path: root/arch/x86/kernel/process_64.c
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2013-11-14Merge branch 'x86-urgent-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-1/+1
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull two x86 fixes from Ingo Molnar. * 'x86-urgent-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: x86/microcode/amd: Tone down printk(), don't treat a missing firmware file as an error x86/dumpstack: Fix printk_address for direct addresses
2013-11-13x86: move fpu_counter into ARCH specific thread_structVineet Gupta1-1/+1
Only a couple of arches (sh/x86) use fpu_counter in task_struct so it can be moved out into ARCH specific thread_struct, reducing the size of task_struct for other arches. Compile tested i386_defconfig + gcc 4.7.3 Signed-off-by: Vineet Gupta <vgupta@synopsys.com> Acked-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Cc: Paul Mundt <paul.mundt@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-11-12x86/dumpstack: Fix printk_address for direct addressesJiri Slaby1-1/+1
Consider a kernel crash in a module, simulated the following way: static int my_init(void) { char *map = (void *)0x5; *map = 3; return 0; } module_init(my_init); When we turn off FRAME_POINTERs, the very first instruction in that function causes a BUG. The problem is that we print IP in the BUG report using %pB (from printk_address). And %pB decrements the pointer by one to fix printing addresses of functions with tail calls. This was added in commit 71f9e59800e5ad4 ("x86, dumpstack: Use %pB format specifier for stack trace") to fix the call stack printouts. So instead of correct output: BUG: unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at 0000000000000005 IP: [<ffffffffa01ac000>] my_init+0x0/0x10 [pb173] We get: BUG: unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at 0000000000000005 IP: [<ffffffffa0152000>] 0xffffffffa0151fff To fix that, we use %pS only for stack addresses printouts (via newly added printk_stack_address) and %pB for regs->ip (via printk_address). I.e. we revert to the old behaviour for all except call stacks. And since from all those reliable is 1, we remove that parameter from printk_address. Signed-off-by: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz> Cc: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: joe@perches.com Cc: jirislaby@gmail.com Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1382706418-8435-1-git-send-email-jslaby@suse.cz Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-09-25sched, x86: Provide a per-cpu preempt_count implementationPeter Zijlstra1-0/+8
Convert x86 to use a per-cpu preemption count. The reason for doing so is that accessing per-cpu variables is a lot cheaper than accessing thread_info variables. We still need to save/restore the actual preemption count due to PREEMPT_ACTIVE so we place the per-cpu __preempt_count variable in the same cache-line as the other hot __switch_to() variables such as current_task. NOTE: this save/restore is required even for !PREEMPT kernels as cond_resched() also relies on preempt_count's PREEMPT_ACTIVE to ignore task_struct::state. Also rename thread_info::preempt_count to ensure nobody is 'accidentally' still poking at it. Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/n/tip-gzn5rfsf8trgjoqx8hyayy3q@git.kernel.org Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-08-06x86, asmlinkage: Make several variables used from assembler/linker script ↵Andi Kleen1-1/+1
visible Plus one function, load_gs_index(). Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1375740170-7446-10-git-send-email-andi@firstfloor.org Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@linux.intel.com>
2013-08-06x86, asmlinkage: Make 32bit/64bit __switch_to visibleAndi Kleen1-1/+1
This function is called from inline assembler, so has to be visible. Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1375740170-7446-6-git-send-email-andi@firstfloor.org Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@linux.intel.com>
2013-07-02Merge branch 'x86-debug-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-1/+8
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull x86 debug update from Ingo Molnar: "Misc debuggability improvements: - Optimize the x86 CPU register printout a bit - Expose the tboot TXT log via debugfs - Small do_debug() cleanup" * 'x86-debug-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: x86/tboot: Provide debugfs interfaces to access TXT log x86: Remove weird PTR_ERR() in do_debug x86/debug: Only print out DR registers if they are not power-on defaults
