path: root/net/sctp
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2015-05-25ipv6: Add rt6_get_cookie() functionMartin KaFai Lau1-1/+1
Instead of doing the rt6->rt6i_node check whenever we need to get the route's cookie. Refactor it into rt6_get_cookie(). It is a prep work to handle FLOWI_FLAG_KNOWN_NH and also percpu rt6_info later. Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com> Cc: Hannes Frederic Sowa <hannes@stressinduktion.org> Cc: Steffen Klassert <steffen.klassert@secunet.com> Cc: Julian Anastasov <ja@ssi.bg> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2015-05-25ipv6: Remove external dependency on rt6i_dst and rt6i_srcMartin KaFai Lau1-1/+2
This patch removes the assumptions that the returned rt is always a RTF_CACHE entry with the rt6i_dst and rt6i_src containing the destination and source address. The dst and src can be recovered from the calling site. We may consider to rename (rt6i_dst, rt6i_src) to (rt6i_key_dst, rt6i_key_src) later. Signed-off-by: Martin KaFai Lau <kafai@fb.com> Reviewed-by: Hannes Frederic Sowa <hannes@stressinduktion.org> Cc: Steffen Klassert <steffen.klassert@secunet.com> Cc: Julian Anastasov <ja@ssi.bg> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2015-05-11net: Pass kern from net_proto_family.create to sk_allocEric W. Biederman2-2/+2
In preparation for changing how struct net is refcounted on kernel sockets pass the knowledge that we are creating a kernel socket from sock_create_kern through to sk_alloc. Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2015-03-25sctp: avoid to repeatedly declare external variablesYing Xue2-9/+0
Move the declaration for external variables to sctp.h file avoiding to repeatedly declare them with extern keyword. Signed-off-by: Ying Xue <ying.xue@windriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2015-03-02net: Remove iocb argument from sendmsg and recvmsgYing Xue1-5/+3
After TIPC doesn't depend on iocb argument in its internal implementations of sendmsg() and recvmsg() hooks defined in proto structure, no any user is using iocb argument in them at all now. Then we can drop the redundant iocb argument completely from kinds of implementations of both sendmsg() and recvmsg() in the entire networking stack. Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de> Suggested-by: Al Viro <viro@ZenIV.linux.org.uk> Signed-off-by: Ying Xue <ying.xue@windriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2015-03-02net: use common macro for assering skb->cb[] available size in protocol familiesEyal Birger1-2/+1
As part of an effort to move skb->dropcount to skb->cb[] use a common macro in protocol families using skb->cb[] for ancillary data to validate available room in skb->cb[]. Signed-off-by: Eyal Birger <eyal.birger@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2015-02-05Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/netDavid S. Miller1-1/+1
Conflicts: drivers/net/vxlan.c drivers/vhost/net.c include/linux/if_vlan.h net/core/dev.c The net/core/dev.c conflict was the overlap of one commit marking an existing function static whilst another was adding a new function. In the include/linux/if_vlan.h case, the type used for a local variable was changed in 'net', whereas the function got rewritten to fix a stacked vlan bug in 'net-next'. In drivers/vhost/net.c, Al Viro's iov_iter conversions in 'net-next' overlapped with an endainness fix for VHOST 1.0 in 'net'. In drivers/net/vxlan.c, vxlan_find_vni() added a 'flags' parameter in 'net-next' whereas in 'net' there was a bug fix to pass in the correct network namespace pointer in calls to this function. Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2015-02-02net: sctp: Deletion of an unnecessary check before the function call "kfree"Markus Elfring1-2/+1
The kfree() function tests whether its argument is NULL and then returns immediately. Thus the test around the call is not needed. This issue was detected by using the Coccinelle software. Signed-off-by: Markus Elfring <elfring@users.sourceforge.net> Acked-By: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2015-01-30net: sctp: fix passing wrong parameter header to param_type2af in ↵Saran Maruti Ramanara1-1/+1
sctp_process_param When making use of RFC5061, section 4.2.4. for setting the primary IP address, we're passing a wrong parameter header to param_type2af(), resulting always in NULL being returned. At this point, param.p points to a sctp_addip_param struct, containing a sctp_paramhdr (type = 0xc004, length = var), and crr_id as a correlation id. Followed by that, as also presented in RFC5061 section 4.2.4., comes the actual sctp_addr_param, which also contains a sctp_paramhdr, but this time with the correct type SCTP_PARAM_IPV{4,6}_ADDRESS that param_type2af() can make use of. Since we already hold a pointer to addr_param from previous line, just reuse it for param_type2af(). Fixes: d6de3097592b ("[SCTP]: Add the handling of "Set Primary IP Address" parameter to INIT") Signed-off-by: Saran Maruti Ramanara <saran.neti@telus.com> Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2015-01-26net: sctp: fix slab corruption from use after free on INIT collisionsDaniel Borkmann1-1/+0
When hitting an INIT collision case during the 4WHS with AUTH enabled, as already described in detail in commit 1be9a950c646 ("net: sctp: inherit auth_capable on INIT collisions"), it can happen that we occasionally still remotely trigger the following panic on server side which seems to have been uncovered after the fix from commit 1be9a950c646 ... [ 533.876389] BUG: unable to handle kernel paging request at 00000000ffffffff [ 533.913657] IP: [<ffffffff811ac385>] __kmalloc+0x95/0x230 [ 533.940559] PGD 5030f2067 PUD 0 [ 533.957104] Oops: 0000 [#1] SMP [ 533.974283] Modules linked in: sctp mlx4_en [...] [ 534.939704] Call Trace: [ 534.951833] [<ffffffff81294e30>] ? crypto_init_shash_ops+0x60/0xf0 [ 534.984213] [<ffffffff81294e30>] crypto_init_shash_ops+0x60/0xf0 [ 535.015025] [<ffffffff8128c8ed>] __crypto_alloc_tfm+0x6d/0x170 [ 535.045661] [<ffffffff8128d12c>] crypto_alloc_base+0x4c/0xb0 [ 535.074593] [<ffffffff8160bd42>] ? _raw_spin_lock_bh+0x12/0x50 [ 535.105239] [<ffffffffa0418c11>] sctp_inet_listen+0x161/0x1e0 [sctp] [ 535.138606] [<ffffffff814e43bd>] SyS_listen+0x9d/0xb0 [ 535.166848] [<ffffffff816149a9>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b ... or depending on the the application, for example this one: [ 1370.026490] BUG: unable to handle kernel paging request at 00000000ffffffff [ 1370.026506] IP: [<ffffffff811ab455>] kmem_cache_alloc+0x75/0x1d0 [ 1370.054568] PGD 633c94067 PUD 0 [ 1370.070446] Oops: 0000 [#1] SMP [ 1370.085010] Modules linked in: sctp kvm_amd kvm [...] [ 1370.963431] Call Trace: [ 1370.974632] [<ffffffff8120f7cf>] ? SyS_epoll_ctl+0x53f/0x960 [ 1371.000863] [<ffffffff8120f7cf>] SyS_epoll_ctl+0x53f/0x960 [ 1371.027154] [<ffffffff812100d3>] ? anon_inode_getfile+0xd3/0x170 [ 1371.054679] [<ffffffff811e3d67>] ? __alloc_fd+0xa7/0x130 [ 1371.080183] [<ffffffff816149a9>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b With slab debugging enabled, we can see that the poison has been overwritten: [ 669.826368] BUG kmalloc-128 (Tainted: G W ): Poison overwritten [ 669.826385] INFO: 0xffff880228b32e50-0xffff880228b32e50. First byte 0x6a instead of 0x6b [ 669.826414] INFO: Allocated in sctp_auth_create_key+0x23/0x50 [sctp] age=3 cpu=0 pid=18494 [ 669.826424] __slab_alloc+0x4bf/0x566 [ 669.826433] __kmalloc+0x280/0x310 [ 669.826453] sctp_auth_create_key+0x23/0x50 [sctp] [ 669.826471] sctp_auth_asoc_create_secret+0xcb/0x1e0 [sctp] [ 669.826488] sctp_auth_asoc_init_active_key+0x68/0xa0 [sctp] [ 669.826505] sctp_do_sm+0x29d/0x17c0 [sctp] [...] [ 669.826629] INFO: Freed in kzfree+0x31/0x40 age=1 cpu=0 pid=18494 [ 669.826635] __slab_free+0x39/0x2a8 [ 669.826643] kfree+0x1d6/0x230 [ 669.826650] kzfree+0x31/0x40 [ 669.826666] sctp_auth_key_put+0x19/0x20 [sctp] [ 669.826681] sctp_assoc_update+0x1ee/0x2d0 [sctp] [ 669.826695] sctp_do_sm+0x674/0x17c0 [sctp] Since this only triggers in some collision-cases with AUTH, the problem at heart