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authorDaniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net>2018-10-19 15:51:02 +0200
committerAlexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>2018-10-19 13:43:08 -0700
commit09d62154f61316f7e97eae3f31ef8770c7e4b386 (patch)
treeb1c882fcf6c422767282871c437a6881f65f0f45 /tools
parent78de35460a5cc206d42a239cb215c966a83ac283 (diff)
tools, perf: add and use optimized ring_buffer_{read_head, write_tail} helpers
Currently, on x86-64, perf uses LFENCE and MFENCE (rmb() and mb(), respectively) when processing events from the perf ring buffer which is unnecessarily expensive as we can do more lightweight in particular given this is critical fast-path in perf. According to Peter rmb()/mb() were added back then via a94d342b9cb0 ("tools/perf: Add required memory barriers") at a time where kernel still supported chips that needed it, but nowadays support for these has been ditched completely, therefore we can fix them up as well. While for x86-64, replacing rmb() and mb() with smp_*() variants would result in just a compiler barrier for the former and LOCK + ADD for the latter (__sync_synchronize() uses slower MFENCE by the way), Peter suggested we can use smp_{load_acquire,store_release}() instead for architectures where its implementation doesn't resolve in slower smp_mb(). Thus, e.g. in x86-64 we would be able to avoid CPU barrier entirely due to TSO. For architectures where the latter needs to use smp_mb() e.g. on arm, we stick to cheaper smp_rmb() variant for fetching the head. This work adds helpers ring_buffer_read_head() and ring_buffer_write_tail() for tools infrastructure that either switches to smp_load_acquire() for architectures where it is cheaper or uses READ_ONCE() + smp_rmb() barrier for those where it's not in order to fetch the data_head from the perf control page, and it uses smp_store_release() to write the data_tail. Latter is smp_mb() + WRITE_ONCE() combination or a cheaper variant if architecture allows for it. Those that rely on smp_rmb() and smp_mb() can further improve performance in a follow up step by implementing the two under tools/arch/*/include/asm/barrier.h such that they don't have to fallback to rmb() and mb() in tools/include/asm/barrier.h. Switch perf to use ring_buffer_read_head() and ring_buffer_write_tail() so it can make use of the optimizations. Later, we convert libbpf as well to use the same helpers. Side note [0]: the topic has been raised of whether one could simply use the C11 gcc builtins [1] for the smp_load_acquire() and smp_store_release() instead: __atomic_load_n(ptr, __ATOMIC_ACQUIRE); __atomic_store_n(ptr, val, __ATOMIC_RELEASE); Kernel and (presumably) tooling shipped along with the kernel has a minimum requirement of being able to build with gcc-4.6 and the latter does not have C11 builtins. While generally the C11 memory models don't align with the kernel's, the C11 load-acquire and store-release alone /could/ suffice, however. Issue is that this is implementation dependent on how the load-acquire and store-release is done by the compiler and the mapping of supported compilers must align to be compatible with the kernel's implementation, and thus needs to be verified/tracked on a case by case basis whether they match (unless an architecture uses them also from kernel side). The implementations for smp_load_acquire() and smp_store_release() in this patch have been adapted from the kernel side ones to have a concrete and compatible mapping in place. [0] http://patchwork.ozlabs.org/patch/985422/ [1] https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/_005f_005fatomic-Builtins.html Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net> Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@kernel.