2013-06-25x86, flags: Rename X86_EFLAGS_BIT1 to X86_EFLAGS_FIXEDH. Peter Anvin1-1/+1
Bit 1 in the x86 EFLAGS is always set. Name the macro something that actually tries to explain what it is all about, rather than being a tautology. Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au> Cc: Gleb Natapov <gleb@redhat.com> Cc: Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@redhat.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/n/tip-f10rx5vjjm6tfnt8o1wseb3v@git.kernel.org
2013-06-19x86/debug: Only print out DR registers if they are not power-on defaultsDave Jones1-1/+8
The DR registers are rarely useful when decoding oopses. With screen real estate during oopses at a premium, we can save two lines by only printing out these registers when they are set to something other than they power-on state. Signed-off-by: Dave Jones <davej@redhat.com> Acked-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20130618160911.GA24487@redhat.com Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-04-30dump_stack: unify debug information printed by show_regs()Tejun Heo1-1/+0
show_regs() is inherently arch-dependent but it does make sense to print generic debug information and some archs already do albeit in slightly different forms. This patch introduces a generic function to print debug information from show_regs() so that different archs print out the same information and it's much easier to modify what's printed. show_regs_print_info() prints out the same debug info as dump_stack() does plus task and thread_info pointers. * Archs which didn't print debug info now do. alpha, arc, blackfin, c6x, cris, frv, h8300, hexagon, ia64, m32r, metag, microblaze, mn10300, openrisc, parisc, score, sh64, sparc, um, xtensa * Already prints debug info. Replaced with show_regs_print_info(). The printed information is superset of what used to be there. arm, arm64, avr32, mips, powerpc, sh32, tile, unicore32, x86 * s390 is special in that it used to print arch-specific information along with generic debug info. Heiko and Martin think that the arch-specific extra isn't worth keeping s390 specfic implementation. Converted to use the generic version. Note that now all archs print the debug info before actual register dumps. An example BUG() dump follows. kernel BUG at /work/os/work/kernel/workqueue.c:4841! invalid opcode: 0000 [#1] PREEMPT SMP DEBUG_PAGEALLOC Modules linked in: CPU: 0 PID: 1 Comm: swapper/0 Not tainted 3.9.0-rc1-work+ #7 Hardware name: empty empty/S3992, BIOS 080011 10/26/2007 task: ffff88007c85e040 ti: ffff88007c860000 task.ti: ffff88007c860000 RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff8234a07e>] [<ffffffff8234a07e>] init_workqueues+0x4/0x6 RSP: 0000:ffff88007c861ec8 EFLAGS: 00010246 RAX: ffff88007c861fd8 RBX: ffffffff824466a8 RCX: 0000000000000001 RDX: 0000000000000046 RSI: 0000000000000001 RDI: ffffffff8234a07a RBP: ffff88007c861ec8 R08: 0000000000000000 R09: 0000000000000000 R10: 0000000000000001 R11: 0000000000000000 R12: ffffffff8234a07a R13: 0000000000000000 R14: 0000000000000000 R15: 0000000000000000 FS: 0000000000000000(0000) GS:ffff88007dc00000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000 CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 000000008005003b CR2: ffff88015f7ff000 CR3: 00000000021f1000 CR4: 00000000000007f0 DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2: 0000000000000000 DR3: 0000000000000000 DR6: 00000000ffff0ff0 DR7: 0000000000000400 Stack: ffff88007c861ef8 ffffffff81000312 ffffffff824466a8 ffff88007c85e650 0000000000000003 0000000000000000 ffff88007c861f38 ffffffff82335e5d ffff88007c862080 ffffffff8223d8c0 ffff88007c862080 ffffffff81c47760 Call Trace: [<ffffffff81000312>] do_one_initcall+0x122/0x170 [<ffffffff82335e5d>] kernel_init_freeable+0x9b/0x1c8 [<ffffffff81c47760>] ? rest_init+0x140/0x140 [<ffffffff81c4776e>] kernel_init+0xe/0xf0 [<ffffffff81c6be9c>] ret_from_fork+0x7c/0xb0 [<ffffffff81c47760>] ? rest_init+0x140/0x140 ... v2: Typo fix in x86-32. v3: CPU number dropped from show_regs_print_info() as dump_stack_print_info() has been updated to print it. s390 specific implementation dropped as requested by s390 maintainers. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Acked-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net> Acked-by: Jesper Nilsson <jesper.nilsson@axis.com> Cc: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Cc: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com> Cc: Bjorn Helgaas <bhelgaas@google.com> Cc: Fengguang Wu <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org> Cc: Vineet Gupta <vgupta@synopsys.com> Cc: Sam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org> Acked-by: Chris Metcalf <cmetcalf@tilera.com> [tile bits] Acked-by: Richard Kuo <rkuo@codeaurora.org> [hexagon bits] Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-01-24x86/process: Change %8s to %s for pr_warn() in release_thread()Chen Gang1-1/+1