is that sctp_auth_key_put() on asoc->asoc_shared_key is called twice when having refcnt 1, once directly in sctp_assoc_update() and yet again from within sctp_auth_asoc_init_active_key() via sctp_assoc_update() on the already kzfree'd memory, which is also consistent with the observation of the poison decrease from 0x6b to 0x6a (note: the overwrite is detected at a later point in time when poison is checked on new allocation). Reference counting of auth keys revisited: Shared keys for AUTH chunks are being stored in endpoints and associations in endpoint_shared_keys list. On endpoint creation, a null key is being added; on association creation, all endpoint shared keys are being cached and thus cloned over to the association. struct sctp_shared_key only holds a pointer to the actual key bytes, that is, struct sctp_auth_bytes which keeps track of users internally through refcounting. Naturally, on assoc or enpoint destruction, sctp_shared_key are being destroyed directly and the reference on sctp_auth_bytes dropped. User space can add keys to either list via setsockopt(2) through struct sctp_authkey and by passing that to sctp_auth_set_key() which replaces or adds a new auth key. There, sctp_auth_create_key() creates a new sctp_auth_bytes with refcount 1 and in case of replacement drops the reference on the old sctp_auth_bytes. A key can be set active from user space through setsockopt() on the id via sctp_auth_set_active_key(), which iterates through either endpoint_shared_keys and in case of an assoc, invokes (one of various places) sctp_auth_asoc_init_active_key(). sctp_auth_asoc_init_active_key() computes the actual secret from local's and peer's random, hmac and shared key parameters and returns a new key directly as sctp_auth_bytes, that is asoc->asoc_shared_key, plus drops the reference if there was a previous one. The secret, which where we eventually double drop the ref comes from sctp_auth_asoc_set_secret() with intitial refcount of 1, which also stays unchanged eventually in sctp_assoc_update(). This key is later being used for crypto layer to set the key for the hash in crypto_hash_setkey() from sctp_auth_calculate_hmac(). To close the loop: asoc->asoc_shared_key is freshly allocated secret material and independant of the sctp_shared_key management keeping track of only shared keys in endpoints and assocs. Hence, also commit 4184b2a79a76 ("net: sctp: fix memory leak in auth key management") is independant of this bug here since it concerns a different layer (though same structures being used eventually). asoc->asoc_shared_key is reference dropped correctly on assoc destruction in sctp_association_free() and when active keys are being replaced in sctp_auth_asoc_init_active_key(), it always has a refcount of 1. Hence, it's freed prematurely in sctp_assoc_update(). Simple fix is to remove that sctp_auth_key_put() from there which fixes these panics. Fixes: 730fc3d05cd4 ("[SCTP]: Implete SCTP-AUTH parameter processing") Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2015-01-17net: sctp: fix race for one-to-many sockets in sendmsg's auto associateDaniel Borkmann1-1/+7
I.e. one-to-many sockets in SCTP are not required to explicitly call into connect(2) or sctp_connectx(2) prior to data exchange. Instead, they can directly invoke sendmsg(2) and the SCTP stack will automatically trigger connection establishment through 4WHS via sctp_primitive_ASSOCIATE(). However, this in its current implementation is racy: INIT is being sent out immediately (as it cannot be bundled anyway) and the rest of the DATA chunks are queued up for later xmit when connection is established, meaning sendmsg(2) will return successfully. This behaviour can result in an undesired side-effect that the kernel made the application think the data has already been transmitted, although none of it has actually left the machine, worst case even after close(2)'ing the socket. Instead, when the association from client side has been shut down e.g. first gracefully through SCTP_EOF and then close(2), the client could afterwards still receive the server's INIT_ACK due to a connection with higher latency. This INIT_ACK is then considered out of the blue and hence responded with ABORT as there was no alive assoc found anymore. This can be easily reproduced f.e. with sctp_test application from lksctp. One way to fix this race is to wait for the handshake to actually complete. The fix defers waiting after sctp_primitive_ASSOCIATE() and sctp_primitive_SEND() succeeded, so that DATA chunks cooked up from sctp_sendmsg() have already been placed into the output queue through the side-effect interpreter, and therefore can then be bundeled together with COOKIE_ECHO control chunks. strace from example application (shortened): socket(PF_INET, SOCK_SEQPACKET, IPPROTO_SCTP) = 3 sendmsg(3, {msg_name(28)={sa_family=AF_INET, sin_port=htons(8888), sin_addr=inet_addr("")}, msg_iov(1)=[{"hello", 5}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 5 sendmsg(3, {msg_name(28)={sa_family=AF_INET, sin_port=htons(8888), sin_addr=inet_addr("")}, msg_iov(1)=[{"hello", 5}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 5 sendmsg(3, {msg_name(28)={sa_family=AF_INET, sin_port=htons(8888), sin_addr=inet_addr("")}, msg_iov(1)=[{"hello", 5}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 5 sendmsg(3, {msg_name(28)={sa_family=AF_INET, sin_port=htons(8888), sin_addr=inet_addr("")}, msg_iov(1)=[{"hello", 5}], msg_controllen=0, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 5 sendmsg(3, {msg_name(28)={sa_family=AF_INET, sin_port=htons(8888), sin_addr=inet_addr("")}, msg_iov(0)=[], msg_controllen=48, {cmsg_len=48, cmsg_level=0x84 /* SOL_??? */, cmsg_type=, ...}, msg_flags=0}, 0) = 0 // graceful shutdown for SOCK_SEQPACKET via SCTP_EOF close(3) = 0 tcpdump before patch (fooling the application): 22:33:36.306142 IP > sctp (1) [INIT] [init tag: 3879023686] [rwnd: 106496] [OS: 10] [MIS: 65535] [init TSN: 3139201684] 22:33:36.316619 IP > sctp (1) [INIT ACK] [init tag: 3345394793] [rwnd: 106496] [OS: 10] [MIS: 10] [init TSN: 3380109591] 22:33:36.317600 IP > sctp (1) [ABORT] tcpdump after patch: 14:28:58.884116 IP > sctp (1) [INIT] [init tag: 438593213] [rwnd: 106496] [OS: 10] [MIS: 65535] [init TSN: 3092969729] 14:28:58.888414 IP > sctp (1) [INIT ACK] [init tag: 381429855] [rwnd: 106496] [OS: 10] [MIS: 10] [init TSN: 2141904492] 14:28:58.888638 IP > sctp (1) [COOKIE ECHO] , (2) [DATA] (B)(E) [TSN: 3092969729] [...] 14:28:58.893278 IP > sctp (1) [COOKIE ACK] , (2) [SACK] [cum ack 3092969729] [a_rwnd 106491] [#gap acks 0] [#dup tsns 0] 14:28:58.893591 IP > sctp (1) [DATA] (B)(E) [TSN: 3092969730] [...] 14:28:59.096963 IP > sctp (1) [SACK] [cum ack 3092969730] [a_rwnd 106496] [#gap acks 0] [#dup tsns 0] 14:28:59.097086 IP > sctp (1) [DATA] (B)(E) [TSN: 3092969731] [...] , (2) [DATA] (B)(E) [TSN: 3092969732] [...] 14:28:59.103218 IP > sctp (1) [SACK] [cum ack 3092969732] [a_rwnd 106486] [#gap acks 0] [#dup tsns 0] 14:28:59.103330 IP > sctp (1) [SHUTDOWN] 14:28:59.107793 IP > sctp (1) [SHUTDOWN ACK] 14:28:59.107890 IP > sctp (1) [SHUTDOWN COMPLETE] Looks like this bug is from the pre-git history museum. ;) Fixes: 08707d5482df ("lksctp-2_5_31-0_5_1.patch") Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-12-10net: introduce helper macro for_each_cmsghdrGu Zheng1-2/+1
Introduce helper macro for_each_cmsghdr as a wrapper of the enumerating cmsghdr from msghdr, just cleanup. Signed-off-by: Gu Zheng <guz.fnst@cn.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-12-10Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/netDavid S. Miller1-2/+2
Conflicts: drivers/net/ethernet/amd/xgbe/xgbe-desc.c drivers/net/ethernet/renesas/sh_eth.c Overlapping changes in both conflict cases. Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-12-09put iov_iter into msghdrAl Viro1-4/+1
Note that the code _using_ ->msg_iter at that point will be very unhappy with anything other than unshifted iovec-backed iov_iter. We still need to convert users to proper primitives. Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2014-12-09net: sctp: use MAX_HEADER for headroom reserve in output pathDaniel Borkmann1-2/+2
