OLTP read-only benchmark. Will be re-run in the future as read-write micro-mapped-file-stream This is a micro-benchmark from Johannes Weiner that accesses a large sparse-file through mmap(). It was configured to run in only single-CPU mode but can be indicative of how well page reclaim identifies suitable pages. stress-highalloc Tries to allocate huge pages under heavy load. kernbench, iozone and sysbench did not report any performance regression on any machine. sysbench did pressure the system lightly and there was reclaim activity but there were no difference of major interest between the kernels. X86-64 micro-mapped-file-stream traceonly-v2r2 lowlumpy-v2r3 waitcongest-v2r3 waitwriteback-v2r4 pgalloc_dma 1639.00 ( 0.00%) 667.00 (-145.73%) 1167.00 ( -40.45%) 578.00 (-183.56%) pgalloc_dma32 2842410.00 ( 0.00%) 2842626.00 ( 0.01%) 2843043.00 ( 0.02%) 2843014.00 ( 0.02%) pgalloc_normal 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) pgsteal_dma 729.00 ( 0.00%) 85.00 (-757.65%) 609.00 ( -19.70%) 125.00 (-483.20%) pgsteal_dma32 2338721.00 ( 0.00%) 2447354.00 ( 4.44%) 2429536.00 ( 3.74%) 2436772.00 ( 4.02%) pgsteal_normal 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) pgscan_kswapd_dma 1469.00 ( 0.00%) 532.00 (-176.13%) 1078.00 ( -36.27%) 220.00 (-567.73%) pgscan_kswapd_dma32 4597713.00 ( 0.00%) 4503597.00 ( -2.09%) 4295673.00 ( -7.03%) 3891686.00 ( -18.14%) pgscan_kswapd_normal 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) pgscan_direct_dma 71.00 ( 0.00%) 134.00 ( 47.01%) 243.00 ( 70.78%) 352.00 ( 79.83%) pgscan_direct_dma32 305820.00 ( 0.00%) 280204.00 ( -9.14%) 600518.00 ( 49.07%) 957485.00 ( 68.06%) pgscan_direct_normal 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) pageoutrun 16296.00 ( 0.00%) 21254.00 ( 23.33%) 18447.00 ( 11.66%) 20067.00 ( 18.79%) allocstall 443.00 ( 0.00%) 273.00 ( -62.27%) 513.00 ( 13.65%) 1568.00 ( 71.75%) These are based on the raw figures taken from /proc/vmstat. It's a rough measure of reclaim activity. Note that allocstall counts are higher because we are entering direct reclaim more often as a result of not sleeping in congestion. In itself, it's not necessarily a bad thing. It's easier to get a view of what happened from the vmscan tracepoint report. FTrace Reclaim Statistics: vmscan traceonly-v2r2 lowlumpy-v2r3 waitcongest-v2r3 waitwriteback-v2r4 Direct reclaims 443 273 513 1568 Direct reclaim pages scanned 305968 280402 600825 957933 Direct reclaim pages reclaimed 43503 19005 30327 117191 Direct reclaim write file async I/O 0 0 0 0 Direct reclaim write anon async I/O 0 3 4 12 Direct reclaim write file sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Direct reclaim write anon sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Wake kswapd requests 187649 132338 191695 267701 Kswapd wakeups 3 1 4 1 Kswapd pages scanned 4599269 4454162 4296815 3891906 Kswapd pages reclaimed 2295947 2428434 2399818 2319706 Kswapd reclaim write file async I/O 1 0 1 1 Kswapd reclaim write anon async I/O 59 187 41 222 Kswapd reclaim write file sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Kswapd reclaim write anon sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Time stalled direct reclaim (seconds) 4.34 2.52 6.63 2.96 Time kswapd awake (seconds) 11.15 10.25 11.01 10.19 Total pages scanned 4905237 4734564 4897640 4849839 Total pages reclaimed 2339450 2447439 2430145 2436897 %age total pages scanned/reclaimed 47.69% 51.69% 49.62% 50.25% %age total pages scanned/written 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% %age file pages scanned/written 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Percentage Time Spent Direct Reclaim 29.23% 19.02% 38.48% 20.25% Percentage Time kswapd Awake 78.58% 78.85% 76.83% 79.86% What is interesting here for nocongest in particular is that while direct reclaim scans more pages, the overall number of pages scanned remains the same and the ratio of pages scanned to pages reclaimed is more or less the same. In other words, while we are sleeping less, reclaim is not doing more work and as direct reclaim and kswapd is awake for less time, it would appear to be doing less work. FTrace Reclaim Statistics: congestion_wait Direct number congest waited 87 196 64 0 Direct time congest waited 4604ms 4732ms 5420ms 0ms Direct full congest waited 72 145 53 0 Direct number conditional waited 0 0 324 1315 Direct time conditional waited 0ms 0ms 0ms 0ms Direct full conditional waited 0 0 0 0 KSwapd number congest waited 20 10 15 7 KSwapd time congest waited 1264ms 536ms 884ms 284ms KSwapd full congest waited 10 4 6 2 KSwapd number conditional waited 0 0 0 0 KSwapd time conditional waited 0ms 0ms 0ms 0ms KSwapd full conditional waited 0 0 0 0 The vanilla kernel spent 8 seconds asleep in direct reclaim and no time at all asleep with the patches. MMTests Statistics: duration User/Sys Time Running Test (seconds) 10.51 10.73 10.6 11.66 Total Elapsed Time (seconds) 14.19 13.00 14.33 12.76 Overall, the tests completed faster. It is interesting to note that backing off further when a zone is congested and not just a BDI was more efficient overall. PPC64 micro-mapped-file-stream pgalloc_dma 3024660.00 ( 0.00%) 3027185.00 ( 0.08%) 3025845.00 ( 0.04%) 3026281.00 ( 0.05%) pgalloc_normal 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) pgsteal_dma 2508073.00 ( 0.00%) 2565351.00 ( 2.23%) 2463577.00 ( -1.81%) 2532263.00 ( 0.96%) pgsteal_normal 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) pgscan_kswapd_dma 4601307.00 ( 0.00%) 4128076.00 ( -11.46%) 3912317.00 ( -17.61%) 3377165.00 ( -36.25%) pgscan_kswapd_normal 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) pgscan_direct_dma 629825.00 ( 0.00%) 971622.00 ( 35.18%) 1063938.00 ( 40.80%) 1711935.00 ( 63.21%) pgscan_direct_normal 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) 0.00 ( 0.00%) pageoutrun 27776.00 ( 0.00%) 20458.00 ( -35.77%) 18763.00 ( -48.04%) 18157.00 ( -52.98%) allocstall 977.00 ( 0.00%) 2751.00 ( 64.49%) 2098.00 ( 53.43%) 5136.00 ( 80.98%) Similar trends to x86-64. allocstalls are up but it's not necessarily bad. FTrace Reclaim Statistics: vmscan Direct reclaims 977 2709 2098 5136 Direct reclaim pages scanned 629825 963814 1063938 1711935 Direct reclaim pages reclaimed 75550 242538 150904 387647 Direct reclaim write file async I/O 0 0 0 2 Direct reclaim write anon async I/O 0 10 0 4 Direct reclaim write file sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Direct reclaim write anon sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Wake kswapd requests 392119 1201712 571935 571921 Kswapd wakeups 3 2 3 3 Kswapd pages scanned 4601307 4128076 3912317 3377165 Kswapd pages reclaimed 2432523 2318797 2312673 2144616 Kswapd reclaim write file async I/O 20 1 1 1 Kswapd reclaim write anon async I/O 57 132 11 121 Kswapd reclaim write file sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Kswapd reclaim write anon sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Time stalled direct reclaim (seconds) 6.19 7.30 13.04 10.88 Time kswapd awake (seconds) 21.73 26.51 25.55 23.90 Total pages