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Run-time Power Management Framework for I/O Devices

(C) 2009 Rafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl>, Novell Inc.

1. Introduction

Support for run-time power management (run-time PM) of I/O devices is provided
at the power management core (PM core) level by means of:

* The power management workqueue pm_wq in which bus types and device drivers can
  put their PM-related work items.  It is strongly recommended that pm_wq be
  used for queuing all work items related to run-time PM, because this allows
  them to be synchronized with system-wide power transitions (suspend to RAM,
  hibernation and resume from system sleep states).  pm_wq is declared in
  include/linux/pm_runtime.h and defined in kernel/power/main.c.

* A number of run-time PM fields in the 'power' member of 'struct device' (which
  is of the type 'struct dev_pm_info', defined in include/linux/pm.h) that can
  be used for synchronizing run-time PM operations with one another.

* Three device run-time PM callbacks in 'struct dev_pm_ops' (defined in
  include/linux/pm.h).

* A set of helper functions defined in drivers/base/power/runtime.c that can be
  used for carrying out run-time PM operations in such a way that the
  synchronization between them is taken care of by the PM core.  Bus types and
  device drivers are encouraged to use these functions.

The run-time PM callbacks present in 'struct dev_pm_ops', the device run-time PM
fields of 'struct dev_pm_info' and the core helper functions provided for
run-time PM are described below.

2. Device Run-time PM Callbacks

There are three device run-time PM callbacks defined in 'struct dev_pm_ops':

struct dev_pm_ops {
	...
	int (*runtime_suspend)(struct device *dev);
	int (*runtime_resume)(struct device *dev);
	int (*runtime_idle)(struct device *dev);
	...
};

The ->runtime_suspend() callback is executed by the PM core for the bus type of
the device being suspended.  The bus type's callback is then _entirely_
_responsible_ for handling the device as appropriate, which may, but need not
include executing the device driver's own ->runtime_suspend() callback (from the
PM core's point of view it is not necessary to implement a ->runtime_suspend()
callback in a device driver as long as the bus type's ->runtime_suspend() knows
what to do to handle the device).

  * Once the bus type's ->runtime_suspend() callback has completed successfully
    for given device, the PM core regards the device as suspended, which need
    not mean that the device has been put into a low power state.  It is
    supposed to mean, however, that the device will not process data and will
    not communicate with the CPU(s) and RAM until its bus type's
    ->runtime_resume() callback is executed for it.  The run-time PM status of
    a device after successful execution of its bus type's ->runtime_suspend()
    callback is 'suspended'.

  * If the bus type's ->runtime_suspend() callback returns -EBUSY or -EAGAIN,
    the device's run-time PM status is supposed to be 'active', which means that
    the device _must_ be fully operational afterwards.

  * If the bus type's ->runtime_suspend() callback returns an error code
    different from -EBUSY or -EAGAIN, the PM core regards this as a fatal
    error and will refuse to run the helper functions described in Section 4
    for the device, until the status of it is directly set either to 'active'
    or to 'suspended' (the PM core provides special helper functions for this
    purpose).

In particular, if the driver requires remote wakeup capability for proper
functioning and device_run_wake() returns 'false' for the device, then
->runtime_suspend() should return -EBUSY.  On the other hand, if
device_run_wake() returns 'true' for the device and the device is put
into a low power state during the execution of its bus type's
->runtime_suspend(), it is expected that remote wake-up (i.e. hardware mechanism
allowing the device to request a change of its power state, such as PCI PME)
will be enabled for the device.  Generally, remote wake-up should be enabled
for all input devices put into a low power state at run time.

The ->runtime_resume() callback is executed by the PM core for the bus type of
the device being woken up.  The bus type's callback is then _entirely_
_responsible_ for handling the device as appropriate, which may, but need not
include executing the device driver's own ->runtime_resume() callback (from the
PM core's point of view it is not necessary to implement a ->runtime_resume()
callback in a device driver as long as the bus type's ->runtime_resume() knows
what to do to handle the device).