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'tools')
-rw-r--r--tools/arch/arm64/include/asm/barrier.h70
-rw-r--r--tools/arch/ia64/include/asm/barrier.h13
-rw-r--r--tools/arch/powerpc/include/asm/barrier.h16
-rw-r--r--tools/arch/s390/include/asm/barrier.h13
-rw-r--r--tools/arch/sparc/include/asm/barrier_64.h13
-rw-r--r--tools/arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h14
-rw-r--r--tools/include/asm/barrier.h35
-rw-r--r--tools/include/linux/ring_buffer.h73
-rw-r--r--tools/perf/util/mmap.h15
9 files changed, 250 insertions, 12 deletions
diff --git a/tools/arch/arm64/include/asm/barrier.h b/tools/arch/arm64/include/asm/barrier.h
index 40bde6b23501..12835ea0e417 100644
--- a/tools/arch/arm64/include/asm/barrier.h
+++ b/tools/arch/arm64/include/asm/barrier.h
@@ -14,4 +14,74 @@
#define wmb() asm volatile("dmb ishst" ::: "memory")
#define rmb() asm volatile("dmb ishld" ::: "memory")
+#define smp_store_release(p, v) \
+do { \
+ union { typeof(*p) __val; char __c[1]; } __u = \
+ { .__val = (__force typeof(*p)) (v) }; \
+ \
+ switch (sizeof(*p)) { \
+ case 1: \
+ asm volatile ("stlrb %w1, %0" \
+ : "=Q" (*p) \
+ : "r" (*(__u8 *)__u.__c) \
+ : "memory"); \
+ break; \
+ case 2: \
+ asm volatile ("stlrh %w1, %0" \
+ : "=Q" (*p) \
+ : "r" (*(__u16 *)__u.__c) \
+ : "memory"); \
+ break; \
+ case 4: \
+ asm volatile ("stlr %w1, %0" \
+ : "=Q" (*p) \
+ : "r" (*(__u32 *)__u.__c) \
+ : "memory"); \
+ break; \
+ case 8: \
+ asm volatile ("stlr %1, %0" \
+ : "=Q" (*p) \
+ : "r" (*(__u64 *)__u.__c) \
+ : "memory"); \
+ break; \
+ default: \
+ /* Only to shut up gcc ... */ \
+ mb(); \
+ break; \
+ } \
+} while (0)
+
+#define smp_load_acquire(p) \
+({ \
+ union { typeof(*p) __val; char __c[1]; } __u; \
+ \
+ switch (sizeof(*p)) { \
+ case 1: \
+ asm volatile ("ldarb %w0, %1" \
+ : "=r" (*(__u8 *)__u.__c) \
+ : "Q" (*p) : "memory"); \
+ break; \
+ case 2: \
+ asm volatile ("ldarh %w0, %1" \
+ : "=r" (*(__u16 *)__u.__c) \
+ : "Q" (*p) : "memory"); \
+ break; \
+ case 4: \
+ asm volatile ("ldar %w0, %1" \
+ : "=r" (*(__u32 *)__u.__c) \
+ : "Q" (*p) : "memory"); \
+ break; \
+ case 8: \
+ asm volatile ("ldar %0, %1" \
+ : "=r" (*(__u64 *)__u.__c) \
+ : "Q" (*p) : "memory"); \
+ break; \
+ default: \
+ /* Only to shut up gcc ... */ \
+ mb(); \
+ break; \
+ } \
+ __u.__val; \
+})
+
#endif /* _TOOLS_LINUX_ASM_AARCH64_BARRIER_H */
diff --git a/tools/arch/ia64/include/asm/barrier.h b/tools/arch/ia64/include/asm/barrier.h
index d808ee0e77b5..4d471d9511a5 100644
--- a/tools/arch/ia64/include/asm/barrier.h
+++ b/tools/arch/ia64/include/asm/barrier.h
@@ -46,4 +46,17 @@
#define rmb() mb()
#define wmb() mb()
+#define smp_store_release(p, v) \
+do { \
+ barrier(); \
+ WRITE_ONCE(*p, v); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define smp_load_acquire(p) \
+({ \
+ typeof(*p) ___p1 = READ_ONCE(*p); \
+ barrier(); \
+ ___p1; \
+})
+