the length of dead_task->comm[] is 16 (TASK_COMM_LEN) on pr_warn(), it is not meaningful to use %8s for task->comm[]. So change it to %s, since the line is not solid anyway. Additional information: %8s limit the width, not for the original string output length if name length is more than 8, it still can be fully displayed. if name length is less than 8, the ' ' will be filled before name. %.8s truly limit the original string output length (precision) Signed-off-by: Chen Gang <gang.chen@asianux.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/n/tip-nridm1zvreai1tgfLjuexDmd@git.kernel.org Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2012-11-28flagday: don't pass regs to copy_thread()Al Viro1-2/+1
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-11-28x86, um: switch to generic fork/vfork/cloneAl Viro1-3/+4
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-10-10Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-14/+21
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/signal Pull generic execve() changes from Al Viro: "This introduces the generic kernel_thread() and kernel_execve() functions, and switches x86, arm, alpha, um and s390 over to them." * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/signal: (26 commits) s390: convert to generic kernel_execve() s390: switch to generic kernel_thread() s390: fold kernel_thread_helper() into ret_from_fork() s390: fold execve_tail() into start_thread(), convert to generic sys_execve() um: switch to generic kernel_thread() x86, um/x86: switch to generic sys_execve and kernel_execve x86: split ret_from_fork alpha: introduce ret_from_kernel_execve(), switch to generic kernel_execve() alpha: switch to generic kernel_thread() alpha: switch to generic sys_execve() arm: get rid of execve wrapper, switch to generic execve() implementation arm: optimized current_pt_regs() arm: introduce ret_from_kernel_execve(), switch to generic kernel_execve() arm: split ret_from_fork, simplify kernel_thread() [based on patch by rmk] generic sys_execve() generic kernel_execve() new helper: current_pt_regs() preparation for generic kernel_thread() um: kill thread->forking um: let signal_delivered() do SIGTRAP on singlestepping into handler ...
2012-09-30x86: split ret_from_forkAl Viro1-14/+21
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-09-18x86, fpu: use non-lazy fpu restore for processors supporting xsaveSuresh Siddha1-4/+0
Fundamental model of the current Linux kernel is to lazily init and restore FPU instead of restoring the task state during context switch. This changes that fundamental lazy model to the non-lazy model for the processors supporting xsave feature. Reasons driving this model change are: i. Newer processors support optimized state save/restore using xsaveopt and xrstor by tracking the INIT state and MODIFIED state during context-switch. This is faster than modifying the cr0.TS bit which has serializing semantics. ii. Newer glibc versions use SSE for some of the optimized copy/clear routines. With certain workloads (like boot, kernel-compilation etc), application completes its work with in the first 5 task switches, thus taking upto 5 #DNA traps with the kernel not getting a chance to apply the above mentioned pre-load heuristic. iii. Some xstate features (like AMD's LWP feature) don't honor the cr0.TS bit and thus will not work correctly in the presence of lazy restore. Non-lazy state restore is needed for enabling such features. Some data on a two socket SNB system: * Saved 20K DNA exceptions during boot on a two socket SNB system. * Saved 50K DNA exceptions during kernel-compilation workload. * Improved throughput of the AVX based checksumming function inside the kernel by ~15% as xsave/xrstor is faster than the serializing clts/stts pair. Also now kernel_fpu_begin/end() relies on the patched alternative instructions. So move check_fpu() which uses the kernel_fpu_begin/end() after alternative_instructions(). Signed-off-by: Suresh Siddha <suresh.b.siddha@intel.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1345842782-24175-7-git-send-email-suresh.b.siddha@intel.com Merge 32-bit boot fix from, Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1347300665-6209-4-git-send-email-suresh.b.siddha@intel.com Cc: Jim Kukunas <james.t.kukunas@linux.intel.com> Cc: NeilBrown <neilb@suse.de> Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@linux.intel.com>
