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.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0

MIPI CSI-2
==========

CSI-2 is a data bus intended for transferring images from cameras to
the host SoC. It is defined by the `MIPI alliance`_.

.. _`MIPI alliance`: http://www.mipi.org/

Transmitter drivers
-------------------

CSI-2 transmitter, such as a sensor or a TV tuner, drivers need to
provide the CSI-2 receiver with information on the CSI-2 bus
configuration. These include the V4L2_CID_LINK_FREQ and
V4L2_CID_PIXEL_RATE controls and
(:c:type:`v4l2_subdev_video_ops`->s_stream() callback). These
interface elements must be present on the sub-device represents the
CSI-2 transmitter.

The V4L2_CID_LINK_FREQ control is used to tell the receiver driver the
frequency (and not the symbol rate) of the link. The
V4L2_CID_PIXEL_RATE is may be used by the receiver to obtain the pixel
rate the transmitter uses. The
:c:type:`v4l2_subdev_video_ops`->s_stream() callback provides an
ability to start and stop the stream.

The value of the V4L2_CID_PIXEL_RATE is calculated as follows::

	pixel_rate = link_freq * 2 * nr_of_lanes / bits_per_sample

where

.. list-table:: variables in pixel rate calculation
   :header-rows: 1

   * - variable or constant
     - description
   * - link_freq
     - The value of the V4L2_CID_LINK_FREQ integer64 menu item.
   * - nr_of_lanes
     - Number of data lanes used on the CSI-2 link. This can
       be obtained from the OF endpoint configuration.
   * - 2
     - Two bits are transferred per clock cycle per lane.
   * - bits_per_sample
     - Number of bits per sample.

The transmitter drivers must, if possible, configure the CSI-2
transmitter to *LP-11 mode* whenever the transmitter is powered on but
not active, and maintain *LP-11 mode* until stream on. Only at stream
on should the transmitter activate the clock on the clock lane and
transition to *HS mode*.

Some transmitters do this automatically but some have to be explicitly
programmed to do so, and some are unable to do so altogether due to
hardware constraints.

Stopping the transmitter
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

A transmitter stops sending the stream of images as a result of
calling the ``.s_stream()`` callback. Some transmitters may stop the
stream at a frame boundary whereas others stop immediately,
effectively leaving the current frame unfinished. The receiver driver
should not make assumptions either way, but function properly in both
cases.

Receiver drivers
----------------

Before the receiver driver may enable the CSI-2 transmitter by using
the :c:type:`v4l2_subdev_video_ops`->s_stream(), it must have powered
the transmitter up by using the
:c:type:`v4l2_subdev_core_ops`->s_power() callback. This may take
place either indirectly by using :c:func:`v4l2_pipeline_pm_get` or
directly.

Formats
-------

The media bus pixel codes document parallel formats. Should the pixel data be
transported over a serial bus, the media bus pixel code that describes a
parallel format that transfers a sample on a single clock cycle is used.

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