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authorBorislav Petkov <bp@suse.de>2017-03-27 09:33:02 (GMT)
committerIngo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>2017-03-28 06:54:48 (GMT)
commit011d8261117249eab97bc86a8e1ac7731e03e319 (patch)
tree5e4a07f4ac44d81b62344ee3c8dadadf1f77cf66 /drivers/ras
parente64edfcce9c738300b4102d0739577d6ecc96d4a (diff)
RAS: Add a Corrected Errors Collector
Introduce a simple data structure for collecting correctable errors along with accessors. More detailed description in the code itself. The error decoding is done with the decoding chain now and mce_first_notifier() gets to see the error first and the CEC decides whether to log it and then the rest of the chain doesn't hear about it - basically the main reason for the CE collector - or to continue running the notifiers. When the CEC hits the action threshold, it will try to soft-offine the page containing the ECC and then the whole decoding chain gets to see the error. Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: linux-edac <linux-edac@vger.kernel.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20170327093304.10683-5-bp@alien8.de Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'drivers/ras')
-rw-r--r--drivers/ras/Makefile3
-rw-r--r--drivers/ras/cec.c532
-rw-r--r--drivers/ras/debugfs.c2
-rw-r--r--drivers/ras/debugfs.h8
-rw-r--r--drivers/ras/ras.c11
5 files changed, 554 insertions, 2 deletions
diff --git a/drivers/ras/Makefile b/drivers/ras/Makefile
index d7f7334..7b26dd3 100644
--- a/drivers/ras/Makefile
+++ b/drivers/ras/Makefile
@@ -1 +1,2 @@
-obj-$(CONFIG_RAS) += ras.o debugfs.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_RAS) += ras.o debugfs.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_RAS_CEC) += cec.o
diff --git a/drivers/ras/cec.c b/drivers/ras/cec.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6aab46d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/drivers/ras/cec.c
@@ -0,0 +1,532 @@
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/gfp.h>
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+
+#include <asm/mce.h>
+
+#include "debugfs.h"
+
+/*
+ * RAS Correctable Errors Collector
+ *
+ * This is a simple gadget which collects correctable errors and counts their
+ * occurrence per physical page address.
+ *
+ * We've opted for possibly the simplest data structure to collect those - an
+ * array of the size of a memory page. It stores 512 u64's with the following
+ * structure:
+ *
+ * [63 ... PFN ... 12 | 11 ... generation ... 10 | 9 ... count ... 0]
+ *
+ * The generation in the two highest order bits is two bits which are set to 11b
+ * on every insertion. During the course of each entry's existence, the
+ * generation field gets decremented during spring cleaning to 10b, then 01b and
+ * then 00b.
+ *
+ * This way we're employing the natural numeric ordering to make sure that newly
+ * inserted/touched elements have higher 12-bit counts (which we've manufactured)
+ * and thus iterating over the array initially won't kick out those elements
+ * which were inserted last.
+ *
+ * Spring cleaning is what we do when we reach a certain number CLEAN_ELEMS of
+ * elements entered into the array, during which, we're decaying all elements.
+ * If, after decay, an element gets inserted again, its generation is set to 11b
+ * to make sure it has higher numerical count than other, older elements and
+ * thus emulate an an LRU-like behavior when deleting elements to free up space
+ * in the page.
+ *
+ * When an element reaches it's max count of count_threshold, we try to poison
+ * it by assuming that errors triggered count_threshold times in a single page
+ * are excessive and that page shouldn't be used anymore. count_threshold is
+ * initialized to COUNT_MASK which is the maximum.
+ *
+ * That error event entry causes cec_add_elem() to return !0 value and thus
+ * signal to its callers to log the error.
+ *
+ * To the question why we've chosen a page and moving elements around with
+ * memmove(), it is because it is a very simple structure to handle and max data
+ * movement is 4K which on highly optimized modern CPUs is almost unnoticeable.