2012-07-22Merge branch 'x86-debug-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-4/+4
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull debug-for-linus git tree from Ingo Molnar. Fix up trivial conflict in arch/x86/kernel/cpu/perf_event_intel.c due to a printk() having changed to a pr_info() differently in the two branches. * 'x86-debug-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: x86: Move call to print_modules() out of show_regs() x86/mm: Mark free_initrd_mem() as __init x86/microcode: Mark microcode_id[] as __initconst x86/nmi: Clean up register_nmi_handler() usage x86: Save cr2 in NMI in case NMIs take a page fault (for i386) x86: Remove cmpxchg from i386 NMI nesting code x86: Save cr2 in NMI in case NMIs take a page fault x86/debug: Add KERN_<LEVEL> to bare printks, convert printks to pr_<level>
2012-06-07x86, cpu: Rename checking_wrmsrl() to wrmsrl_safe()H. Peter Anvin1-2/+2
Rename checking_wrmsrl() to wrmsrl_safe(), to match the naming convention used by all the other MSR access functions/macros. Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
2012-06-06x86/debug: Add KERN_<LEVEL> to bare printks, convert printks to pr_<level>Joe Perches1-4/+4
Use a more current logging style: - Bare printks should have a KERN_<LEVEL> for consistency's sake - Add pr_fmt where appropriate - Neaten some macro definitions - Convert some Ok output to OK - Use "%s: ", __func__ in pr_fmt for summit - Convert some printks to pr_<level> Message output is not identical in all cases. Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Cc: levinsasha928@gmail.com Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1337655007.24226.10.camel@joe2Laptop [ merged two similar patches, tidied up the changelog ] Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2012-05-23Merge branch 'x86-fpu-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-9/+0
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull fpu state cleanups from Ingo Molnar: "This tree streamlines further aspects of FPU handling by eliminating the prepare_to_copy() complication and moving that logic to arch_dup_task_struct(). It also fixes the FPU dumps in threaded core dumps, removes and old (and now invalid) assumption plus micro-optimizes the exit path by avoiding an FPU save for dead tasks." Fixed up trivial add-add conflict in arch/sh/kernel/process.c that came in because we now do the FPU handling in arch_dup_task_struct() rather than the legacy (and now gone) prepare_to_copy(). * 'x86-fpu-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: x86, fpu: drop the fpu state during thread exit x86, xsave: remove thread_has_fpu() bug check in __sanitize_i387_state() coredump: ensure the fpu state is flushed for proper multi-threaded core dump fork: move the real prepare_to_copy() users to arch_dup_task_struct()
2012-05-16fork: move the real prepare_to_copy() users to arch_dup_task_struct()Suresh Siddha1-9/+0
Historical prepare_to_copy() is mostly a no-op, duplicated for majority of the architectures and the rest following the x86 model of flushing the extended register state like fpu there. Remove it and use the arch_dup_task_struct() instead. Suggested-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Suresh Siddha <suresh.b.siddha@intel.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1336692811-30576-1-git-send-email-suresh.b.siddha@intel.com Acked-by: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org> Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Cc: Koichi Yasutake <yasutake.koichi@jp.panasonic.com> Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Cc: Paul Mundt <lethal@linux-sh.org> Cc: Chris Zankel <chris@zankel.net> Cc: Richard Henderson <rth@twiddle.net> Cc: Russell King <linux@arm.linux.org.uk> Cc: Haavard Skinnemoen <hskinnemoen@gmail.com> Cc: Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org> Cc: Mark Salter <msalter@redhat.com> Cc: Aurelien Jacquiot <a-jacquiot@ti.com> Cc: Mikael Starvik <starvik@axis.com> Cc: Yoshinori Sato <ysato@users.sourceforge.jp> Cc: Richard Kuo <rkuo@codeaurora.org> Cc: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com> Cc: Michal Simek <monstr@monstr.eu> Cc: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org> Cc: Jonas Bonn <jonas@southpole.se> Cc: James E.J. Bottomley <jejb@parisc-linux.org> Cc: Helge Deller <deller@gmx.de> Cc: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com> Cc: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Cc: Chen Liqin <liqin.chen@sunplusct.com> Cc: Lennox Wu <lennox.wu@gmail.com> Cc: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net> Cc: Chris Metcalf <cmetcalf@tilera.com> Cc: Jeff Dike <jdike@addtoit.com> Cc: Richard Weinberger <richard@nod.at> Cc: Guan Xuetao <gxt@mprc.pku.edu.cn> Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@linux.intel.com>
