path: root/tools/memory-model/README
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authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2018-10-23 13:08:53 +0100
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2018-10-23 13:08:53 +0100
commit0200fbdd431519d730b5d399a12840ec832b27cc (patch)
tree2b58f9e24b61b00e0550f106c95bfabc3b52cfdd /tools/memory-model/README
parentde3fbb2aa802a267dee2213ae7d5a1e19eb4294a (diff)
parent01a14bda11add9dcd4a59200f13834d634559935 (diff)
Merge branch 'locking-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip
Pull locking and misc x86 updates from Ingo Molnar: "Lots of changes in this cycle - in part because locking/core attracted a number of related x86 low level work which was easier to handle in a single tree: - Linux Kernel Memory Consistency Model updates (Alan Stern, Paul E. McKenney, Andrea Parri) - lockdep scalability improvements and micro-optimizations (Waiman Long) - rwsem improvements (Waiman Long) - spinlock micro-optimization (Matthew Wilcox) - qspinlocks: Provide a liveness guarantee (more fairness) on x86. (Peter Zijlstra) - Add support for relative references in jump tables on arm64, x86 and s390 to optimize jump labels (Ard Biesheuvel, Heiko Carstens) - Be a lot less permissive on weird (kernel address) uaccess faults on x86: BUG() when uaccess helpers fault on kernel addresses (Jann Horn) - macrofy x86 asm statements to un-confuse the GCC inliner. (Nadav Amit) - ... and a handful of other smaller changes as well" * 'locking-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: (57 commits) locking/lockdep: Make global debug_locks* variables read-mostly locking/lockdep: Fix debug_locks off performance problem locking/pvqspinlock: Extend node size when pvqspinlock is configured locking/qspinlock_stat: Count instances of nested lock slowpaths locking/qspinlock, x86: Provide liveness guarantee x86/asm: 'Simplify' GEN_*_RMWcc() macros locking/qspinlock: Rework some comments locking/qspinlock: Re-order code locking/lockdep: Remove duplicated 'lock_class_ops' percpu array x86/defconfig: Enable CONFIG_USB_XHCI_HCD=y futex: Replace spin_is_locked() with lockdep locking/lockdep: Make class->ops a percpu counter and move it under CONFIG_DEBUG_LOCKDEP=y x86/jump-labels: Macrofy inline assembly code to work around GCC inlining bugs x86/cpufeature: Macrofy inline assembly code to work around GCC inlining bugs x86/extable: Macrofy inline assembly code to work around GCC inlining bugs x86/paravirt: Work around GCC inlining bugs when compiling paravirt ops x86/bug: Macrofy the BUG table section handling, to work around GCC inlining bugs x86/alternatives: Macrofy lock prefixes to work around GCC inlining bugs x86/refcount: Work around GCC inlining bug x86/objtool: Use asm macros to work around GCC inlining bugs ...
Diffstat (limited to 'tools/memory-model/README')
1 files changed, 39 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/tools/memory-model/README b/tools/memory-model/README
index ee987ce20aae..acf9077cffaa 100644
--- a/tools/memory-model/README
+++ b/tools/memory-model/README
@@ -171,6 +171,12 @@ The Linux-kernel memory model has the following limitations:
particular, the "THE PROGRAM ORDER RELATION: po AND po-loc"
and "A WARNING" sections).
+ Note that this limitation in turn limits LKMM's ability to
+ accurately model address, control, and data dependencies.
+ For example, if the compiler can deduce the value of some variable
+ carrying a dependency, then the compiler can break that dependency
+ by substituting a constant of that value.
2. Multiple access sizes for a single variable are not supported,
and neither are misaligned or partially overlapping accesses.
@@ -190,6 +196,36 @@ The Linux-kernel memory model has the following limitations:
However, a substantial amount of support is provided for these
operations, as shown in the linux-kernel.def file.
+ a. When rcu_assign_pointer() is passed NULL, the Linux
+ kernel provides no ordering, but LKMM models this
+ case as a store release.
+ b. The "unless" RMW operations are not currently modeled:
+ atomic_long_add_unless(), atomic_add_unless(),
+ atomic_inc_unless_negative(), and
+ atomic_dec_unless_positive(). These can be emulated
+ in litmus tests, for example, by using atomic_cmpxchg().
+ c. The call_rcu() function is not modeled. It can be
+ emulated in litmus tests by adding another process that
+ invokes synchronize_rcu() and the body of the callback
+ function, with (for example) a release-acquire from
+ the site of the emulated call_rcu() to the beginning
+ of the additional process.
+ d. The rcu_barrier() function is not modeled. It can be
+ emulated in litmus tests emulating call_rcu() via
+ (for example) a release-acquire from the end of each
+ additional call_rcu() process to the site of the
+ emulated rcu-barrier().
+ e. Sleepable RCU (SRCU) is not modeled. It can be
+ emulated, but perhaps not simply.
+ f. Reader-writer locking is not modeled. It can be
+ emulated in litmus tests using atomic read-modify-write
+ operations.
The "herd7" tool has some additional limitations of its own, apart from
the memory model:
@@ -204,3 +240,6 @@ the memory model:
Some of these limitations may be overcome in the future, but others are
more likely to be addressed by incorporating the Linux-kernel memory model
into other tools.
+Finally, please note that LKMM is subject to change as hardware, use cases,
+and compilers evolve.

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