scanned 5231132 5091890 4976255 5089100 Total pages reclaimed 2508073 2561335 2463577 2532263 %age total pages scanned/reclaimed 47.95% 50.30% 49.51% 49.76% %age total pages scanned/written 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% %age file pages scanned/written 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Percentage Time Spent Direct Reclaim 18.89% 20.65% 32.65% 27.65% Percentage Time kswapd Awake 72.39% 80.68% 78.21% 77.40% Again, a similar trend that the congestion_wait changes mean that direct reclaim scans more pages but the overall number of pages scanned while slightly reduced, are very similar. The ratio of scanning/reclaimed remains roughly similar. The downside is that kswapd and direct reclaim was awake longer and for a larger percentage of the overall workload. It's possible there were big differences in the amount of time spent reclaiming slab pages between the different kernels which is plausible considering that the micro tests runs after fsmark and sysbench. Trace Reclaim Statistics: congestion_wait Direct number congest waited 845 1312 104 0 Direct time congest waited 19416ms 26560ms 7544ms 0ms Direct full congest waited 745 1105 72 0 Direct number conditional waited 0 0 1322 2935 Direct time conditional waited 0ms 0ms 12ms 312ms Direct full conditional waited 0 0 0 3 KSwapd number congest waited 39 102 75 63 KSwapd time congest waited 2484ms 6760ms 5756ms 3716ms KSwapd full congest waited 20 48 46 25 KSwapd number conditional waited 0 0 0 0 KSwapd time conditional waited 0ms 0ms 0ms 0ms KSwapd full conditional waited 0 0 0 0 The vanilla kernel spent 20 seconds asleep in direct reclaim and only 312ms asleep with the patches. The time kswapd spent congest waited was also reduced by a large factor. MMTests Statistics: duration ser/Sys Time Running Test (seconds) 26.58 28.05 26.9 28.47 Total Elapsed Time (seconds) 30.02 32.86 32.67 30.88 With all patches applies, the completion times are very similar. X86-64 STRESS-HIGHALLOC traceonly-v2r2 lowlumpy-v2r3 waitcongest-v2r3waitwriteback-v2r4 Pass 1 82.00 ( 0.00%) 84.00 ( 2.00%) 85.00 ( 3.00%) 85.00 ( 3.00%) Pass 2 90.00 ( 0.00%) 87.00 (-3.00%) 88.00 (-2.00%) 89.00 (-1.00%) At Rest 92.00 ( 0.00%) 90.00 (-2.00%) 90.00 (-2.00%) 91.00 (-1.00%) Success figures across the board are broadly similar. traceonly-v2r2 lowlumpy-v2r3 waitcongest-v2r3waitwriteback-v2r4 Direct reclaims 1045 944 886 887 Direct reclaim pages scanned 135091 119604 109382 101019 Direct reclaim pages reclaimed 88599 47535 47863 46671 Direct reclaim write file async I/O 494 283 465 280 Direct reclaim write anon async I/O 29357 13710 16656 13462 Direct reclaim write file sync I/O 154 2 2 3 Direct reclaim write anon sync I/O 14594 571 509 561 Wake kswapd requests 7491 933 872 892 Kswapd wakeups 814 778 731 780 Kswapd pages scanned 7290822 15341158 11916436 13703442 Kswapd pages reclaimed 3587336 3142496 3094392 3187151 Kswapd reclaim write file async I/O 91975 32317 28022 29628 Kswapd reclaim write anon async I/O 1992022 789307 829745 849769 Kswapd reclaim write file sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Kswapd reclaim write anon sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Time stalled direct reclaim (seconds) 4588.93 2467.16 2495.41 2547.07 Time kswapd awake (seconds) 2497.66 1020.16 1098.06 1176.82 Total pages scanned 7425913 15460762 12025818 13804461 Total pages reclaimed 3675935 3190031 3142255 3233822 %age total pages scanned/reclaimed 49.50% 20.63% 26.13% 23.43% %age total pages scanned/written 28.66% 5.41% 7.28% 6.47% %age file pages scanned/written 1.25% 0.21% 0.24% 0.22% Percentage Time Spent Direct Reclaim 57.33% 42.15% 42.41% 42.99% Percentage Time kswapd Awake 43.56% 27.87% 29.76% 31.25% Scanned/reclaimed ratios again look good with big improvements in efficiency. The Scanned/written ratios also look much improved. With a better scanned/written ration, there is an expectation that IO would be more efficient and indeed, the time spent in direct reclaim is much reduced by the full series and kswapd spends a little less time awake. Overall, indications here are that allocations were happening much faster and this can be seen with a graph of the latency figures as the allocations were taking place http://www.csn.ul.ie/~mel/postings/vmscanreduce-20101509/highalloc-interlatency-hydra-mean.ps FTrace Reclaim Statistics: congestion_wait Direct number congest waited 1333 204 169 4 Direct time congest waited 78896ms 8288ms 7260ms 200ms Direct full congest waited 756 92 69 2 Direct number conditional waited 0 0 26 186 Direct time conditional waited 0ms 0ms 0ms 2504ms Direct full conditional waited 0 0 0 25 KSwapd number congest waited 4 395 227 282 KSwapd time congest waited 384ms 25136ms 10508ms 18380ms KSwapd full congest waited 3 232 98 176 KSwapd number conditional waited 0 0 0 0 KSwapd time conditional waited 0ms 0ms 0ms 0ms KSwapd full conditional waited 0 0 0 0 KSwapd full conditional waited 318 0 312 9 Overall, the time spent speeping is reduced. kswapd is still hitting congestion_wait() but that is because there are callers remaining where it wasn't clear in advance if they should be changed to wait_iff_congested() or not. Overall the sleep imes are reduced though - from 79ish seconds to about 19. MMTests Statistics: duration User/Sys Time Running Test (seconds) 3415.43 3386.65 3388.39 3377.5 Total Elapsed Time (seconds) 5733.48 3660.33 3689.41 3765.39 With the full series, the time to complete the tests are reduced by 30% PPC64 STRESS-HIGHALLOC traceonly-v2r2 lowlumpy-v2r3 waitcongest-v2r3waitwriteback-v2r4 Pass 1 17.00 ( 0.00%) 34.00 (17.00%) 38.00 (21.00%) 43.00 (26.00%) Pass 2 25.00 ( 0.00%) 37.00 (12.00%) 42.00 (17.00%) 46.00 (21.00%) At Rest 49.00 ( 0.00%) 43.00 (-6.00%) 45.00 (-4.00%) 51.00 ( 2.00%) Success rates there are *way* up particularly considering that the 16MB huge pages on PPC64 mean that it's always much harder to allocate them. FTrace Reclaim Statistics: vmscan stress-highalloc stress-highalloc stress-highalloc stress-highalloc traceonly-v2r2 lowlumpy-v2r3 waitcongest-v2r3waitwriteback-v2r4 Direct reclaims 499 505 564 509 Direct reclaim pages scanned 223478 41898 51818 45605 Direct reclaim pages reclaimed 137730 21148 27161 23455 Direct reclaim write file async I/O 399 136 162 136 Direct reclaim write anon async I/O 46977 2865 4686 3998 Direct reclaim write file sync I/O 29 0 1 3 Direct reclaim write anon sync I/O 31023 159 237 239 Wake kswapd requests 420 351 360 326 Kswapd wakeups 185 294 249 277 Kswapd pages scanned 15703488 16392500 17821724 17598737 Kswapd pages reclaimed 5808466 2908858 3139386 3145435 Kswapd reclaim write file async I/O 159938 18400 18717 13473 Kswapd reclaim write anon async I/O 3467554 228957 322799 234278 Kswapd reclaim write file sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Kswapd reclaim write anon sync I/O 0 0 0 0 Time stalled direct reclaim (seconds) 9665.35 1707.81 2374.32 1871.23 Time kswapd awake (seconds) 9401.21 1367.86 1951.75 1328.88 Total pages scanned 15926966 16434398 17873542 17644342 Total pages reclaimed 