To accomodate for enough headroom for tunnels, use MAX_HEADER instead of LL_MAX_HEADER. Robert reported that he has hit after roughly 40hrs of trinity an skb_under_panic() via SCTP output path (see reference). I couldn't reproduce it from here, but not using MAX_HEADER as elsewhere in other protocols might be one possible cause for this. In any case, it looks like accounting on chunks themself seems to look good as the skb already passed the SCTP output path and did not hit any skb_over_panic(). Given tunneling was enabled in his .config, the headroom would have been expanded by MAX_HEADER in this case. Reported-by: Robert Święcki <robert@swiecki.net> Reference: https://lkml.org/lkml/2014/12/1/507 Fixes: 594ccc14dfe4d ("[SCTP] Replace incorrect use of dev_alloc_skb with alloc_skb in sctp_packet_transmit().") Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-11-24switch sctp_user_addto_chunk() and sctp_datamsg_from_user() to passing iov_iterAl Viro3-14/+16
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2014-11-24new helper: memcpy_from_msg()Al Viro1-2/+2
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2014-11-21net: sctp: keep owned chunk in destructor_arg instead of skb->cbDaniel Borkmann1-8/+4
It's just silly to hold the skb destructor argument around inside skb->cb[] as we currently do in SCTP. Nowadays, we're sort of cheating on data accounting in the sense that due to commit 4c3a5bdae293 ("sctp: Don't charge for data in sndbuf again when transmitting packet"), we orphan the skb already in the SCTP output path, i.e. giving back charged data memory, and use a different destructor only to make sure the sk doesn't vanish on skb destruction time. Thus, cb[] is still valid here as we operate within the SCTP layer. (It's generally actually a big candidate for future rework, imho.) However, storing the destructor in the cb[] can easily cause issues should an non sctp_packet_set_owner_w()'ed skb ever escape the SCTP layer, since cb[] may get overwritten by lower layers and thus can corrupt the chunk pointer. There are no such issues at present, but lets keep the chunk in destructor_arg, as this is the actual purpose for it. Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-11-14Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/netDavid S. Miller2-2/+3
Conflicts: drivers/net/ethernet/chelsio/cxgb4vf/sge.c drivers/net/ethernet/intel/ixgbe/ixgbe_phy.c sge.c was overlapping two changes, one to use the new __dev_alloc_page() in net-next, and one to use s->fl_pg_order in net. ixgbe_phy.c was a set of overlapping whitespace changes. Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-11-11net: sctp: fix memory leak in auth key managementDaniel Borkmann1-2/+0
A very minimal and simple user space application allocating an SCTP socket, setting SCTP_AUTH_KEY setsockopt(2) on it and then closing the socket again will leak the memory containing the authentication key from user space: unreferenced object 0xffff8800837047c0 (size 16): comm "a.out", pid 2789, jiffies 4296954322 (age 192.258s) hex dump (first 16 bytes): 01 00 00 00 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ................ backtrace: [<ffffffff816d7e8e>] kmemleak_alloc+0x4e/0xb0 [<ffffffff811c88d8>] __kmalloc+0xe8/0x270 [<ffffffffa0870c23>] sctp_auth_create_key+0x23/0x50 [sctp] [<ffffffffa08718b1>] sctp_auth_set_key+0xa1/0x140 [sctp] [<ffffffffa086b383>] sctp_setsockopt+0xd03/0x1180 [sctp] [<ffffffff815bfd94>] sock_common_setsockopt+0x14/0x20 [<ffffffff815beb61>] SyS_setsockopt+0x71/0xd0 [<ffffffff816e58a9>] system_call_fastpath+0x12/0x17 [<ffffffffffffffff>] 0xffffffffffffffff This is bad because of two things, we can bring down a machine from user space when auth_enable=1, but also we would leave security sensitive keying material in memory without clearing it after use. The issue is that sctp_auth_create_key() already sets the refcount to 1, but after allocation sctp_auth_set_key() does an additional refcount on it, and thus leaving it around when we free the socket. Fixes: 65b07e5d0d0 ("[SCTP]: API updates to suport SCTP-AUTH extensions.") Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Cc: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-11-11net: sctp: fix NULL pointer dereference in af->from_addr_param on malformed ↵Daniel Borkmann1-0/+3
packet An SCTP server doing ASCONF will panic on malformed INIT ping-of-death in the form of: ------------ INIT[PARAM: SET_PRIMARY_IP] ------------> While the INIT chunk parameter verification dissects through many things in order to detect malformed input, it misses to actually check parameters inside of parameters. E.g. RFC5061, section 4.2.4 proposes a 'set primary IP address' parameter in ASCONF, which has as a subparameter an address parameter. So an attacker may send a parameter type other than SCTP_PARAM_IPV4_ADDRESS or SCTP_PARAM_IPV6_ADDRESS, param_type2af() will subsequently return 0 and thus sctp_get_af_specific() returns NULL, too, which we then happily dereference unconditionally through af->from_addr_param(). The trace for the log: BUG: unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at 0000000000000078 IP: [<ffffffffa01e9c62>] sctp_process_init+0x492/0x990 [sctp] PGD 0 Oops: 0000 [#1] SMP [...] Pid: 0, comm: swapper Not tainted 2.6.32-504.el6.x86_64 #1 Bochs Bochs RIP: 0010:[<ffffffffa01e9c62>] [<ffffffffa01e9c62>] sctp_process_init+0x492/0x990 [sctp] [...] Call Trace: <IRQ> [<ffffffffa01f2add>] ? sctp_bind_addr_copy+0x5d/0xe0 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01e1fcb>] sctp_sf_do_5_1B_init+0x21b/0x340 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01e3751>] sctp_do_sm+0x71/0x1210 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01e5c09>] ? sctp_endpoint_lookup_assoc+0xc9/0xf0 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01e61f6>] sctp_endpoint_bh_rcv+0x116/0x230 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01ee986>] sctp_inq_push+0x56/0x80 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01fcc42>] sctp_rcv+0x982/0xa10 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01d5123>] ? ipt_local_in_hook+0x23/0x28 [iptable_filter] [<ffffffff8148bdc9>] ? nf_iterate+0x69/0xb0 [<ffffffff81496d10>] ? ip_local_deliver_finish+0x0/0x2d0 [<ffffffff8148bf86>] ? nf_hook_slow+0x76/0x120 [<ffffffff81496d10>] ? ip_local_deliver_finish+0x0/0x2d0 [...] A minimal way to address this is to check for NULL as we do on all other such occasions where we know sctp_get_af_specific() could possibly return with NULL. Fixes: d6de3097592b ("[SCTP]: Add the handling of "Set Primary IP Address" parameter to INIT") Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Cc: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-11-11net: introduce SO_INCOMING_CPUEric Dumazet1-2/+3
Alternative to RPS/RFS is to use hardware support for multiple queues. Then split a set of million of sockets into worker threads, each one using epoll() to manage events on its own socket pool. Ideally, we want one thread per RX/TX queue/cpu, but we have no way to know after accept() or connect() on which queue/cpu a socket is managed. We normally use one cpu per RX queue (IRQ smp_affinity being properly set), so remembering on socket structure which cpu delivered last packet is enough to solve the problem. After accept(), connect(), or even file descriptor passing around processes, applications can use : int cpu; socklen_t len = sizeof(cpu); getsockopt(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_INCOMING_CPU, &cpu, &len); And use this information to put the socket into the right silo for optimal performance, as all networking stack should run on the appropriate cpu, without need to send IPI (RPS/RFS). Signed-off-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-11-05net: Add and use skb_copy_datagram_msg() helper.David S. Miller1-1/+1