  * Once the bus type's ->runtime_resume() callback has completed successfully,
    the PM core regards the device as fully operational, which means that the
    device _must_ be able to complete I/O operations as needed.  The run-time
    PM status of the device is then 'active'.

  * If the bus type's ->runtime_resume() callback returns an error code, the PM
    core regards this as a fatal error and will refuse to run the helper
    functions described in Section 4 for the device, until its status is
    directly set either to 'active' or to 'suspended' (the PM core provides
    special helper functions for this purpose).

The ->runtime_idle() callback is executed by the PM core for the bus type of
given device whenever the device appears to be idle, which is indicated to the
PM core by two counters, the device's usage counter and the counter of 'active'
children of the device.

  * If any of these counters is decreased using a helper function provided by
    the PM core and it turns out to be equal to zero, the other counter is
    checked.  If that counter also is equal to zero, the PM core executes the
    device bus type's ->runtime_idle() callback (with the device as an
    argument).

The action performed by a bus type's ->runtime_idle() callback is totally
dependent on the bus type in question, but the expected and recommended action
is to check if the device can be suspended (i.e. if all of the conditions
necessary for suspending the device are satisfied) and to queue up a suspend
request for the device in that case.  The value returned by this callback is
ignored by the PM core.

The helper functions provided by the PM core, described in Section 4, guarantee
that the following constraints are met with respect to the bus type's run-time
PM callbacks:

(1) The callbacks are mutually exclusive (e.g. it is forbidden to execute
    ->runtime_suspend() in parallel with ->runtime_resume() or with another
    instance of ->runtime_suspend() for the same device) with the exception that
    ->runtime_suspend() or ->runtime_resume() can be executed in parallel with
    ->runtime_idle() (although ->runtime_idle() will not be started while any
    of the other callbacks is being executed for the same device).

(2) ->runtime_idle() and ->runtime_suspend() can only be executed for 'active'
    devices (i.e. the PM core will only execute ->runtime_idle() or
    ->runtime_suspend() for the devices the run-time PM status of which is
    'active').

(3) ->runtime_idle() and ->runtime_suspend() can only be executed for a device
    the usage counter of which is equal to zero _and_ either the counter of
    'active' children of which is equal to zero, or the 'power.ignore_children'
    flag of which is set.

(4) ->runtime_resume() can only be executed for 'suspended' devices  (i.e. the
    PM core will only execute ->runtime_resume() for the devices the run-time
    PM status of which is 'suspended').

Additionally, the helper functions provided by the PM core obey the following
rules:

  * If ->runtime_suspend() is about to be executed or there's a pending request
    to execute it, ->runtime_idle() will not be executed for the same device.

  * A request to execute or to schedule the execution of ->runtime_suspend()
    will cancel any pending requests to execute ->runtime_idle() for the same
    device.

  * If ->runtime_resume() is about to be executed or there's a pending request
    to execute it, the other callbacks will not be executed for the same device.

  * A request to execute ->runtime_resume() will cancel any pending or
    scheduled requests to execute the other callbacks for the same device.

3. Run-time PM Device Fields

The following device run-time PM fields are present in 'struct dev_pm_info', as
defined in include/linux/pm.h:

  struct timer_list suspend_timer;
    - timer used for scheduling (delayed) suspend request

  unsigned long timer_expires;
    - timer expiration time, in jiffies (if this is different from zero, the
      timer is running and will expire at that time, otherwise the timer is not
      running)

  struct work_struct work;
    - work structure used for queuing up requests (i.e. work items in pm_wq)

  wait_queue_head_t wait_queue;
    - wait queue used if any of the helper functions needs to wait for another
      one to complete

  spinlock_t lock;
    - lock used for synchronisation

  atomic_t usage_count;
    - the usage counter of the device

  atomic_t child_count;
    - the count of 'active' children of the device

  unsigned int ignore_children;
    - if set, the value of child_count is ignored (but still updated)

  unsigned int disable_depth;
    - used for disabling the helper funcions (they work normally if this is
      equal to zero); the initial value of it is 1 (i.e. run-time PM is
      initially disabled for all devices)