5946196 2930006 3166547 3168890 %age total pages scanned/reclaimed 37.33% 17.83% 17.72% 17.96% %age total pages scanned/written 23.27% 1.52% 1.94% 1.43% %age file pages scanned/written 1.01% 0.11% 0.11% 0.08% Percentage Time Spent Direct Reclaim 44.55% 35.10% 41.42% 36.91% Percentage Time kswapd Awake 86.71% 43.58% 52.67% 41.14% While the scanning rates are slightly up, the scanned/reclaimed and scanned/written figures are much improved. The time spent in direct reclaim and with kswapd are massively reduced, mostly by the lowlumpy patches. FTrace Reclaim Statistics: congestion_wait Direct number congest waited 725 303 126 3 Direct time congest waited 45524ms 9180ms 5936ms 300ms Direct full congest waited 487 190 52 3 Direct number conditional waited 0 0 200 301 Direct time conditional waited 0ms 0ms 0ms 1904ms Direct full conditional waited 0 0 0 19 KSwapd number congest waited 0 2 23 4 KSwapd time congest waited 0ms 200ms 420ms 404ms KSwapd full congest waited 0 2 2 4 KSwapd number conditional waited 0 0 0 0 KSwapd time conditional waited 0ms 0ms 0ms 0ms KSwapd full conditional waited 0 0 0 0 Not as dramatic a story here but the time spent asleep is reduced and we can still see what wait_iff_congested is going to sleep when necessary. MMTests Statistics: duration User/Sys Time Running Test (seconds) 12028.09 3157.17 3357.79 3199.16 Total Elapsed Time (seconds) 10842.07 3138.72 3705.54 3229.85 The time to complete this test goes way down. With the full series, we are allocating over twice the number of huge pages in 30% of the time and there is a corresponding impact on the allocation latency graph available at. http://www.csn.ul.ie/~mel/postings/vmscanreduce-20101509/highalloc-interlatency-powyah-mean.ps This patch: Add a trace event for shrink_inactive_list() and updates the sample postprocessing script appropriately. It can be used to determine how many pages were reclaimed and for non-lumpy reclaim where exactly the pages were reclaimed from. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26vmscan: delete dead codeShaohua Li1-10/+0
`priority' cannot be negative here. And the comment is obsolete. Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26vmscan: prevent background aging of anon page in no swap systemMinchan Kim1-1/+16
Ying Han reported that backing aging of anon pages in no swap system causes unnecessary TLB flush. When I sent a patch(69c8548175), I wanted this patch but Rik pointed out and allowed aging of anon pages to give a chance to promote from inactive to active LRU. It has a two problem. 1) non-swap system Never make sense to age anon pages. 2) swap configured but still doesn't swapon It doesn't make sense to age anon pages until swap-on time. But it's arguable. If we have aged anon pages by swapon, VM have moved anon pages from active to inactive. And in the time swapon by admin, the VM can't reclaim hot pages so we can protect hot pages swapout. But let's think about it. When does swap-on happen? It depends on admin. we can't expect it. Nonetheless, we have done aging of anon pages to protect hot pages swapout. It means we lost run time overhead when below high watermark but gain hot page swap-[in/out] overhead when VM decide swapout. Is it true? Let's think more detail. We don't promote anon pages in case of non-swap system. So even though VM does aging of anon pages, the pages would be in inactive LRU for a long time. It means many of pages in there would mark access bit again. So access bit hot/code separation would be pointless. This patch prevents unnecessary anon pages demotion in not-yet-swapon and non-configured swap system. Even, in non-configuared swap system inactive_anon_is_low can be compiled out. It could make side effect that hot anon pages could swap out when admin does swap on. But I think sooner or later it would be steady state. So it's not a big problem. We could lose someting but gain more thing(TLB flush and unnecessary function call to demote anon pages). Signed-off-by: Ying Han <yinghan@google.com> Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26mm: only build per-node scan_unevictable functions when NUMA is enabledThadeu Lima de Souza Cascardo1-1/+2
Non-NUMA systems do never create these files anyway, since they are only created by driver subsystem when NUMA is configured. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: cleanup] Signed-off-by: Thadeu Lima de Souza Cascardo <cascardo@holoscopio.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-26writeback: remove nonblocking/encountered_congestion referencesWu Fengguang1-1/+0
This removes more dead code that was somehow missed by commit 0d99519efef (writeback: remove unused nonblocking and congestion checks). There are no behavior change except for the removal of two entries from one of the ext4 tracing interface. The nonblocking checks in ->writepages are no longer used because the flusher now prefer to block on get_request_wait() than to skip inodes on IO congestion. The latter will lead to more seeky IO. The nonblocking checks in ->writepage are no longer used because it's redundant with the WB_SYNC_NONE check. We no long set ->nonblocking in VM page out and page migration, because a) it's effectively redundant with WB_SYNC_NONE in current code b) it's old semantic of "Don't get stuck on request queues" is mis-behavior: that would skip some dirty inodes on congestion and page out others, which is unfair in terms of LRU age. Inspired by Christoph Hellwig. Thanks! Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu> Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Cc: Sage Weil <sage@newdream.net> Cc: Steve French <sfrench@samba.org> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-10-24Merge branch 'for-next' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-2/+2
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/jikos/trivial * 'for-next' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/jikos/trivial: (39 commits) Update broken web addresses in arch directory. Update broken web addresses in the kernel. Revert "drivers/usb: Remove unnecessary return's from void functions" for musb gadget Revert "Fix typo: configuation => configuration" partially ida: document IDA_BITMAP_LONGS calculation ext2: fix a typo on comment in ext2/inode.c drivers/scsi: Remove unnecessary casts of private_data drivers/s390: Remove unnecessary casts of private_data net/sunrpc/rpc_pipe.c: Remove unnecessary casts of private_data drivers/infiniband: Remove unnecessary casts of private_data drivers/gpu/drm: Remove unnecessary casts of private_data kernel/pm_qos_params.c: Remove unnecessary casts of private_data fs/ecryptfs: Remove unnecessary casts of private_data fs/seq_file.c: Remove unnecessary casts of private_data arm: uengine.c: remove C99 comments arm: scoop.c: remove C99 comments Fix typo configue => configure in comments Fix typo: configuation => configuration Fix typo interrest[ing|ed] => interest[ing|ed] Fix various typos of valid in comments ... Fix up trivial conflicts in: drivers/char/ipmi/ipmi_si_intf.c drivers/usb/gadget/rndis.c net/irda/irnet/irnet_ppp.c