This encapsulates all of the skb_copy_datagram_iovec() callers with call argument signature "skb, offset, msghdr->msg_iov, length". When we move to iov_iters in the networking, the iov_iter object will sit in the msghdr. Having a helper like this means there will be less places to touch during that transformation. Based upon descriptions and patch from Al Viro. Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-10-30sctp: replace seq_printf with seq_putsMichele Baldessari1-2/+2
Fixes checkpatch warning: "WARNING: Prefer seq_puts to seq_printf" Signed-off-by: Michele Baldessari <michele@acksyn.org> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-10-30sctp: add transport state in /proc/net/sctp/remaddrMichele Baldessari1-2/+8
It is often quite helpful to be able to know the state of a transport outside of the application itself (for troubleshooting purposes or for monitoring purposes). Add it under /proc/net/sctp/remaddr. Signed-off-by: Michele Baldessari <michele@acksyn.org> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-10-18Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/netLinus Torvalds4-86/+69
Pull networking fixes from David Miller: 1) Include fixes for netrom and dsa (Fabian Frederick and Florian Fainelli) 2) Fix FIXED_PHY support in stmmac, from Giuseppe CAVALLARO. 3) Several SKB use after free fixes (vxlan, openvswitch, vxlan, ip_tunnel, fou), from Li ROngQing. 4) fec driver PTP support fixes from Luwei Zhou and Nimrod Andy. 5) Use after free in virtio_net, from Michael S Tsirkin. 6) Fix flow mask handling for megaflows in openvswitch, from Pravin B Shelar. 7) ISDN gigaset and capi bug fixes from Tilman Schmidt. 8) Fix route leak in ip_send_unicast_reply(), from Vasily Averin. 9) Fix two eBPF JIT bugs on x86, from Alexei Starovoitov. 10) TCP_SKB_CB() reorganization caused a few regressions, fixed by Cong Wang and Eric Dumazet. 11) Don't overwrite end of SKB when parsing malformed sctp ASCONF chunks, from Daniel Borkmann. 12) Don't call sock_kfree_s() with NULL pointers, this function also has the side effect of adjusting the socket memory usage. From Cong Wang. * git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net: (90 commits) bna: fix skb->truesize underestimation net: dsa: add includes for ethtool and phy_fixed definitions openvswitch: Set flow-key members. netrom: use linux/uaccess.h dsa: Fix conversion from host device to mii bus tipc: fix bug in bundled buffer reception ipv6: introduce tcp_v6_iif() sfc: add support for skb->xmit_more r8152: return -EBUSY for runtime suspend ipv4: fix a potential use after free in fou.c ipv4: fix a potential use after free in ip_tunnel_core.c hyperv: Add handling of IP header with option field in netvsc_set_hash() openvswitch: Create right mask with disabled megaflows vxlan: fix a free after use openvswitch: fix a use after free ipv4: dst_entry leak in ip_send_unicast_reply() ipv4: clean up cookie_v4_check() ipv4: share tcp_v4_save_options() with cookie_v4_check() ipv4: call __ip_options_echo() in cookie_v4_check() atm: simplify lanai.c by using module_pci_driver ...
2014-10-14net: sctp: fix remote memory pressure from excessive queueingDaniel Borkmann2-26/+10
This scenario is not limited to ASCONF, just taken as one example triggering the issue. When receiving ASCONF probes in the form of ... -------------- INIT[ASCONF; ASCONF_ACK] -------------> <----------- INIT-ACK[ASCONF; ASCONF_ACK] ------------ -------------------- COOKIE-ECHO --------------------> <-------------------- COOKIE-ACK --------------------- ---- ASCONF_a; [ASCONF_b; ...; ASCONF_n;] JUNK ------> [...] ---- ASCONF_m; [ASCONF_o; ...; ASCONF_z;] JUNK ------> ... where ASCONF_a, ASCONF_b, ..., ASCONF_z are good-formed ASCONFs and have increasing serial numbers, we process such ASCONF chunk(s) marked with !end_of_packet and !singleton, since we have not yet reached the SCTP packet end. SCTP does only do verification on a chunk by chunk basis, as an SCTP packet is nothing more than just a container of a stream of chunks which it eats up one by one. We could run into the case that we receive a packet with a malformed tail, above marked as trailing JUNK. All previous chunks are here goodformed, so the stack will eat up all previous chunks up to this point. In case JUNK does not fit into a chunk header and there are no more other chunks in the input queue, or in case JUNK contains a garbage chunk header, but the encoded chunk length would exceed the skb tail, or we came here from an entirely different scenario and the chunk has pdiscard=1 mark (without having had a flush point), it will happen, that we will excessively queue up the association's output queue (a correct final chunk may then turn it into a response flood when flushing the queue ;)): I ran a simple script with incremental ASCONF serial numbers and could see the server side consuming excessive amount of RAM [before/after: up to 2GB and more]. The issue at heart is that the chunk train basically ends with !end_of_packet and !singleton markers and since commit 2e3216cd54b1 ("sctp: Follow security requirement of responding with 1 packet") therefore preventing an output queue flush point in sctp_do_sm() -> sctp_cmd_interpreter() on the input chunk (chunk = event_arg) even though local_cork is set, but its precedence has changed since then. In the normal case, the last chunk with end_of_packet=1 would trigger the queue flush to accommodate possible outgoing bundling. In the input queue, sctp_inq_pop() seems to do the right thing in terms of discarding invalid chunks. So, above JUNK will not enter the state machine and instead be released and exit the sctp_assoc_bh_rcv() chunk processing loop. It's simply the flush point being missing at loop exit. Adding a try-flush approach on the output queue might not work as the underlying infrastructure might be long gone at this point due to the side-effect interpreter run. One possibility, albeit a bit of a kludge, would be to defer invalid chunk freeing into the state machine in order to possibly trigger packet discards and thus indirectly a queue flush on error. It would surely be better to discard chunks as in the current, perhaps better controlled environment, but going back and forth, it's simply architecturally not possible. I tried various trailing JUNK attack cases and it seems to look good now. Joint work with Vlad Yasevich. Fixes: 2e3216cd54b1 ("sctp: Follow security requirement of responding with 1 packet") Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-10-14net: sctp: fix panic on duplicate ASCONF chunksDaniel Borkmann1-0/+2
When receiving a e.g. semi-good formed connection scan in the form of ... -------------- INIT[ASCONF; ASCONF_ACK] -------------> <----------- INIT-ACK[ASCONF; ASCONF_ACK] ------------ -------------------- COOKIE-ECHO --------------------> <-------------------- COOKIE-ACK --------------------- ---------------- ASCONF_a; ASCONF_b -----------------> ... where ASCONF_a equals ASCONF_b chunk (at least both serials need to be equal), we panic an SCTP server! The problem is that good-formed ASCONF chunks that we reply with ASCONF_ACK chunks are cached per serial. Thus, when we receive a same ASCONF chunk twice (e.g. through a lost ASCONF_ACK), we do not need to process them again on the server side (that was the idea, also proposed in the RFC). Instead, we know it was cached and we just resend the cached chunk instead. So far, so good. Where things get nasty is in SCTP's side effect interpreter, that is, sctp_cmd_interpreter(): While incoming ASCONF_a (chunk = event_arg) is being marked !end_of_packet and !singleton, and we have an association context, we do not flush the outqueue the first time after processing the ASCONF_ACK singleton chunk via SCTP_CMD_REPLY. Instead, we keep it queued up, although we set local_cork to 1. Commit 2e3216cd54b1 changed the precedence, so that as long as we get bundled, incoming chunks we try possible bundling on outgoing queue as well. Before this commit, we would just flush the output queue. Now, while ASCONF_a's ASCONF_ACK sits in the corked outq, we continue to process the same ASCONF_b chunk from the packet. As we have cached the previous ASCONF_ACK, we find it, grab it and do another SCTP_CMD_REPLY command on it. So, effectively, we rip the chunk->list pointers and requeue the same ASCONF_ACK chunk another time. Since we process ASCONF_b, it's correctly marked with end_of_packet and we enforce an uncork, and thus flush, thus crashing the kernel. Fix it by testing if the ASCONF_ACK is currently pending and if that is the case, do not requeue it. When flushing the output queue we may relink the chunk for preparing an outgoing packet, but eventually unlink it when it's copied into the skb right before transmission. Joint work with Vlad Yasevich. Fixes: 2e3216cd54b1 ("sctp: Follow security requirement of responding with 1 packet") Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-10-14net: sctp: fix skb_over_panic when receiving malformed ASCONF chunksDaniel Borkmann2-60/+57