+ * We wanted to avoid the pointer traversal of more complex structures like a
+ * linked list or some sort of a balancing search tree.
+ *
+ * Deleting an element takes O(n) but since it is only a single page, it should
+ * be fast enough and it shouldn't happen all too often depending on error
+ * patterns.
+ */
+
+#undef pr_fmt
+#define pr_fmt(fmt) "RAS: " fmt
+
+/*
+ * We use DECAY_BITS bits of PAGE_SHIFT bits for counting decay, i.e., how long
+ * elements have stayed in the array without having been accessed again.
+ */
+#define DECAY_BITS 2
+#define DECAY_MASK ((1ULL << DECAY_BITS) - 1)
+#define MAX_ELEMS (PAGE_SIZE / sizeof(u64))
+
+/*
+ * Threshold amount of inserted elements after which we start spring
+ * cleaning.
+ */
+#define CLEAN_ELEMS (MAX_ELEMS >> DECAY_BITS)
+
+/* Bits which count the number of errors happened in this 4K page. */
+#define COUNT_BITS (PAGE_SHIFT - DECAY_BITS)
+#define COUNT_MASK ((1ULL << COUNT_BITS) - 1)
+#define FULL_COUNT_MASK (PAGE_SIZE - 1)
+
+/*
+ * u64: [ 63 ... 12 | DECAY_BITS | COUNT_BITS ]
+ */
+
+#define PFN(e) ((e) >> PAGE_SHIFT)
+#define DECAY(e) (((e) >> COUNT_BITS) & DECAY_MASK)
+#define COUNT(e) ((unsigned int)(e) & COUNT_MASK)
+#define FULL_COUNT(e) ((e) & (PAGE_SIZE - 1))
+
+static struct ce_array {
+ u64 *array; /* container page */
+ unsigned int n; /* number of elements in the array */
+
+ unsigned int decay_count; /*
+ * number of element insertions/increments
+ * since the last spring cleaning.
+ */
+
+ u64 pfns_poisoned; /*
+ * number of PFNs which got poisoned.
+ */
+
+ u64 ces_entered; /*
+ * The number of correctable errors
+ * entered into the collector.
+ */
+
+ u64 decays_done; /*
+ * Times we did spring cleaning.
+ */
+
+ union {
+ struct {
+ __u32 disabled : 1, /* cmdline disabled */
+ __resv : 31;
+ };
+ __u32 flags;
+ };
+} ce_arr;
+
+static DEFINE_MUTEX(ce_mutex);
+static u64 dfs_pfn;
+
+/* Amount of errors after which we offline */
+static unsigned int count_threshold = COUNT_MASK;
+
+/*
+ * The timer "decays" element count each timer_interval which is 24hrs by
+ * default.
+ */
+
+#define CEC_TIMER_DEFAULT_INTERVAL 24 * 60 * 60 /* 24 hrs */
+#define CEC_TIMER_MIN_INTERVAL 1 * 60 * 60 /* 1h */
+#define CEC_TIMER_MAX_INTERVAL 30 * 24 * 60 * 60 /* one month */
+static struct timer_list cec_timer;
+static u64 timer_interval = CEC_TIMER_DEFAULT_INTERVAL;
+
+/*
+ * Decrement decay value. We're using DECAY_BITS bits to denote decay of an
+ * element in the array. On insertion and any access, it gets reset to max.
+ */
+static void do_spring_cleaning(struct ce_array *ca)
+{
+ int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < ca->n; i++) {
+ u8 decay = DECAY(ca->array[i]);
+
+ if (!decay)
+ continue;
+
+ decay--;
+
+ ca->array[i] &= ~(DECAY_MASK << COUNT_BITS);
+ ca->array[i] |= (decay << COUNT_BITS);
+ }
+ ca->decay_count = 0;
+ ca->decays_done++;
+}
+
+/*
+ * @interval in seconds
+ */
+static void cec_mod_timer(struct timer_list *t, unsigned long interval)
+{
+ unsigned long iv;
+
+ iv = interval * HZ + jiffies;
+
+ mod_timer(t, round_jiffies(iv));
+}
+
+static void cec_timer_fn(unsigned long data)
+{
+ struct ce_array *ca = (struct ce_array *)data;
+
+ do_spring_cleaning(ca);
+
+ cec_mod_timer(&cec_timer, timer_interval);
+}
+
+/*
+ * @to: index of the smallest element which is >= then @pfn.