2010-09-23vmscan: check all_unreclaimable in direct reclaim pathMinchan Kim1-8/+35
M. Vefa Bicakci reported 2.6.35 kernel hang up when hibernation on his 32bit 3GB mem machine. (https://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=16771). Also he bisected the regression to commit bb21c7ce18eff8e6e7877ca1d06c6db719376e3c Author: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Date: Fri Jun 4 14:15:05 2010 -0700 vmscan: fix do_try_to_free_pages() return value when priority==0 reclaim failure At first impression, this seemed very strange because the above commit only chenged function return value and hibernate_preallocate_memory() ignore return value of shrink_all_memory(). But it's related. Now, page allocation from hibernation code may enter infinite loop if the system has highmem. The reasons are that vmscan don't care enough OOM case when oom_killer_disabled. The problem sequence is following as. 1. hibernation 2. oom_disable 3. alloc_pages 4. do_try_to_free_pages if (scanning_global_lru(sc) && !all_unreclaimable) return 1; If kswapd is not freozen, it would set zone->all_unreclaimable to 1 and then shrink_zones maybe return true(ie, all_unreclaimable is true). So at last, alloc_pages could go to _nopage_. If it is, it should have no problem. This patch adds all_unreclaimable check to protect in direct reclaim path, too. It can care of hibernation OOM case and help bailout all_unreclaimable case slightly. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reported-by: M. Vefa Bicakci <bicave@superonline.com> Reported-by: <caiqian@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Tested-by: <caiqian@redhat.com> Acked-by: Rafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: <stable@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-18Fix typo s/contenious/continuous in commentNikanth Karthikesan1-2/+2
Fix typo s/contenious/continuous in comment. Signed-off-by: Nikanth Karthikesan <knikanth@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <jkosina@suse.cz>
2010-08-11memcg: remove nid and zid argument from mem_cgroup_soft_limit_reclaim()KOSAKI Motohiro1-5/+2
mem_cgroup_soft_limit_reclaim() has zone, nid and zid argument. but nid and zid can be calculated from zone. So remove it. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Nishimura Daisuke <d-nishimura@mtf.biglobe.ne.jp> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-11memcg: mem_cgroup_shrink_node_zone() doesn't need sc.nodemaskKOSAKI Motohiro1-4/+1
Currently mem_cgroup_shrink_node_zone() call shrink_zone() directly. thus it doesn't need to initialize sc.nodemask because shrink_zone() doesn't use it at all. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Nishimura Daisuke <d-nishimura@mtf.biglobe.ne.jp> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-11memcg: kill unnecessary initialization in mem_cgroup_shrink_node_zone()KOSAKI Motohiro1-2/+0
sc.nr_reclaimed and sc.nr_scanned have already been initialized few lines above "struct scan_control sc = {}" statement. So, This patch remove this unnecessary code. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Nishimura Daisuke <d-nishimura@mtf.biglobe.ne.jp> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-11memcg: sc.nr_to_reclaim should be initializedKOSAKI Motohiro1-0/+1
Currently, mem_cgroup_shrink_node_zone() initialize sc.nr_to_reclaim as 0. It mean shrink_zone() only scan 32 pages and immediately return even if it doesn't reclaim any pages. This patch fixes it. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Cc: Nishimura Daisuke <d-nishimura@mtf.biglobe.ne.jp> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: raise the bar to PAGEOUT_IO_SYNC stallsWu Fengguang1-8/+43
Fix "system goes unresponsive under memory pressure and lots of dirty/writeback pages" bug. http://lkml.org/lkml/2010/4/4/86 In the above thread, Andreas Mohr described that Invoking any command locked up for minutes (note that I'm talking about attempted additional I/O to the _other_, _unaffected_ main system HDD - such as loading some shell binaries -, NOT the external SSD18M!!). This happens when the two conditions are both meet: - under memory pressure - writing heavily to a slow device OOM also happens in Andreas' system. The OOM trace shows that 3 processes are stuck in wait_on_page_writeback() in the direct reclaim path. One in do_fork() and the other two in unix_stream_sendmsg(). They are blocked on this condition: (sc->order && priority < DEF_PRIORITY - 2) which was introduced in commit 78dc583d (vmscan: low order lumpy reclaim also should use PAGEOUT_IO_SYNC) one year ago. That condition may be too permissive. In Andreas' case, 512MB/1024 = 512KB. If the direct reclaim for the order-1 fork() allocation runs into a range of 512KB hard-to-reclaim LRU pages, it will be stalled. It's a severe problem in three ways. Firstly, it can easily happen in daily desktop usage. vmscan priority can easily go below (DEF_PRIORITY - 2) on _local_ memory pressure. Even if the system has 50% globally reclaimable pages, it still has good opportunity to have 0.1% sized hard-to-reclaim ranges. For example, a simple dd can easily create a big range (up to 20%) of dirty pages in the LRU lists. And order-1 to order-3 allocations are more than common with SLUB. Try "grep -v '1 :' /proc/slabinfo" to get the list of high order slab caches. For example, the order-1 radix_tree_node slab cache may stall applications at swap-in time; the order-3 inode cache on most filesystems may stall applications when trying to read some file; the order-2 proc_inode_cache may stall applications when trying to open a /proc file. Secondly, once triggered, it will stall unrelated processes (not doing IO at all) in the system. This "one slow USB device stalls the whole system" avalanching effect is very bad. Thirdly, once stalled, the stall time could be intolerable long for the users. When there are 20MB queued writeback pages and USB 1.1 is writing them in 1MB/s, wait_on_page_writeback() will stuck for up to 20 seconds. Not to mention it may be called multiple times. So raise the bar to only enable PAGEOUT_IO_SYNC when priority goes below DEF_PRIORITY/3, or 6.25% LRU size. As the default dirty throttle ratio is 20%, it will hardly be triggered by pure dirty pages. We'd better treat PAGEOUT_IO_SYNC as some last resort workaround -- its stall time is so uncomfortably long (easily goes beyond 1s). The bar is only raised for (order < PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER) allocations, which are easy to satisfy in 1TB memory boxes. So, although 6.25% of memory could be an awful lot of pages to scan on a system with 1TB of memory, it won't really have to busy scan that much. Andreas tested an older version of this patch and reported that it mostly fixed his problem. Mel Gorman helped improve it and KOSAKI Motohiro will fix it further in the next patch. Reported-by: Andreas Mohr <andi@lisas.de> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10memcg, vmscan: add memcg reclaim tracepointKOSAKI Motohiro1-1/+19