Commit 6f4c618ddb0 ("SCTP : Add paramters validity check for ASCONF chunk") added basic verification of ASCONF chunks, however, it is still possible to remotely crash a server by sending a special crafted ASCONF chunk, even up to pre 2.6.12 kernels: skb_over_panic: text:ffffffffa01ea1c3 len:31056 put:30768 head:ffff88011bd81800 data:ffff88011bd81800 tail:0x7950 end:0x440 dev:<NULL> ------------[ cut here ]------------ kernel BUG at net/core/skbuff.c:129! [...] Call Trace: <IRQ> [<ffffffff8144fb1c>] skb_put+0x5c/0x70 [<ffffffffa01ea1c3>] sctp_addto_chunk+0x63/0xd0 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01eadaf>] sctp_process_asconf+0x1af/0x540 [sctp] [<ffffffff8152d025>] ? _read_unlock_bh+0x15/0x20 [<ffffffffa01e0038>] sctp_sf_do_asconf+0x168/0x240 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01e3751>] sctp_do_sm+0x71/0x1210 [sctp] [<ffffffff8147645d>] ? fib_rules_lookup+0xad/0xf0 [<ffffffffa01e6b22>] ? sctp_cmp_addr_exact+0x32/0x40 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01e8393>] sctp_assoc_bh_rcv+0xd3/0x180 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01ee986>] sctp_inq_push+0x56/0x80 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01fcc42>] sctp_rcv+0x982/0xa10 [sctp] [<ffffffffa01d5123>] ? ipt_local_in_hook+0x23/0x28 [iptable_filter] [<ffffffff8148bdc9>] ? nf_iterate+0x69/0xb0 [<ffffffff81496d10>] ? ip_local_deliver_finish+0x0/0x2d0 [<ffffffff8148bf86>] ? nf_hook_slow+0x76/0x120 [<ffffffff81496d10>] ? ip_local_deliver_finish+0x0/0x2d0 [<ffffffff81496ded>] ip_local_deliver_finish+0xdd/0x2d0 [<ffffffff81497078>] ip_local_deliver+0x98/0xa0 [<ffffffff8149653d>] ip_rcv_finish+0x12d/0x440 [<ffffffff81496ac5>] ip_rcv+0x275/0x350 [<ffffffff8145c88b>] __netif_receive_skb+0x4ab/0x750 [<ffffffff81460588>] netif_receive_skb+0x58/0x60 This can be triggered e.g., through a simple scripted nmap connection scan injecting the chunk after the handshake, for example, ... -------------- INIT[ASCONF; ASCONF_ACK] -------------> <----------- INIT-ACK[ASCONF; ASCONF_ACK] ------------ -------------------- COOKIE-ECHO --------------------> <-------------------- COOKIE-ACK --------------------- ------------------ ASCONF; UNKNOWN ------------------> ... where ASCONF chunk of length 280 contains 2 parameters ... 1) Add IP address parameter (param length: 16) 2) Add/del IP address parameter (param length: 255) ... followed by an UNKNOWN chunk of e.g. 4 bytes. Here, the Address Parameter in the ASCONF chunk is even missing, too. This is just an example and similarly-crafted ASCONF chunks could be used just as well. The ASCONF chunk passes through sctp_verify_asconf() as all parameters passed sanity checks, and after walking, we ended up successfully at the chunk end boundary, and thus may invoke sctp_process_asconf(). Parameter walking is done with WORD_ROUND() to take padding into account. In sctp_process_asconf()'s TLV processing, we may fail in sctp_process_asconf_param() e.g., due to removal of the IP address that is also the source address of the packet containing the ASCONF chunk, and thus we need to add all TLVs after the failure to our ASCONF response to remote via helper function sctp_add_asconf_response(), which basically invokes a sctp_addto_chunk() adding the error parameters to the given skb. When walking to the next parameter this time, we proceed with ... length = ntohs(asconf_param->param_hdr.length); asconf_param = (void *)asconf_param + length; ... instead of the WORD_ROUND()'ed length, thus resulting here in an off-by-one that leads to reading the follow-up garbage parameter length of 12336, and thus throwing an skb_over_panic for the reply when trying to sctp_addto_chunk() next time, which implicitly calls the skb_put() with that length. Fix it by using sctp_walk_params() [ which is also used in INIT parameter processing ] macro in the verification *and* in ASCONF processing: it will make sure we don't spill over, that we walk parameters WORD_ROUND()'ed. Moreover, we're being more defensive and guard against unknown parameter types and missized addresses. Joint work with Vlad Yasevich. Fixes: b896b82be4ae ("[SCTP] ADDIP: Support for processing incoming ASCONF_ACK chunks.") Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-10-10Merge branch 'for-3.18' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-1/+1
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/percpu Pull percpu updates from Tejun Heo: "A lot of activities on percpu front. Notable changes are... - percpu allocator now can take @gfp. If @gfp doesn't contain GFP_KERNEL, it tries to allocate from what's already available to the allocator and a work item tries to keep the reserve around certain level so that these atomic allocations usually succeed. This will replace the ad-hoc percpu memory pool used by blk-throttle and also be used by the planned blkcg support for writeback IOs. Please note that I noticed a bug in how @gfp is interpreted while preparing this pull request and applied the fix 6ae833c7fe0c ("percpu: fix how @gfp is interpreted by the percpu allocator") just now. - percpu_ref now uses longs for percpu and global counters instead of ints. It leads to more sparse packing of the percpu counters on 64bit machines but the overhead should be negligible and this allows using percpu_ref for refcnting pages and in-memory objects directly. - The switching between percpu and single counter modes of a percpu_ref is made independent of putting the base ref and a percpu_ref can now optionally be initialized in single or killed mode. This allows avoiding percpu shutdown latency for cases where the refcounted objects may be synchronously created and destroyed in rapid succession with only a fraction of them reaching fully operational status (SCSI probing does this when combined with blk-mq support). It's also planned to be used to implement forced single mode to detect underflow more timely for debugging. There's a separate branch percpu/for-3.18-consistent-ops which cleans up the duplicate percpu accessors. That branch causes a number of conflicts with s390 and other trees. I'll send a separate pull request w/ resolutions once other branches are merged" * 'for-3.18' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/percpu: (33 commits) percpu: fix how @gfp is interpreted by the percpu allocator blk-mq, percpu_ref: start q->mq_usage_counter in atomic mode percpu_ref: make INIT_ATOMIC and switch_to_atomic() sticky percpu_ref: add PERCPU_REF_INIT_* flags percpu_ref: decouple switching to percpu mode and reinit percpu_ref: decouple switching to atomic mode and killing percpu_ref: add PCPU_REF_DEAD percpu_ref: rename things to prepare for decoupling percpu/atomic mode switch percpu_ref: replace pcpu_ prefix with percpu_ percpu_ref: minor code and comment updates percpu_ref: relocate percpu_ref_reinit() Revert "blk-mq, percpu_ref: implement a kludge for SCSI blk-mq stall during probe" Revert "percpu: free percpu allocation info for uniprocessor system" percpu-refcount: make percpu_ref based on longs instead of ints percpu-refcount: improve WARN messages percpu: fix locking regression in the failure path of pcpu_alloc() percpu-refcount: add @gfp to percpu_ref_init() proportions: add @gfp to init functions percpu_counter: add @gfp to percpu_counter_init() percpu_counter: make percpu_counters_lock irq-safe ...