+ *
+ * Return the index of the pfn if found, otherwise negative value.
+ */
+static int __find_elem(struct ce_array *ca, u64 pfn, unsigned int *to)
+{
+ u64 this_pfn;
+ int min = 0, max = ca->n;
+
+ while (min < max) {
+ int tmp = (max + min) >> 1;
+
+ this_pfn = PFN(ca->array[tmp]);
+
+ if (this_pfn < pfn)
+ min = tmp + 1;
+ else if (this_pfn > pfn)
+ max = tmp;
+ else {
+ min = tmp;
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (to)
+ *to = min;
+
+ this_pfn = PFN(ca->array[min]);
+
+ if (this_pfn == pfn)
+ return min;
+
+ return -ENOKEY;
+}
+
+static int find_elem(struct ce_array *ca, u64 pfn, unsigned int *to)
+{
+ WARN_ON(!to);
+
+ if (!ca->n) {
+ *to = 0;
+ return -ENOKEY;
+ }
+ return __find_elem(ca, pfn, to);
+}
+
+static void del_elem(struct ce_array *ca, int idx)
+{
+ /* Save us a function call when deleting the last element. */
+ if (ca->n - (idx + 1))
+ memmove((void *)&ca->array[idx],
+ (void *)&ca->array[idx + 1],
+ (ca->n - (idx + 1)) * sizeof(u64));
+
+ ca->n--;
+}
+
+static u64 del_lru_elem_unlocked(struct ce_array *ca)
+{
+ unsigned int min = FULL_COUNT_MASK;
+ int i, min_idx = 0;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < ca->n; i++) {
+ unsigned int this = FULL_COUNT(ca->array[i]);
+
+ if (min > this) {
+ min = this;
+ min_idx = i;
+ }
+ }
+
+ del_elem(ca, min_idx);
+
+ return PFN(ca->array[min_idx]);
+}
+
+/*
+ * We return the 0th pfn in the error case under the assumption that it cannot
+ * be poisoned and excessive CEs in there are a serious deal anyway.
+ */
+static u64 __maybe_unused del_lru_elem(void)
+{
+ struct ce_array *ca = &ce_arr;
+ u64 pfn;
+
+ if (!ca->n)
+ return 0;
+
+ mutex_lock(&ce_mutex);
+ pfn = del_lru_elem_unlocked(ca);
+ mutex_unlock(&ce_mutex);
+
+ return pfn;
+}
+
+
+int cec_add_elem(u64 pfn)
+{
+ struct ce_array *ca = &ce_arr;
+ unsigned int to;
+ int count, ret = 0;
+
+ /*
+ * We can be called very early on the identify_cpu() path where we are
+ * not initialized yet. We ignore the error for simplicity.
+ */
+ if (!ce_arr.array || ce_arr.disabled)
+ return -ENODEV;
+
+ ca->ces_entered++;
+
+ mutex_lock(&ce_mutex);
+
+ if (ca->n == MAX_ELEMS)
+ WARN_ON(!del_lru_elem_unlocked(ca));
+
+ ret = find_elem(ca, pfn, &to);
+ if (ret < 0) {
+ /*
+ * Shift range [to-end] to make room for one more element.