#endif /* _TOOLS_LINUX_ASM_IA64_BARRIER_H */
diff --git a/tools/arch/powerpc/include/asm/barrier.h b/tools/arch/powerpc/include/asm/barrier.h
index a634da05bc97..905a2c66d96d 100644
--- a/tools/arch/powerpc/include/asm/barrier.h
+++ b/tools/arch/powerpc/include/asm/barrier.h
@@ -27,4 +27,20 @@
#define rmb() __asm__ __volatile__ ("sync" : : : "memory")
#define wmb() __asm__ __volatile__ ("sync" : : : "memory")
+#if defined(__powerpc64__)
+#define smp_lwsync() __asm__ __volatile__ ("lwsync" : : : "memory")
+
+#define smp_store_release(p, v) \
+do { \
+ smp_lwsync(); \
+ WRITE_ONCE(*p, v); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define smp_load_acquire(p) \
+({ \
+ typeof(*p) ___p1 = READ_ONCE(*p); \
+ smp_lwsync(); \
+ ___p1; \
+})
+#endif /* defined(__powerpc64__) */
#endif /* _TOOLS_LINUX_ASM_POWERPC_BARRIER_H */
diff --git a/tools/arch/s390/include/asm/barrier.h b/tools/arch/s390/include/asm/barrier.h
index 5030c99f47d2..de362fa664d4 100644
--- a/tools/arch/s390/include/asm/barrier.h
+++ b/tools/arch/s390/include/asm/barrier.h
@@ -28,4 +28,17 @@
#define rmb() mb()
#define wmb() mb()
+#define smp_store_release(p, v) \
+do { \
+ barrier(); \
+ WRITE_ONCE(*p, v); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define smp_load_acquire(p) \
+({ \
+ typeof(*p) ___p1 = READ_ONCE(*p); \
+ barrier(); \
+ ___p1; \
+})
+
#endif /* __TOOLS_LIB_ASM_BARRIER_H */
diff --git a/tools/arch/sparc/include/asm/barrier_64.h b/tools/arch/sparc/include/asm/barrier_64.h
index ba61344287d5..cfb0fdc8ccf0 100644
--- a/tools/arch/sparc/include/asm/barrier_64.h
+++ b/tools/arch/sparc/include/asm/barrier_64.h
@@ -40,4 +40,17 @@ do { __asm__ __volatile__("ba,pt %%xcc, 1f\n\t" \
#define rmb() __asm__ __volatile__("":::"memory")
#define wmb() __asm__ __volatile__("":::"memory")
+#define smp_store_release(p, v) \
+do { \
+ barrier(); \
+ WRITE_ONCE(*p, v); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define smp_load_acquire(p) \
+({ \
+ typeof(*p) ___p1 = READ_ONCE(*p); \
+ barrier(); \
+ ___p1; \
+})
+
#endif /* !(__TOOLS_LINUX_SPARC64_BARRIER_H) */
diff --git a/tools/arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h b/tools/arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h
index 8774dee27471..58919868473c 100644
--- a/tools/arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h
+++ b/tools/arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h
@@ -26,4 +26,18 @@
#define wmb() asm volatile("sfence" ::: "memory")
#endif
+#if defined(__x86_64__)
+#define smp_store_release(p, v) \
+do { \
+ barrier(); \
+ WRITE_ONCE(*p, v); \
+} while (0)
+
+#define smp_load_acquire(p) \
+({ \
+ typeof(*p) ___p1 = READ_ONCE(*p); \
+ barrier(); \
+ ___p1; \
+})
+#endif /* defined(__x86_64__) */
#endif /* _TOOLS_LINUX_ASM_X86_BARRIER_H */
diff --git a/tools/include/asm/barrier.h b/tools/include/asm/barrier.h
index 391d942536e5..8d378c57cb01 100644
--- a/tools/include/asm/barrier.h
+++ b/tools/include/asm/barrier.h
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
+#include <linux/compiler.h>
#if defined(__i386__) || defined(__x86_64__)
#include "../../arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h"
#elif defined(__arm__)
@@ -26,3 +27,37 @@
#else
#include <asm-generic/barrier.h>
#endif
+
+/*
+ * Generic fallback smp_*() definitions for archs that haven't
+ * been updated yet.