  unsigned int runtime_error;
    - if set, there was a fatal error (one of the callbacks returned error code
      as described in Section 2), so the helper funtions will not work until
      this flag is cleared; this is the error code returned by the failing
      callback

  unsigned int idle_notification;
    - if set, ->runtime_idle() is being executed

  unsigned int request_pending;
    - if set, there's a pending request (i.e. a work item queued up into pm_wq)

  enum rpm_request request;
    - type of request that's pending (valid if request_pending is set)

  unsigned int deferred_resume;
    - set if ->runtime_resume() is about to be run while ->runtime_suspend() is
      being executed for that device and it is not practical to wait for the
      suspend to complete; means "start a resume as soon as you've suspended"

  unsigned int run_wake;
    - set if the device is capable of generating run-time wake-up events

  enum rpm_status runtime_status;
    - the run-time PM status of the device; this field's initial value is
      RPM_SUSPENDED, which means that each device is initially regarded by the
      PM core as 'suspended', regardless of its real hardware status

All of the above fields are members of the 'power' member of 'struct device'.

4. Run-time PM Device Helper Functions

The following run-time PM helper functions are defined in
drivers/base/power/runtime.c and include/linux/pm_runtime.h:

  void pm_runtime_init(struct device *dev);
    - initialize the device run-time PM fields in 'struct dev_pm_info'

  void pm_runtime_remove(struct device *dev);
    - make sure that the run-time PM of the device will be disabled after
      removing the device from device hierarchy

  int pm_runtime_idle(struct device *dev);
    - execute ->runtime_idle() for the device's bus type; returns 0 on success
      or error code on failure, where -EINPROGRESS means that ->runtime_idle()
      is already being executed

  int pm_runtime_suspend(struct device *dev);
    - execute ->runtime_suspend() for the device's bus type; returns 0 on
      success, 1 if the device's run-time PM status was already 'suspended', or
      error code on failure, where -EAGAIN or -EBUSY means it is safe to attempt
      to suspend the device again in future

  int pm_runtime_resume(struct device *dev);
    - execute ->runtime_resume() for the device's bus type; returns 0 on
      success, 1 if the device's run-time PM status was already 'active' or
      error code on failure, where -EAGAIN means it may be safe to attempt to
      resume the device again in future, but 'power.runtime_error' should be
      checked additionally

  int pm_request_idle(struct device *dev);
    - submit a request to execute ->runtime_idle() for the device's bus type
      (the request is represented by a work item in pm_wq); returns 0 on success
      or error code if the request has not been queued up

  int pm_schedule_suspend(struct device *dev, unsigned int delay);
    - schedule the execution of ->runtime_suspend() for the device's bus type
      in future, where 'delay' is the time to wait before queuing up a suspend
      work item in pm_wq, in milliseconds (if 'delay' is zero, the work item is
      queued up immediately); returns 0 on success, 1 if the device's PM
      run-time status was already 'suspended', or error code if the request
      hasn't been scheduled (or queued up if 'delay' is 0); if the execution of
      ->runtime_suspend() is already scheduled and not yet expired, the new
      value of 'delay' will be used as the time to wait

  int pm_request_resume(struct device *dev);
    - submit a request to execute ->runtime_resume() for the device's bus type
      (the request is represented by a work item in pm_wq); returns 0 on
      success, 1 if the device's run-time PM status was already 'active', or
      error code if the request hasn't been queued up

  void pm_runtime_get_noresume(struct device *dev);
    - increment the device's usage counter

  int pm_runtime_get(struct device *dev);
    - increment the device's usage counter, run pm_request_resume(dev) and
      return its result

  int pm_runtime_get_sync(struct device *dev);
    - increment the device's usage counter, run pm_runtime_resume(dev) and
      return its result

  void pm_runtime_put_noidle(struct device *dev);
    - decrement the device's usage counter

  int pm_runtime_put(struct device *dev);
    - decrement the device's usage counter, run pm_request_idle(dev) and return
      its result