2014-10-08Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/netDavid S. Miller1-3/+16
2014-10-06sctp: handle association restarts when the socket is closed.Vlad Yasevich1-3/+16
Currently association restarts do not take into consideration the state of the socket. When a restart happens, the current assocation simply transitions into established state. This creates a condition where a remote system, through a the restart procedure, may create a local association that is no way reachable by user. The conditions to trigger this are as follows: 1) Remote does not acknoledge some data causing data to remain outstanding. 2) Local application calls close() on the socket. Since data is still outstanding, the association is placed in SHUTDOWN_PENDING state. However, the socket is closed. 3) The remote tries to create a new association, triggering a restart on the local system. The association moves from SHUTDOWN_PENDING to ESTABLISHED. At this point, it is no longer reachable by any socket on the local system. This patch addresses the above situation by moving the newly ESTABLISHED association into SHUTDOWN-SENT state and bundling a SHUTDOWN after the COOKIE-ACK chunk. This way, the restarted associate immidiately enters the shutdown procedure and forces the termination of the unreachable association. Reported-by: David Laight <David.Laight@aculab.com> Signed-off-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-09-24Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Tejun Heo2-8/+6
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/axboe/linux-block into for-3.18 This is to receive 0a30288da1ae ("blk-mq, percpu_ref: implement a kludge for SCSI blk-mq stall during probe") which implements __percpu_ref_kill_expedited() to work around SCSI blk-mq stall. The commit reverted and patches to implement proper fix will be added. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Cc: Kent Overstreet <kmo@daterainc.com> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
2014-09-09net/ipv4: bind ip_nonlocal_bind to current netnsVincent Bernat1-1/+1
net.ipv4.ip_nonlocal_bind sysctl was global to all network namespaces. This patch allows to set a different value for each network namespace. Signed-off-by: Vincent Bernat <vincent@bernat.im> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-09-07Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/netDavid S. Miller1-1/+1
2014-09-08percpu_counter: add @gfp to percpu_counter_init()Tejun Heo1-1/+1
Percpu allocator now supports allocation mask. Add @gfp to percpu_counter_init() so that !GFP_KERNEL allocation masks can be used with percpu_counters too. We could have left percpu_counter_init() alone and added percpu_counter_init_gfp(); however, the number of users isn't that high and introducing _gfp variants to all percpu data structures would be quite ugly, so let's just do the conversion. This is the one with the most users. Other percpu data structures are a lot easier to convert. This patch doesn't make any functional difference. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Acked-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Acked-by: "David S. Miller" <davem@davemloft.net> Cc: x86@kernel.org Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Cc: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu> Cc: Alexander Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
2014-08-29sctp: Change sctp to implement csum_levelsTom Herbert1-2/+6
CHECKSUM_UNNECESSARY may be applied to the SCTP CRC so we need to appropriate account for this by decrementing csum_level. This is done by calling __skb_dec_checksum_unnecessary. Signed-off-by: Tom Herbert <therbert@google.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-08-29net: sctp: fix ABI mismatch through sctp_assoc_to_state helperDaniel Borkmann1-1/+1
Since SCTP day 1, that is, 19b55a2af145 ("Initial commit") from lksctp tree, the official <netinet/sctp.h> header carries a copy of enum sctp_sstat_state that looks like (compared to the current in-kernel enumeration): User definition: Kernel definition: enum sctp_sstat_state { typedef enum { SCTP_EMPTY = 0, <removed> SCTP_CLOSED = 1, SCTP_STATE_CLOSED = 0, SCTP_COOKIE_WAIT = 2, SCTP_STATE_COOKIE_WAIT = 1, SCTP_COOKIE_ECHOED = 3, SCTP_STATE_COOKIE_ECHOED = 2, SCTP_ESTABLISHED = 4, SCTP_STATE_ESTABLISHED = 3, SCTP_SHUTDOWN_PENDING = 5, SCTP_STATE_SHUTDOWN_PENDING = 4, SCTP_SHUTDOWN_SENT = 6, SCTP_STATE_SHUTDOWN_SENT = 5, SCTP_SHUTDOWN_RECEIVED = 7, SCTP_STATE_SHUTDOWN_RECEIVED = 6, SCTP_SHUTDOWN_ACK_SENT = 8, SCTP_STATE_SHUTDOWN_ACK_SENT = 7, }; } sctp_state_t; This header was later on also placed into the uapi, so that user space programs can compile without having <netinet/sctp.h>, but the shipped with <linux/sctp.h> instead. While RFC6458 under 8.2.1.Association Status (SCTP_STATUS) says that sstat_state can range from SCTP_CLOSED to SCTP_SHUTDOWN_ACK_SENT, we nevertheless have a what it appears to be dummy SCTP_EMPTY state from the very early days. While it seems to do just nothing, commit 0b8f9e25b0aa ("sctp: remove completely unsed EMPTY state") did the right thing and removed this dead code. That however, causes an off-by-one when the user asks the SCTP stack via SCTP_STATUS API and checks for the current socket state thus yielding possibly undefined behaviour in applications as they expect the kernel to tell the right thing. The enumeration had to be changed however as based on the current socket state, we access a function pointer lookup-table through this. Therefore, I think the best way to deal with this is just to add a helper function sctp_assoc_to_state() to encapsulate the off-by-one quirk. Reported-by: Tristan Su <sooqing@gmail.com> Fixes: 0b8f9e25b0aa ("sctp: remove completely unsed EMPTY state") Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-08-22net: sctp: fix suboptimal edge-case on non-active active/retrans path selectionDaniel Borkmann1-6/+3
In SCTP, selection of active (T.ACT) and retransmission (T.RET) transports is being done whenever transport control operations (UP, DOWN, PF, ...) are engaged through sctp_assoc_control_transport(). Commits 4c47af4d5eb2 ("net: sctp: rework multihoming retransmission path selection to rfc4960") and a7288c4dd509 ("net: sctp: improve sctp_select_active_and_retran_path selection") have both improved it towards a more fine-grained and optimal path selection. Currently, the selection algorithm for T.ACT and T.RET is as follows: 1) Elect the two most recently used ACTIVE transports T1, T2 for T.ACT, T.RET, where T.ACT<-T1 and T1 is most recently used 2) In case primary path T.PRI not in {T1, T2} but ACTIVE, set T.ACT<-T.PRI and T.RET<-T1 3) If only T1 is ACTIVE from the set, set T.ACT<-T1 and T.RET<-T1 4) If none is ACTIVE, set T.ACT<-best(T.PRI, T.RET, T3) where T3 is the most recently used (if avail) in PF, set T.RET<-T.PRI Prior to above commits, 4) was simply a camp on T.ACT<-T.PRI and T.RET<-T.PRI, ignoring possible paths in PF. Camping on T.PRI is still slightly suboptimal as it can lead to the following scenario: Setup: <A> <B> T1: p1p1 ( <==> .'`) <==> p1p1 ( <= T.PRI T2: p1p2 ( <==> (_ . ) <==> p1p2 ( net.sctp.rto_min = 1000 net.sctp.path_max_retrans = 2 net.sctp.pf_retrans = 0 net.sctp.hb_interval = 1000 T.PRI is permanently down, T2 is put briefly into PF state (e.g. due to link flapping). Here, the first time transmission is sent over PF path T2 as it's the only non-INACTIVE path, but the retransmitted data-chunks are sent over the INACTIVE path T1 (T.PRI), which is not good. After the patch, it's choosing better transports in both cases by modifying step 4): 4) If none is ACTIVE, set T.ACT_new<-best(T.ACT_old, T3) where T3 is the most recently used (if avail) in PF, set T.RET<-T.ACT_new This will still select a best possible path in PF if available (which can also include T.PRI/T.RET), and set both T.ACT/T.RET to it. In case sctp_assoc_control_transport() *just* put T.ACT_old into INACTIVE as it transitioned from ACTIVE->PF->INACTIVE and stays in INACTIVE just for a very short while before going back ACTIVE, it will guarantee that this path will be reselected for T.ACT/T.RET since T3 (PF) is not available. Previously, this was not possible, as we would only select between T.PRI and T.RET, and a possible T3 would be NULL due to the fact that we have just transitioned T3 in sctp_assoc_control_transport() from PF->INACTIVE and would select a suboptimal path when T.PRI/T.RET have worse properties. In the case that T.ACT_old permanently went to INACTIVE during this transition and there's no PF path available, plus T.PRI and T.RET are INACTIVE as well, we would now camp on T.ACT_old, but if everything is being INACTIVE there's really not much we can do except hoping for a successful HB to bring one of the transports back up again and, thus cause a new selection through sctp_assoc_control_transport(). Now both tests work fine: Case 1: 1. T1 S(ACTIVE) T.ACT T2 S(ACTIVE) T.RET 2. T1 S(ACTIVE) T.ACT, T.RET T2 S(PF) 3. T1 S(ACTIVE) T.ACT, T.RET T2 S(INACTIVE) 5. T1 S(PF) T.ACT, T.RET T2 S(INACTIVE) [ 5.1 T1 S(INACTIVE) T.ACT, T.RET T2 S(INACTIVE) ] 6. T1 S(ACTIVE) T.ACT, T.RET T2 S(INACTIVE) 7. T1 S(ACTIVE) T.ACT T2 S(ACTIVE) T.RET Case 2: 1. T1 S(ACTIVE) T.ACT T2 S(ACTIVE) T.RET 2. T1 S(PF) T2 S(ACTIVE) T.ACT, T.RET 3. T1 S(INACTIVE) T2 S(ACTIVE) T.ACT, T.RET 5. T1 S(INACTIVE) T2 S(PF) T.ACT, T.RET [ 5.1 T1 S(INACTIVE) T2 S(INACTIVE) T.ACT, T.RET ] 6. T1 S(INACTIVE) T2 S(ACTIVE) T.ACT, T.RET 7. T1 S(ACTIVE) T.ACT T2 S(ACTIVE) T.RET Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-08-22net: sctp: spare unnecessary comparison in sctp_trans_elect_bestDaniel Borkmann1-1/+1