Memcg also need to trace reclaim progress as direct reclaim. This patch add it. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: shrink_slab() requires the number of lru_pages, not the page orderKOSAKI Motohiro1-4/+13
Presently shrink_slab() has the following scanning equation. lru_scanned max_pass basic_scan_objects = 4 x ------------- x ----------------------------- lru_pages shrinker->seeks (default:2) scan_objects = min(basic_scan_objects, max_pass * 2) If we pass very small value as lru_pages instead real number of lru pages, shrink_slab() drop much objects rather than necessary. And now, __zone_reclaim() pass 'order' as lru_pages by mistake. That produces a bad result. For example, if we receive very low memory pressure (scan = 32, order = 0), shrink_slab() via zone_reclaim() always drop _all_ icache/dcache objects. (see above equation, very small lru_pages make very big scan_objects result). This patch fixes it. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix layout, typos] Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: protect reading of reclaim_stat with lru_lockKOSAKI Motohiro1-11/+9
Rik van Riel pointed out reading reclaim_stat should be protected lru_lock, otherwise vmscan might sweep 2x much pages. This fault was introduced by commit 4f98a2fee8acdb4ac84545df98cccecfd130f8db Author: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Date: Sat Oct 18 20:26:32 2008 -0700 vmscan: split LRU lists into anon & file sets Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: avoid subtraction of unsigned typesKOSAKI Motohiro1-7/+8
'slab_reclaimable' and 'nr_pages' are unsigned. Subtraction is unsafe because negative results would be misinterpreted. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: update isolated page counters outside of main path in ↵Mel Gorman1-25/+38
shrink_inactive_list() When shrink_inactive_list() isolates pages, it updates a number of counters using temporary variables to gather them. These consume stack and it's in the main path that calls ->writepage(). This patch moves the accounting updates outside of the main path to reduce stack usage. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: set up pagevec as late as possible in shrink_page_list()Mel Gorman1-8/+28
shrink_page_list() sets up a pagevec to release pages as according as they are free. It uses significant amounts of stack on the pagevec. This patch adds pages to be freed via pagevec to a linked list which is then freed en-masse at the end. This avoids using stack in the main path that potentially calls writepage(). Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: set up pagevec as late as possible in shrink_inactive_list()Mel Gorman1-43/+56
shrink_inactive_list() sets up a pagevec to release unfreeable pages. It uses significant amounts of stack doing this. This patch splits shrink_inactive_list() to take the stack usage out of the main path so that callers to writepage() do not contain an unused pagevec on the stack. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: remove unnecessary temporary vars in do_try_to_free_pagesMel Gorman1-5/+4
Remove temporary variable that is only used once and does not help clarify code. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: simplify shrink_inactive_list()KOSAKI Motohiro1-110/+102
Now, max_scan of shrink_inactive_list() is always passed less than SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX. then, we can remove scanning pages loop in it. This patch also help stack diet. detail - remove "while (nr_scanned < max_scan)" loop - remove nr_freed (now, we use nr_reclaimed directly) - remove nr_scan (now, we use nr_scanned directly) - rename max_scan to nr_to_scan - pass nr_to_scan into isolate_pages() directly instead using SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: kill prev_priority completelyKOSAKI Motohiro1-57/+0
Since 2.6.28 zone->prev_priority is unused. Then it can be removed safely. It reduce stack usage slightly. Now I have to say that I'm sorry. 2 years ago, I thought prev_priority can be integrate again, it's useful. but four (or more) times trying haven't got good performance number. Thus I give up such approach. The rest of this changelog is notes on prev_priority and why it existed in the first place and why it might be not necessary any more. This information is based heavily on discussions between Andrew Morton, Rik van Riel and Kosaki Motohiro who is heavily quotes from. Historically prev_priority was important because it determined when the VM would start unmapping PTE pages. i.e. there are no balances of note within the VM, Anon vs File and Mapped vs Unmapped. Without prev_priority, there is a potential risk of unnecessarily increasing minor faults as a large amount of read activity of use-once pages could push mapped pages to the end of the LRU and get unmapped. There is no proof this is still a problem but currently it is not considered to be. Active files are not deactivated if the active file list is smaller than the inactive list reducing the liklihood that file-mapped pages are being pushed off the LRU and referenced executable pages are kept on the active list to avoid them getting pushed out by read activity. Even if it is a problem, prev_priority prev_priority wouldn't works nowadays. First of all, current vmscan still a lot of UP centric code. it expose some weakness on some dozens CPUs machine. I think we need more and more improvement. The problem is, current vmscan mix up per-system-pressure, per-zone-pressure and per-task-pressure a bit. example, prev_priority try to boost priority to other concurrent priority. but if the another task have mempolicy restriction, it is unnecessary, but also makes wrong big latency and exceeding reclaim. per-task based priority + prev_priority adjustment make the emulation of per-system pressure. but it have two issue 1) too rough and brutal emulation 2) we need per-zone pressure, not per-system. Another example, currently DEF_PRIORITY is 12. it mean the lru rotate about 2 cycle (1/4096 + 1/2048 + 1/1024 + .. + 1) before invoking OOM-Killer. but if 10,0000 thrreads enter DEF_PRIORITY reclaim at the same time, the system have higher memory pressure than priority==0 (1/4096*10,000 > 2). prev_priority can't solve such multithreads workload issue. In other word, prev_priority concept assume the sysmtem don't have lots threads." Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: tracing: add trace event when a page is writtenMel Gorman1-0/+2
Add a trace event for when page reclaim queues a page for IO and records whether it is synchronous or asynchronous. Excessive synchronous IO for a process can result in noticeable stalls during direct reclaim. Excessive IO from page reclaim may indicate that the system is seriously under provisioned for the amount of dirty pages that exist. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: tracing: add trace events for LRU page isolationMel Gorman1-0/+16