  int pm_runtime_put_sync(struct device *dev);
    - decrement the device's usage counter, run pm_runtime_idle(dev) and return
      its result

  void pm_runtime_enable(struct device *dev);
    - enable the run-time PM helper functions to run the device bus type's
      run-time PM callbacks described in Section 2

  int pm_runtime_disable(struct device *dev);
    - prevent the run-time PM helper functions from running the device bus
      type's run-time PM callbacks, make sure that all of the pending run-time
      PM operations on the device are either completed or canceled; returns
      1 if there was a resume request pending and it was necessary to execute
      ->runtime_resume() for the device's bus type to satisfy that request,
      otherwise 0 is returned

  void pm_suspend_ignore_children(struct device *dev, bool enable);
    - set/unset the power.ignore_children flag of the device

  int pm_runtime_set_active(struct device *dev);
    - clear the device's 'power.runtime_error' flag, set the device's run-time
      PM status to 'active' and update its parent's counter of 'active'
      children as appropriate (it is only valid to use this function if
      'power.runtime_error' is set or 'power.disable_depth' is greater than
      zero); it will fail and return error code if the device has a parent
      which is not active and the 'power.ignore_children' flag of which is unset

  void pm_runtime_set_suspended(struct device *dev);
    - clear the device's 'power.runtime_error' flag, set the device's run-time
      PM status to 'suspended' and update its parent's counter of 'active'
      children as appropriate (it is only valid to use this function if
      'power.runtime_error' is set or 'power.disable_depth' is greater than
      zero)

It is safe to execute the following helper functions from interrupt context:

pm_request_idle()
pm_schedule_suspend()
pm_request_resume()
pm_runtime_get_noresume()
pm_runtime_get()
pm_runtime_put_noidle()
pm_runtime_put()
pm_suspend_ignore_children()
pm_runtime_set_active()
pm_runtime_set_suspended()
pm_runtime_enable()

5. Run-time PM Initialization, Device Probing and Removal

Initially, the run-time PM is disabled for all devices, which means that the
majority of the run-time PM helper funtions described in Section 4 will return
-EAGAIN until pm_runtime_enable() is called for the device.

In addition to that, the initial run-time PM status of all devices is
'suspended', but it need not reflect the actual physical state of the device.
Thus, if the device is initially active (i.e. it is able to process I/O), its
run-time PM status must be changed to 'active', with the help of
pm_runtime_set_active(), before pm_runtime_enable() is called for the device.

However, if the device has a parent and the parent's run-time PM is enabled,
calling pm_runtime_set_active() for the device will affect the parent, unless
the parent's 'power.ignore_children' flag is set.  Namely, in that case the
parent won't be able to suspend at run time, using the PM core's helper
functions, as long as the child's status is 'active', even if the child's
run-time PM is still disabled (i.e. pm_runtime_enable() hasn't been called for
the child yet or pm_runtime_disable() has been called for it).  For this reason,
once pm_runtime_set_active() has been called for the device, pm_runtime_enable()
should be called for it too as soon as reasonably possible or its run-time PM
status should be changed back to 'suspended' with the help of
pm_runtime_set_suspended().

If the default initial run-time PM status of the device (i.e. 'suspended')
reflects the actual state of the device, its bus type's or its driver's
->probe() callback will likely need to wake it up using one of the PM core's
helper functions described in Section 4.  In that case, pm_runtime_resume()
should be used.  Of course, for this purpose the device's run-time PM has to be
enabled earlier by calling pm_runtime_enable().

If the device bus type's or driver's ->probe() or ->remove() callback runs
pm_runtime_suspend() or pm_runtime_idle() or their asynchronous counterparts,
they will fail returning -EAGAIN, because the device's usage counter is
incremented by the core before executing ->probe() and ->remove().  Still, it
may be desirable to suspend the device as soon as ->probe() or ->remove() has
finished, so the PM core uses pm_runtime_idle_sync() to invoke the device bus
type's ->runtime_idle() callback at that time.

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