When both transports are the same, we don't have to go down that road only to realize that we will return the very same transport. We are guaranteed that curr is always non-NULL. Therefore, just short-circuit this special case. Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-08-21sctp: not send SCTP_PEER_ADDR_CHANGE notifications with failed probezhuyj1-0/+1
Since the transport has always been in state SCTP_UNCONFIRMED, it therefore wasn't active before and hasn't been used before, and it always has been, so it is unnecessary to bug the user with a notification. Reported-by: Deepak Khandelwal <khandelwal.deepak.1987@gmail.com> Suggested-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Suggested-by: Michael Tuexen <tuexen@fh-muenster.de> Suggested-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Zhu Yanjun <Yanjun.Zhu@windriver.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-08-05Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/netDavid S. Miller1-1/+1
Conflicts: drivers/net/Makefile net/ipv6/sysctl_net_ipv6.c Two ipv6_table_template[] additions overlap, so the index of the ipv6_table[x] assignments needed to be adjusted. In the drivers/net/Makefile case, we've gotten rid of the garbage whereby we had to list every single USB networking driver in the top-level Makefile, there is just one "USB_NETWORKING" that guards everything. Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-08-05sctp: fix possible seqlock seadlock in sctp_packet_transmit()Eric Dumazet1-1/+1
Dave reported following splat, caused by improper use of IP_INC_STATS_BH() in process context. BUG: using __this_cpu_add() in preemptible [00000000] code: trinity-c117/14551 caller is __this_cpu_preempt_check+0x13/0x20 CPU: 3 PID: 14551 Comm: trinity-c117 Not tainted 3.16.0+ #33 ffffffff9ec898f0 0000000047ea7e23 ffff88022d32f7f0 ffffffff9e7ee207 0000000000000003 ffff88022d32f818 ffffffff9e397eaa ffff88023ee70b40 ffff88022d32f970 ffff8801c026d580 ffff88022d32f828 ffffffff9e397ee3 Call Trace: [<ffffffff9e7ee207>] dump_stack+0x4e/0x7a [<ffffffff9e397eaa>] check_preemption_disabled+0xfa/0x100 [<ffffffff9e397ee3>] __this_cpu_preempt_check+0x13/0x20 [<ffffffffc0839872>] sctp_packet_transmit+0x692/0x710 [sctp] [<ffffffffc082a7f2>] sctp_outq_flush+0x2a2/0xc30 [sctp] [<ffffffff9e0d985c>] ? mark_held_locks+0x7c/0xb0 [<ffffffff9e7f8c6d>] ? _raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore+0x5d/0x80 [<ffffffffc082b99a>] sctp_outq_uncork+0x1a/0x20 [sctp] [<ffffffffc081e112>] sctp_cmd_interpreter.isra.23+0x1142/0x13f0 [sctp] [<ffffffffc081c86b>] sctp_do_sm+0xdb/0x330 [sctp] [<ffffffff9e0b8f1b>] ? preempt_count_sub+0xab/0x100 [<ffffffffc083b350>] ? sctp_cname+0x70/0x70 [sctp] [<ffffffffc08389ca>] sctp_primitive_ASSOCIATE+0x3a/0x50 [sctp] [<ffffffffc083358f>] sctp_sendmsg+0x88f/0xe30 [sctp] [<ffffffff9e0d673a>] ? lock_release_holdtime.part.28+0x9a/0x160 [<ffffffff9e0d62ce>] ? put_lock_stats.isra.27+0xe/0x30 [<ffffffff9e73b624>] inet_sendmsg+0x104/0x220 [<ffffffff9e73b525>] ? inet_sendmsg+0x5/0x220 [<ffffffff9e68ac4e>] sock_sendmsg+0x9e/0xe0 [<ffffffff9e1c0c09>] ? might_fault+0xb9/0xc0 [<ffffffff9e1c0bae>] ? might_fault+0x5e/0xc0 [<ffffffff9e68b234>] SYSC_sendto+0x124/0x1c0 [<ffffffff9e0136b0>] ? syscall_trace_enter+0x250/0x330 [<ffffffff9e68c3ce>] SyS_sendto+0xe/0x10 [<ffffffff9e7f9be4>] tracesys+0xdd/0xe2 This is a followup of commits f1d8cba61c3c4b ("inet: fix possible seqlock deadlocks") and 7f88c6b23afbd315 ("ipv6: fix possible seqlock deadlock in ip6_finish_output2") Signed-off-by: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com> Cc: Hannes Frederic Sowa <hannes@stressinduktion.org> Reported-by: Dave Jones <davej@redhat.com> Acked-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Acked-by: Hannes Frederic Sowa <hannes@stressinduktion.org> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-07-31net: fix the counter ICMP_MIB_INERRORS/ICMP6_MIB_INERRORSDuan Jiong1-5/+0
When dealing with ICMPv[46] Error Message, function icmp_socket_deliver() and icmpv6_notify() do some valid checks on packet's length, but then some protocols check packet's length redaudantly. So remove those duplicated statements, and increase counter ICMP_MIB_INERRORS/ICMP6_MIB_INERRORS in function icmp_socket_deliver() and icmpv6_notify() respectively. In addition, add missed counter in udp6/udplite6 when socket is NULL. Signed-off-by: Duan Jiong <duanj.fnst@cn.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Hannes Frederic Sowa <hannes@stressinduktion.org> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-07-31sctp: Fixup v4mapped behaviour to comply with Sock APIJason Gunthorpe5-100/+107
The SCTP socket extensions API document describes the v4mapping option as follows: 8.1.15. Set/Clear IPv4 Mapped Addresses (SCTP_I_WANT_MAPPED_V4_ADDR) This socket option is a Boolean flag which turns on or off the mapping of IPv4 addresses. If this option is turned on, then IPv4 addresses will be mapped to V6 representation. If this option is turned off, then no mapping will be done of V4 addresses and a user will receive both PF_INET6 and PF_INET type addresses on the socket. See [RFC3542] for more details on mapped V6 addresses. This description isn't really in line with what the code does though. Introduce addr_to_user (renamed addr_v4map), which should be called before any sockaddr is passed back to user space. The new function places the sockaddr into the correct format depending on the SCTP_I_WANT_MAPPED_V4_ADDR option. Audit all places that touched v4mapped and either sanely construct a v4 or v6 address then call addr_to_user, or drop the unnecessary v4mapped check entirely. Audit all places that call addr_to_user and verify they are on a sycall return path. Add a custom getname that formats the address properly. Several bugs are addressed: - SCTP_I_WANT_MAPPED_V4_ADDR=0 often returned garbage for addresses to user space - The addr_len returned from recvmsg was not correct when returning AF_INET on a v6 socket - flowlabel and scope_id were not zerod when promoting a v4 to v6 - Some syscalls like bind and connect behaved differently depending on v4mapped Tested bind, getpeername, getsockname, connect, and recvmsg for proper behaviour in v4mapped = 1 and 0 cases. Signed-off-by: Neil Horman <nhorman@tuxdriver.com> Tested-by: Jason Gunthorpe <jgunthorpe@obsidianresearch.com> Signed-off-by: Jason Gunthorpe <jgunthorpe@obsidianresearch.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-07-30Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/netDavid S. Miller1-0/+1
Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-07-22net: sctp: inherit auth_capable on INIT collisionsDaniel Borkmann1-0/+1