+ */
+ memmove((void *)&ca->array[to + 1],
+ (void *)&ca->array[to],
+ (ca->n - to) * sizeof(u64));
+
+ ca->array[to] = (pfn << PAGE_SHIFT) |
+ (DECAY_MASK << COUNT_BITS) | 1;
+
+ ca->n++;
+
+ ret = 0;
+
+ goto decay;
+ }
+
+ count = COUNT(ca->array[to]);
+
+ if (count < count_threshold) {
+ ca->array[to] |= (DECAY_MASK << COUNT_BITS);
+ ca->array[to]++;
+
+ ret = 0;
+ } else {
+ u64 pfn = ca->array[to] >> PAGE_SHIFT;
+
+ if (!pfn_valid(pfn)) {
+ pr_warn("CEC: Invalid pfn: 0x%llx\n", pfn);
+ } else {
+ /* We have reached max count for this page, soft-offline it. */
+ pr_err("Soft-offlining pfn: 0x%llx\n", pfn);
+ memory_failure_queue(pfn, 0, MF_SOFT_OFFLINE);
+ ca->pfns_poisoned++;
+ }
+
+ del_elem(ca, to);
+
+ /*
+ * Return a >0 value to denote that we've reached the offlining
+ * threshold.
+ */
+ ret = 1;
+
+ goto unlock;
+ }
+
+decay:
+ ca->decay_count++;
+
+ if (ca->decay_count >= CLEAN_ELEMS)
+ do_spring_cleaning(ca);
+
+unlock:
+ mutex_unlock(&ce_mutex);
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
+static int u64_get(void *data, u64 *val)
+{
+ *val = *(u64 *)data;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int pfn_set(void *data, u64 val)
+{
+ *(u64 *)data = val;
+
+ return cec_add_elem(val);
+}
+
+DEFINE_DEBUGFS_ATTRIBUTE(pfn_ops, u64_get, pfn_set, "0x%llx\n");
+
+static int decay_interval_set(void *data, u64 val)
+{
+ *(u64 *)data = val;
+
+ if (val < CEC_TIMER_MIN_INTERVAL)
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ if (val > CEC_TIMER_MAX_INTERVAL)
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ timer_interval = val;
+
+ cec_mod_timer(&cec_timer, timer_interval);
+ return 0;
+}
+DEFINE_DEBUGFS_ATTRIBUTE(decay_interval_ops, u64_get, decay_interval_set, "%lld\n");
+
+static int count_threshold_set(void *data, u64 val)
+{
+ *(u64 *)data = val;
+
+ if (val > COUNT_MASK)
+ val = COUNT_MASK;
+
+ count_threshold = val;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+DEFINE_DEBUGFS_ATTRIBUTE(count_threshold_ops, u64_get, count_threshold_set, "%lld\n");
+
+static int array_dump(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
+{
+ struct ce_array *ca = &ce_arr;
+ u64 prev = 0;
+ int i;
+
+ mutex_lock(&ce_mutex);
+
+ seq_printf(m, "{ n: %d\n", ca->n);
+ for (i = 0; i < ca->n; i++) {
+ u64 this = PFN(ca->array[i]);
+
+ seq_printf(m, " %03d: [%016llx|%03llx]\n", i, this, FULL_COUNT(ca->array[i]));
+
+ WARN_ON(prev > this);
+
+ prev = this;
+ }
+
+ seq_printf(m, "}\n");
+
+ seq_printf(m, "Stats:\nCEs: %llu\nofflined pages: %llu\n",
+ ca->ces_entered, ca->pfns_poisoned);
+
+ seq_printf(m, "Flags: 0x%x\n", ca->flags);
+
+ seq_printf(m, "Timer interval: %lld seconds\n", timer_interval);
+ seq_printf(m, "Decays: %lld\n", ca->decays_done);
+
+ seq_printf(m, "Action threshold: %d\n", count_threshold);
+
+ mutex_unlock(&ce_mutex);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int array_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *filp)
+{
+ return single_open(filp, array_dump, NULL);
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations array_ops = {
+ .owner = THIS_MODULE,
+ .open = array_open,
+ .read = seq_read,