Add an event for when pages are isolated en-masse from the LRU lists. This event augments the information available on LRU traffic and can be used to evaluate lumpy reclaim. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: tracing: add trace events for kswapd wakeup, sleeping and direct reclaimMel Gorman1-4/+20
Add two trace events for kswapd waking up and going asleep for the purposes of tracking kswapd activity and two trace events for direct reclaim beginning and ending. The information can be used to work out how much time a process or the system is spending on the reclamation of pages and in the case of direct reclaim, how many pages were reclaimed for that process. High frequency triggering of these events could point to memory pressure problems. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michael Rubin <mrubin@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: recalculate lru_pages on each priorityKOSAKI Motohiro1-13/+8
shrink_zones() need relatively long time and lru_pages can change dramatically during shrink_zones(). So lru_pages should be recalculated for each priority. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-08-10vmscan: zone_reclaim don't call disable_swap_token()KOSAKI Motohiro1-1/+0
Swap token don't works when zone reclaim is enabled since it was born. Because __zone_reclaim() always call disable_swap_token() unconditionally. This kill swap token feature completely. As far as I know, nobody want to that. Remove it. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-07-20mm/vmscan.c: fix mapping use after freeNick Piggin1-1/+1
We need lock_page_nosync() here because we have no reference to the mapping when taking the page lock. Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-07-19mm: add context argument to shrinker callbackDave Chinner1-3/+5
The current shrinker implementation requires the registered callback to have global state to work from. This makes it difficult to shrink caches that are not global (e.g. per-filesystem caches). Pass the shrinker structure to the callback so that users can embed the shrinker structure in the context the shrinker needs to operate on and get back to it in the callback via container_of(). Signed-off-by: Dave Chinner <dchinner@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
2010-06-04vmscan: fix do_try_to_free_pages() return value when priority==0 reclaim failureKOSAKI Motohiro1-13/+16
Greg Thelen reported recent Johannes's stack diet patch makes kernel hang. His test is following. mount -t cgroup none /cgroups -o memory mkdir /cgroups/cg1 echo $$ > /cgroups/cg1/tasks dd bs=1024 count=1024 if=/dev/null of=/data/foo echo $$ > /cgroups/tasks echo 1 > /cgroups/cg1/memory.force_empty Actually, This OOM hard to try logic have been corrupted since following two years old patch. commit a41f24ea9fd6169b147c53c2392e2887cc1d9247 Author: Nishanth Aravamudan <nacc@us.ibm.com> Date: Tue Apr 29 00:58:25 2008 -0700 page allocator: smarter retry of costly-order allocations Original intention was "return success if the system have shrinkable zones though priority==0 reclaim was failure". But the above patch changed to "return nr_reclaimed if .....". Oh, That forgot nr_reclaimed may be 0 if priority==0 reclaim failure. And Johannes's patch 0aeb2339e54e ("vmscan: remove all_unreclaimable scan control") made it more corrupt. Originally, priority==0 reclaim failure on memcg return 0, but this patch changed to return 1. It totally confused memcg. This patch fixes it completely. Reported-by: Greg Thelen <gthelen@google.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Tested-by: Greg Thelen <gthelen@google.com> Acked-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-05-25vmscan: remove isolate_pages callback scan controlJohannes Weiner1-24/+28
For now, we have global isolation vs. memory control group isolation, do not allow the reclaim entry function to set an arbitrary page isolation callback, we do not need that flexibility. And since we already pass around the group descriptor for the memory control group isolation case, just use it to decide which one of the two isolator functions to use. The decisions can be merged into nearby branches, so no extra cost there. In fact, we save the indirect calls. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-05-25vmscan: remove all_unreclaimable scan controlJohannes Weiner1-8/+6
This scan control is abused to communicate a return value from shrink_zones(). Write this idiomatically and remove the knob. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-05-25vmscan: page_check_references(): check low order lumpy reclaim properlyKOSAKI Motohiro1-15/+26
If vmscan is under lumpy reclaim mode, it have to ignore referenced bit for making contenious free pages. but current page_check_references() doesn't. Fix it. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-05-25vmscan: prevent get_scan_ratio() rounding errorsShaohua Li1-52/+55
get_scan_ratio() calculates percentage and if the percentage is < 1%, it will round percentage down to 0% and cause we completely ignore scanning anon/file pages to reclaim memory even the total anon/file pages are very big. To avoid underflow, we don't use percentage, instead we directly calculate how many pages should be scaned. In this way, we should get several scanned pages for < 1% percent. This has some benefits: 1. increase our calculation precision 2. making our scan more smoothly. Without this, if percent[x] is underflow, shrink_zone() doesn't scan any pages and suddenly it scans all pages when priority is zero. With this, even priority isn't zero, shrink_zone() gets chance to scan some pages. Note, this patch doesn't really change logics, but just increase precision. For system with a lot of memory, this might slightly changes behavior. For example, in a sequential file read workload, without the patch, we don't swap any anon pages. With it, if anon memory size is bigger than 16G, we will see one anon page swapped. The 16G is calculated as PAGE_SIZE * priority(4096) * (fp/ap). fp/ap is assumed to be 1024 which is common in this workload. So the impact sounds not a big deal. Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-05-25mm: move definition for LRU isolation modes to a headerMel Gorman1-5/+0
Currently, vmscan.c defines the isolation modes for __isolate_lru_page(). Memory compaction needs access to these modes for isolating pages for migration. This patch exports them. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-05-25cpuset,mm: fix no node to alloc memory when changing cpuset's memsMiao Xie1-0/+2