Jason reported an oops caused by SCTP on his ARM machine with SCTP authentication enabled: Internal error: Oops: 17 [#1] ARM CPU: 0 PID: 104 Comm: sctp-test Not tainted 3.13.0-68744-g3632f30c9b20-dirty #1 task: c6eefa40 ti: c6f52000 task.ti: c6f52000 PC is at sctp_auth_calculate_hmac+0xc4/0x10c LR is at sg_init_table+0x20/0x38 pc : [<c024bb80>] lr : [<c00f32dc>] psr: 40000013 sp : c6f538e8 ip : 00000000 fp : c6f53924 r10: c6f50d80 r9 : 00000000 r8 : 00010000 r7 : 00000000 r6 : c7be4000 r5 : 00000000 r4 : c6f56254 r3 : c00c8170 r2 : 00000001 r1 : 00000008 r0 : c6f1e660 Flags: nZcv IRQs on FIQs on Mode SVC_32 ISA ARM Segment user Control: 0005397f Table: 06f28000 DAC: 00000015 Process sctp-test (pid: 104, stack limit = 0xc6f521c0) Stack: (0xc6f538e8 to 0xc6f54000) [...] Backtrace: [<c024babc>] (sctp_auth_calculate_hmac+0x0/0x10c) from [<c0249af8>] (sctp_packet_transmit+0x33c/0x5c8) [<c02497bc>] (sctp_packet_transmit+0x0/0x5c8) from [<c023e96c>] (sctp_outq_flush+0x7fc/0x844) [<c023e170>] (sctp_outq_flush+0x0/0x844) from [<c023ef78>] (sctp_outq_uncork+0x24/0x28) [<c023ef54>] (sctp_outq_uncork+0x0/0x28) from [<c0234364>] (sctp_side_effects+0x1134/0x1220) [<c0233230>] (sctp_side_effects+0x0/0x1220) from [<c02330b0>] (sctp_do_sm+0xac/0xd4) [<c0233004>] (sctp_do_sm+0x0/0xd4) from [<c023675c>] (sctp_assoc_bh_rcv+0x118/0x160) [<c0236644>] (sctp_assoc_bh_rcv+0x0/0x160) from [<c023d5bc>] (sctp_inq_push+0x6c/0x74) [<c023d550>] (sctp_inq_push+0x0/0x74) from [<c024a6b0>] (sctp_rcv+0x7d8/0x888) While we already had various kind of bugs in that area ec0223ec48a9 ("net: sctp: fix sctp_sf_do_5_1D_ce to verify if we/peer is AUTH capable") and b14878ccb7fa ("net: sctp: cache auth_enable per endpoint"), this one is a bit of a different kind. Giving a bit more background on why SCTP authentication is needed can be found in RFC4895: SCTP uses 32-bit verification tags to protect itself against blind attackers. These values are not changed during the lifetime of an SCTP association. Looking at new SCTP extensions, there is the need to have a method of proving that an SCTP chunk(s) was really sent by the original peer that started the association and not by a malicious attacker. To cause this bug, we're triggering an INIT collision between peers; normal SCTP handshake where both sides intent to authenticate packets contains RANDOM; CHUNKS; HMAC-ALGO parameters that are being negotiated among peers: ---------- INIT[RANDOM; CHUNKS; HMAC-ALGO] ----------> <------- INIT-ACK[RANDOM; CHUNKS; HMAC-ALGO] --------- -------------------- COOKIE-ECHO --------------------> <-------------------- COOKIE-ACK --------------------- RFC4895 says that each endpoint therefore knows its own random number and the peer's random number *after* the association has been established. The local and peer's random number along with the shared key are then part of the secret used for calculating the HMAC in the AUTH chunk. Now, in our scenario, we have 2 threads with 1 non-blocking SEQ_PACKET socket each, setting up common shared SCTP_AUTH_KEY and SCTP_AUTH_ACTIVE_KEY properly, and each of them calling sctp_bindx(3), listen(2) and connect(2) against each other, thus the handshake looks similar to this, e.g.: ---------- INIT[RANDOM; CHUNKS; HMAC-ALGO] ----------> <------- INIT-ACK[RANDOM; CHUNKS; HMAC-ALGO] --------- <--------- INIT[RANDOM; CHUNKS; HMAC-ALGO] ----------- -------- INIT-ACK[RANDOM; CHUNKS; HMAC-ALGO] --------> ... Since such collisions can also happen with verification tags, the RFC4895 for AUTH rather vaguely says under section 6.1: In case of INIT collision, the rules governing the handling of this Random Number follow the same pattern as those for the Verification Tag, as explained in Section 5.2.4 of RFC 2960 [5]. Therefore, each endpoint knows its own Random Number and the peer's Random Number after the association has been established. In RFC2960, section 5.2.4, we're eventually hitting Action B: B) In this case, both sides may be attempting to start an association at about the same time but the peer endpoint started its INIT after responding to the local endpoint's INIT. Thus it may have picked a new Verification Tag not being aware of the previous Tag it had sent this endpoint. The endpoint should stay in or enter the ESTABLISHED state but it MUST update its peer's Verification Tag from the State Cookie, stop any init or cookie timers that may running and send a COOKIE ACK. In other words, the handling of the Random parameter is the same as behavior for the Verification Tag as described in Action B of section 5.2.4. Looking at the code, we exactly hit the sctp_sf_do_dupcook_b() case which triggers an SCTP_CMD_UPDATE_ASSOC command to the side effect interpreter, and in fact it properly copies over peer_{random, hmacs, chunks} parameters from the newly created association to update the existing one. Also, the old asoc_shared_key is being released and based on the new params, sctp_auth_asoc_init_active_key() updated. However, the issue observed in this case is that the previous asoc->peer.auth_capable was 0, and has *not* been updated, so that instead of creating a new secret, we're doing an early return from the function sctp_auth_asoc_init_active_key() leaving asoc->asoc_shared_key as NULL. However, we now have to authenticate chunks from the updated chunk list (e.g. COOKIE-ACK). That in fact causes the server side when responding with ... <------------------ AUTH; COOKIE-ACK ----------------- ... to trigger a NULL pointer dereference, since in sctp_packet_transmit(), it discovers that an AUTH chunk is being queued for xmit, and thus it calls sctp_auth_calculate_hmac(). Since the asoc->active_key_id is still inherited from the endpoint, and the same as encoded into the chunk, it uses asoc->asoc_shared_key, which is still NULL, as an asoc_key and dereferences it in ... crypto_hash_setkey(desc.tfm, &asoc_key->data[0], asoc_key->len) ... causing an oops. All this happens because sctp_make_cookie_ack() called with the *new* association has the peer.auth_capable=1 and therefore marks the chunk with auth=1 after checking sctp_auth_send_cid(), but it is *actually* sent later on over the then *updated* association's transport that didn't initialize its shared key due to peer.auth_capable=0. Since control chunks in that case are not sent by the temporary association which are scheduled for deletion, they are issued for xmit via SCTP_CMD_REPLY in the interpreter with the context of the *updated* association. peer.auth_capable was 0 in the updated association (which went from COOKIE_WAIT into ESTABLISHED state), since all previous processing that performed sctp_process_init() was being done on temporary associations, that we eventually throw away each time. The correct fix is to update to the new peer.auth_capable value as well in the collision case via sctp_assoc_update(), so that in case the collision migrated from 0 -> 1, sctp_auth_asoc_init_active_key() can properly recalculate the secret. This therefore fixes the observed server panic. Fixes: 730fc3d05cd4 ("[SCTP]: Implete SCTP-AUTH parameter processing") Reported-by: Jason Gunthorpe <jgunthorpe@obsidianresearch.com> Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Tested-by: Jason Gunthorpe <jgunthorpe@obsidianresearch.com> Cc: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-07-22net: sctp: Rename SCTP_XMIT_NAGLE_DELAY to SCTP_XMIT_DELAYDavid Laight2-4/+4
MSG_MORE and 'corking' a socket would require that the transmit of a data chunk be delayed. Rename the return value to be less specific. Signed-off-by: David Laight <david.laight@aculab.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-07-22net: sctp: Open out the check for NagleDavid Laight1-33/+36
The check for Nagle contains 6 separate checks all of which must be true before a data packet is delayed. Separate out each into its own 'if (test) return SCTP_XMIT_OK' so that the reasons can be individually described. Also return directly with SCTP_XMIT_RWND_FULL. Delete the now-unused 'retval' variable and 'finish' label from sctp_packet_can_append_data(). Signed-off-by: David Laight <david.laight@aculab.com> Acked-by: Vlad Yasevich <vyasevich@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2014-07-16net: sctp: deprecate rfc6458, 5.3.2. SCTP_SNDRCV supportDaniel Borkmann1-2/+7
With support of SCTP_SNDINFO/SCTP_RCVINFO as described in RFC6458, 5.3.4/5.3.5, we can now deprecate SCTP_SNDRCV. The RFC already declares it as deprecated: This structure mixes the send and receive path. SCTP_SNDINFO (described in Section 5.3.4) and SCTP_RCVINFO (described in Section 5.3.5) split this information. These structures should be used, when possible, since SCTP_SNDRCV is deprecated. So whenever a user tries to subscribe to sctp_data_io_event via setsockopt(2) which triggers inclusion of SCTP_SNDRCV cmsg_type, issue a warning in the log. Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>

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