+ .llseek = seq_lseek,
+ .release = single_release,
+};
+
+static int __init create_debugfs_nodes(void)
+{
+ struct dentry *d, *pfn, *decay, *count, *array;
+
+ d = debugfs_create_dir("cec", ras_debugfs_dir);
+ if (!d) {
+ pr_warn("Error creating cec debugfs node!\n");
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+ pfn = debugfs_create_file("pfn", S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR, d, &dfs_pfn, &pfn_ops);
+ if (!pfn) {
+ pr_warn("Error creating pfn debugfs node!\n");
+ goto err;
+ }
+
+ array = debugfs_create_file("array", S_IRUSR, d, NULL, &array_ops);
+ if (!array) {
+ pr_warn("Error creating array debugfs node!\n");
+ goto err;
+ }
+
+ decay = debugfs_create_file("decay_interval", S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR, d,
+ &timer_interval, &decay_interval_ops);
+ if (!decay) {
+ pr_warn("Error creating decay_interval debugfs node!\n");
+ goto err;
+ }
+
+ count = debugfs_create_file("count_threshold", S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR, d,
+ &count_threshold, &count_threshold_ops);
+ if (!decay) {
+ pr_warn("Error creating count_threshold debugfs node!\n");
+ goto err;
+ }
+
+
+ return 0;
+
+err:
+ debugfs_remove_recursive(d);
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+void __init cec_init(void)
+{
+ if (ce_arr.disabled)
+ return;
+
+ ce_arr.array = (void *)get_zeroed_page(GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!ce_arr.array) {
+ pr_err("Error allocating CE array page!\n");
+ return;
+ }
+
+ if (create_debugfs_nodes())
+ return;
+
+ setup_timer(&cec_timer, cec_timer_fn, (unsigned long)&ce_arr);
+ cec_mod_timer(&cec_timer, CEC_TIMER_DEFAULT_INTERVAL);
+
+ pr_info("Correctable Errors collector initialized.\n");
+}
+
+int __init parse_cec_param(char *str)
+{
+ if (!str)
+ return 0;
+
+ if (*str == '=')
+ str++;
+
+ if (!strncmp(str, "cec_disable", 7))
+ ce_arr.disabled = 1;
+ else
+ return 0;
+
+ return 1;
+}
diff --git a/drivers/ras/debugfs.c b/drivers/ras/debugfs.c
index 0322acf..5016030 100644
--- a/drivers/ras/debugfs.c
+++ b/drivers/ras/debugfs.c
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
#include <linux/debugfs.h>
-static struct dentry *ras_debugfs_dir;
+struct dentry *ras_debugfs_dir;
static atomic_t trace_count = ATOMIC_INIT(0);
diff --git a/drivers/ras/debugfs.h b/drivers/ras/debugfs.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..db72e45
--- /dev/null
+++ b/drivers/ras/debugfs.h
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+#ifndef __RAS_DEBUGFS_H__
+#define __RAS_DEBUGFS_H__
+
+#include <linux/debugfs.h>
+
+extern struct dentry *ras_debugfs_dir;
+
+#endif /* __RAS_DEBUGFS_H__ */
diff --git a/drivers/ras/ras.c b/drivers/ras/ras.c
index b67dd36..94f8038 100644
--- a/drivers/ras/ras.c
+++ b/drivers/ras/ras.c
@@ -27,3 +27,14 @@ subsys_initcall(ras_init);
EXPORT_TRACEPOINT_SYMBOL_GPL(extlog_mem_event);
#endif
EXPORT_TRACEPOINT_SYMBOL_GPL(mc_event);
+
+
+int __init parse_ras_param(char *str)
+{
+#ifdef CONFIG_RAS_CEC
+ parse_cec_param(str);
+#endif
+
+ return 1;
+}
+__setup("ras", parse_ras_param);

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