Before applying this patch, cpuset updates task->mems_allowed and mempolicy by setting all new bits in the nodemask first, and clearing all old unallowed bits later. But in the way, the allocator may find that there is no node to alloc memory. The reason is that cpuset rebinds the task's mempolicy, it cleans the nodes which the allocater can alloc pages on, for example: (mpol: mempolicy) task1 task1's mpol task2 alloc page 1 alloc on node0? NO 1 1 change mems from 1 to 0 1 rebind task1's mpol 0-1 set new bits 0 clear disallowed bits alloc on node1? NO 0 ... can't alloc page goto oom This patch fixes this problem by expanding the nodes range first(set newly allowed bits) and shrink it lazily(clear newly disallowed bits). So we use a variable to tell the write-side task that read-side task is reading nodemask, and the write-side task clears newly disallowed nodes after read-side task ends the current memory allocation. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix spello] Signed-off-by: Miao Xie <miaox@cn.fujitsu.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Ravikiran Thirumalai <kiran@scalex86.org> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-04-07mm: revert "vmscan: get_scan_ratio() cleanup"KOSAKI Motohiro1-14/+9
Shaohua Li reported his tmpfs streaming I/O test can lead to make oom. The test uses a 6G tmpfs in a system with 3G memory. In the tmpfs, there are 6 copies of kernel source and the test does kbuild for each copy. His investigation shows the test has a lot of rotated anon pages and quite few file pages, so get_scan_ratio calculates percent[0] (i.e. scanning percent for anon) to be zero. Actually the percent[0] shoule be a big value, but our calculation round it to zero. Although before commit 84b18490 ("vmscan: get_scan_ratio() cleanup") , we have the same problem too. But the old logic can rescue percent[0]==0 case only when priority==0. It had hided the real issue. I didn't think merely streaming io can makes percent[0]==0 && priority==0 situation. but I was wrong. So, definitely we have to fix such tmpfs streaming io issue. but anyway I revert the regression commit at first. This reverts commit 84b18490d1f1bc7ed5095c929f78bc002eb70f26. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reported-by: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-03-30include cleanup: Update gfp.h and slab.h includes to prepare for breaking ↵Tejun Heo1-1/+1
implicit slab.h inclusion from percpu.h percpu.h is included by sched.h and module.h and thus ends up being included when building most .c files. percpu.h includes slab.h which in turn includes gfp.h making everything defined by the two files universally available and complicating inclusion dependencies. percpu.h -> slab.h dependency is about to be removed. Prepare for this change by updating users of gfp and slab facilities include those headers directly instead of assuming availability. As this conversion needs to touch large number of source files, the following script is used as the basis of conversion. http://userweb.kernel.org/~tj/misc/slabh-sweep.py The script does the followings. * Scan files for gfp and slab usages and update includes such that only the necessary includes are there. ie. if only gfp is used, gfp.h, if slab is used, slab.h. * When the script inserts a new include, it looks at the include blocks and try to put the new include such that its order conforms to its surrounding. It's put in the include block which contains core kernel includes, in the same order that the rest are ordered - alphabetical, Christmas tree, rev-Xmas-tree or at the end if there doesn't seem to be any matching order. * If the script can't find a place to put a new include (mostly because the file doesn't have fitting include block), it prints out an error message indicating which .h file needs to be added to the file. The conversion was done in the following steps. 1. The initial automatic conversion of all .c files updated slightly over 4000 files, deleting around 700 includes and adding ~480 gfp.h and ~3000 slab.h inclusions. The script emitted errors for ~400 files. 2. Each error was manually checked. Some didn't need the inclusion, some needed manual addition while adding it to implementation .h or embedding .c file was more appropriate for others. This step added inclusions to around 150 files. 3. The script was run again and the output was compared to the edits from #2 to make sure no file was left behind. 4. Several build tests were done and a couple of problems were fixed. e.g. lib/decompress_*.c used malloc/free() wrappers around slab APIs requiring slab.h to be added manually. 5. The script was run on all .h files but without automatically editing them as sprinkling gfp.h and slab.h inclusions around .h files could easily lead to inclusion dependency hell. Most gfp.h inclusion directives were ignored as stuff from gfp.h was usually wildly available and often used in preprocessor macros. Each slab.h inclusion directive was examined and added manually as necessary. 6. percpu.h was updated not to include slab.h. 7. Build test were done on the following configurations and failures were fixed. CONFIG_GCOV_KERNEL was turned off for all tests (as my distributed build env didn't work with gcov compiles) and a few more options had to be turned off depending on archs to make things build (like ipr on powerpc/64 which failed due to missing writeq). * x86 and x86_64 UP and SMP allmodconfig and a custom test config. * powerpc and powerpc64 SMP allmodconfig * sparc and sparc64 SMP allmodconfig * ia64 SMP allmodconfig * s390 SMP allmodconfig * alpha SMP allmodconfig * um on x86_64 SMP allmodconfig 8. percpu.h modifications were reverted so that it could be applied as a separate patch and serve as bisection point. Given the fact that I had only a couple of failures from tests on step 6, I'm fairly confident about the coverage of this conversion patch. If there is a breakage, it's likely to be something in one of the arch headers which should be easily discoverable easily on most builds of the specific arch. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Guess-its-ok-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com>
2010-03-06vmscan: detect mapped file pages used only onceJohannes Weiner1-10/+35
The VM currently assumes that an inactive, mapped and referenced file page is in use and promotes it to the active list. However, every mapped file page starts out like this and thus a problem arises when workloads create a stream of such pages that are used only for a short time. By flooding the active list with those pages, the VM quickly gets into trouble finding eligible reclaim canditates. The result is long allocation latencies and eviction of the wrong pages. This patch reuses the PG_referenced page flag (used for unmapped file pages) to implement a usage detection that scales with the speed of LRU list cycling (i.e. memory pressure). If the scanner encounters those pages, the flag is set and the page cycled again on the inactive list. Only if it returns with another page table reference it is activated. Otherwise it is reclaimed as 'not recently used cache'. This effectively changes the minimum lifetime of a used-once mapped file page from a full memory cycle to an inactive list cycle, which allows it to occur in linear streams without affecting the stable working set of the system. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: OSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-03-06vmscan: drop page_mapping_inuse()Johannes Weiner1-23/+2