+ */
+
+#ifndef smp_rmb
+# define smp_rmb() rmb()
+#endif
+
+#ifndef smp_wmb
+# define smp_wmb() wmb()
+#endif
+
+#ifndef smp_mb
+# define smp_mb() mb()
+#endif
+
+#ifndef smp_store_release
+# define smp_store_release(p, v) \
+do { \
+ smp_mb(); \
+ WRITE_ONCE(*p, v); \
+} while (0)
+#endif
+
+#ifndef smp_load_acquire
+# define smp_load_acquire(p) \
+({ \
+ typeof(*p) ___p1 = READ_ONCE(*p); \
+ smp_mb(); \
+ ___p1; \
+})
+#endif
diff --git a/tools/include/linux/ring_buffer.h b/tools/include/linux/ring_buffer.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..9a083ae60473
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/include/linux/ring_buffer.h
@@ -0,0 +1,73 @@
+#ifndef _TOOLS_LINUX_RING_BUFFER_H_
+#define _TOOLS_LINUX_RING_BUFFER_H_
+
+#include <asm/barrier.h>
+
+/*
+ * Contract with kernel for walking the perf ring buffer from
+ * user space requires the following barrier pairing (quote
+ * from kernel/events/ring_buffer.c):
+ *
+ * Since the mmap() consumer (userspace) can run on a
+ * different CPU:
+ *
+ * kernel user
+ *
+ * if (LOAD ->data_tail) { LOAD ->data_head
+ * (A) smp_rmb() (C)
+ * STORE $data LOAD $data
+ * smp_wmb() (B) smp_mb() (D)
+ * STORE ->data_head STORE ->data_tail
+ * }
+ *
+ * Where A pairs with D, and B pairs with C.
+ *
+ * In our case A is a control dependency that separates the
+ * load of the ->data_tail and the stores of $data. In case
+ * ->data_tail indicates there is no room in the buffer to
+ * store $data we do not.
+ *
+ * D needs to be a full barrier since it separates the data
+ * READ from the tail WRITE.
+ *
+ * For B a WMB is sufficient since it separates two WRITEs,
+ * and for C an RMB is sufficient since it separates two READs.
+ *
+ * Note, instead of B, C, D we could also use smp_store_release()
+ * in B and D as well as smp_load_acquire() in C.
+ *
+ * However, this optimization does not make sense for all kernel
+ * supported architectures since for a fair number it would
+ * resolve into READ_ONCE() + smp_mb() pair for smp_load_acquire(),
+ * and smp_mb() + WRITE_ONCE() pair for smp_store_release().
+ *
+ * Thus for those smp_wmb() in B and smp_rmb() in C would still
+ * be less expensive. For the case of D this has either the same
+ * cost or is less expensive, for example, due to TSO x86 can
+ * avoid the CPU barrier entirely.
+ */
+
+static inline u64 ring_buffer_read_head(struct perf_event_mmap_page *base)
+{
+/*
+ * Architectures where smp_load_acquire() does not fallback to
+ * READ_ONCE() + smp_mb() pair.
+ */
+#if defined(__x86_64__) || defined(__aarch64__) || defined(__powerpc64__) || \
+ defined(__ia64__) || defined(__sparc__) && defined(__arch64__)
+ return smp_load_acquire(&base->data_head);
+#else
+ u64 head = READ_ONCE(base->data_head);
+
+ smp_rmb();
+ return head;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline void ring_buffer_write_tail(struct perf_event_mmap_page *base,
+ u64 tail)
+{
+ smp_store_release(&base->data_tail, tail);
+}
+
+#endif /* _TOOLS_LINUX_RING_BUFFER_H_ */
diff --git a/tools/perf/util/mmap.h b/tools/perf/util/mmap.h
index 05a6d47c7956..8f6531fd4dad 100644
--- a/tools/perf/util/mmap.h
+++ b/tools/perf/util/mmap.h
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
#include <linux/compiler.h>
#include <linux/refcount.h>
#include <linux/types.h>
-#include <asm/barrier.h>
+#include <linux/ring_buffer.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include "auxtrace.h"
#include "event.h"
@@ -71,21 +71,12 @@ void perf_mmap__consume(struct perf_mmap *map);
static inline u64 perf_mmap__read_head(struct perf_mmap *mm)
{
- struct perf_event_mmap_page *pc = mm->base;
- u64 head = READ_ONCE(pc->data_head);
- rmb();
- return head;
+ return ring_buffer_read_head(mm->base);
}
static inline void perf_mmap__write_tail(struct perf_mmap *md, u64 tail)
{
- struct perf_event_mmap_page *pc = md->base;
-
- /*
- * ensure all reads are done before we write the tail out.
- */
- mb();
- pc->data_tail = tail;
+ ring_buffer_write_tail(md->base, tail);
}
union perf_event *perf_mmap__read_forward(struct perf_mmap *map);

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