page_mapping_inuse() is a historic predicate function for pages that are about to be reclaimed or deactivated. According to it, a page is in use when it is mapped into page tables OR part of swap cache OR backing an mmapped file. This function is used in combination with page_referenced(), which checks for young bits in ptes and the page descriptor itself for the PG_referenced bit. Thus, checking for unmapped swap cache pages is meaningless as PG_referenced is not set for anonymous pages and unmapped pages do not have young ptes. The test makes no difference. Protecting file pages that are not by themselves mapped but are part of a mapped file is also a historic leftover for short-lived things like the exec() code in libc. However, the VM now does reference accounting and activation of pages at unmap time and thus the special treatment on reclaim is obsolete. This patch drops page_mapping_inuse() and switches the two callsites to use page_mapped() directly. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: OSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-03-06vmscan: factor out page reference checksJohannes Weiner1-13/+43
The used-once mapped file page detection patchset. It is meant to help workloads with large amounts of shortly used file mappings, like rtorrent hashing a file or git when dealing with loose objects (git gc on a bigger site?). Right now, the VM activates referenced mapped file pages on first encounter on the inactive list and it takes a full memory cycle to reclaim them again. When those pages dominate memory, the system no longer has a meaningful notion of 'working set' and is required to give up the active list to make reclaim progress. Obviously, this results in rather bad scanning latencies and the wrong pages being reclaimed. This patch makes the VM be more careful about activating mapped file pages in the first place. The minimum granted lifetime without another memory access becomes an inactive list cycle instead of the full memory cycle, which is more natural given the mentioned loads. This test resembles a hashing rtorrent process. Sequentially, 32MB chunks of a file are mapped into memory, hashed (sha1) and unmapped again. While this happens, every 5 seconds a process is launched and its execution time taken: python2.4 -c 'import pydoc' old: max=2.31s mean=1.26s (0.34) new: max=1.25s mean=0.32s (0.32) find /etc -type f old: max=2.52s mean=1.44s (0.43) new: max=1.92s mean=0.12s (0.17) vim -c ':quit' old: max=6.14s mean=4.03s (0.49) new: max=3.48s mean=2.41s (0.25) mplayer --help old: max=8.08s mean=5.74s (1.02) new: max=3.79s mean=1.32s (0.81) overall hash time (stdev): old: time=1192.30 (12.85) thruput=25.78mb/s (0.27) new: time=1060.27 (32.58) thruput=29.02mb/s (0.88) (-11%) I also tested kernbench with regular IO streaming in the background to see whether the delayed activation of frequently used mapped file pages had a negative impact on performance in the presence of pressure on the inactive list. The patch made no significant difference in timing, neither for kernbench nor for the streaming IO throughput. The first patch submission raised concerns about the cost of the extra faults for actually activated pages on machines that have no hardware support for young page table entries. I created an artificial worst case scenario on an ARM machine with around 300MHz and 64MB of memory to figure out the dimensions involved. The test would mmap a file of 20MB, then 1. touch all its pages to fault them in 2. force one full scan cycle on the inactive file LRU -- old: mapping pages activated -- new: mapping pages inactive 3. touch the mapping pages again -- old and new: fault exceptions to set the young bits 4. force another full scan cycle on the inactive file LRU 5. touch the mapping pages one last time -- new: fault exceptions to set the young bits The test showed an overall increase of 6% in time over 100 iterations of the above (old: ~212sec, new: ~225sec). 13 secs total overhead / (100 * 5k pages), ignoring the execution time of the test itself, makes for about 25us overhead for every page that gets actually activated. Note: 1. File mapping the size of one third of main memory, _completely_ in active use across memory pressure - i.e., most pages referenced within one LRU cycle. This should be rare to non-existant, especially on such embedded setups. 2. Many huge activation batches. Those batches only occur when the working set fluctuates. If it changes completely between every full LRU cycle, you have problematic reclaim overhead anyway. 3. Access of activated pages at maximum speed: sequential loads from every single page without doing anything in between. In reality, the extra faults will get distributed between actual operations on the data. So even if a workload manages to get the VM into the situation of activating a third of memory in one go on such a setup, it will take 2.2 seconds instead 2.1 without the patch. Comparing the numbers (and my user-experience over several months), I think this change is an overall improvement to the VM. Patch 1 is only refactoring to break up that ugly compound conditional in shrink_page_list() and make it easy to document and add new checks in a readable fashion. Patch 2 gets rid of the obsolete page_mapping_inuse(). It's not strictly related to #3, but it was in the original submission and is a net simplification, so I kept it. Patch 3 implements used-once detection of mapped file pages. This patch: Moving the big conditional into its own predicate function makes the code a bit easier to read and allows for better commenting on the checks one-by-one. This is just cleaning up, no semantics should have been changed. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: OSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-03-06mm: restore zone->all_unreclaimable to independence wordKOSAKI Motohiro1-13/+9
commit e815af95 ("change all_unreclaimable zone member to flags") changed all_unreclaimable member to bit flag. But it had an undesireble side effect. free_one_page() is one of most hot path in linux kernel and increasing atomic ops in it can reduce kernel performance a bit. Thus, this patch revert such commit partially. at least all_unreclaimable shouldn't share memory word with other zone flags. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix patch interaction] Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Huang Shijie <shijie8@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-03-06mm, lockdep: annotate reclaim context to zone reclaim tooKOSAKI Motohiro1-0/+2
Commit cf40bd16fd ("lockdep: annotate reclaim context") introduced reclaim context annotation. But it didn't annotate zone reclaim. This patch do it. The point is, commit cf40bd16fd annotate __alloc_pages_direct_reclaim but zone-reclaim doesn't use __alloc_pages_direct_reclaim. current call graph is __alloc_pages_nodemask get_page_from_freelist zone_reclaim() __alloc_pages_slowpath __alloc_pages_direct_reclaim try_to_free_pages Actually, if zone_reclaim_mode=1, VM never call __alloc_pages_direct_reclaim in usual VM pressure. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

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