2012-05-14x86: replace percpu_xxx funcs with this_cpu_xxxAlex Shi1-5/+5
Since percpu_xxx() serial functions are duplicated with this_cpu_xxx(). Removing percpu_xxx() definition and replacing them by this_cpu_xxx() in code. There is no function change in this patch, just preparation for later percpu_xxx serial function removing. On x86 machine the this_cpu_xxx() serial functions are same as __this_cpu_xxx() without no unnecessary premmpt enable/disable. Thanks for Stephen Rothwell, he found and fixed a i386 build error in the patch. Also thanks for Andrew Morton, he kept updating the patchset in Linus' tree. Signed-off-by: Alex Shi <alex.shi@intel.com> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@gentwo.org> Acked-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Acked-by: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Signed-off-by: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
2012-05-06IA32 emulation: Fix build problem for modular ia32 a.out supportLarry Finger1-0/+1
Commit ce7e5d2d19bc ("x86: fix broken TASK_SIZE for ia32_aout") breaks kernel builds when "CONFIG_IA32_AOUT=m" with ERROR: "set_personality_ia32" [arch/x86/ia32/ia32_aout.ko] undefined! make[1]: *** [__modpost] Error 1 The entry point needs to be exported. Signed-off-by: Larry Finger <Larry.Finger@lwfinger.net> Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-03-29Merge branch 'x86-x32-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-6/+21
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull x32 support for x86-64 from Ingo Molnar: "This tree introduces the X32 binary format and execution mode for x86: 32-bit data space binaries using 64-bit instructions and 64-bit kernel syscalls. This allows applications whose working set fits into a 32 bits address space to make use of 64-bit instructions while using a 32-bit address space with shorter pointers, more compressed data structures, etc." Fix up trivial context conflicts in arch/x86/{Kconfig,vdso/vma.c} * 'x86-x32-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: (71 commits) x32: Fix alignment fail in struct compat_siginfo x32: Fix stupid ia32/x32 inversion in the siginfo format x32: Add ptrace for x32 x32: Switch to a 64-bit clock_t x32: Provide separate is_ia32_task() and is_x32_task() predicates x86, mtrr: Use explicit sizing and padding for the 64-bit ioctls x86/x32: Fix the binutils auto-detect x32: Warn and disable rather than error if binutils too old x32: Only clear TIF_X32 flag once x32: Make sure TS_COMPAT is cleared for x32 tasks fs: Remove missed ->fds_bits from cessation use of fd_set structs internally fs: Fix close_on_exec pointer in alloc_fdtable x32: Drop non-__vdso weak symbols from the x32 VDSO x32: Fix coding style violations in the x32 VDSO code x32: Add x32 VDSO support x32: Allow x32 to be configured x32: If configured, add x32 system calls to system call tables x32: Handle process creation x32: Signal-related system calls x86: Add #ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT to <asm/sys_ia32.h> ...
2012-03-29Merge branch 'x86-urgent-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-107/+0
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull x86 updates from Ingo Molnar. This touches some non-x86 files due to the sanitized INLINE_SPIN_UNLOCK config usage. Fixed up trivial conflicts due to just header include changes (removing headers due to cpu_idle() merge clashing with the <asm/system.h> split). * 'x86-urgent-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: x86/apic/amd: Be more verbose about LVT offset assignments x86, tls: Off by one limit check x86/ioapic: Add io_apic_ops driver layer to allow interception x86/olpc: Add debugfs interface for EC commands x86: Merge the x86_32 and x86_64 cpu_idle() functions x86/kconfig: Remove CONFIG_TR=y from the defconfigs x86: Stop recursive fault in print_context_stack after stack overflow x86/io_apic: Move and reenable irq only when CONFIG_GENERIC_PENDING_IRQ=y x86/apic: Add separate apic_id_valid() functions for selected apic drivers locking/kconfig: Simplify INLINE_SPIN_UNLOCK usage x86/kconfig: Update defconfigs x86: Fix excessive MSR print out when show_msr is not specified
2012-03-28Disintegrate asm/system.h for X86David Howells1-1/+1
Disintegrate asm/system.h for X86. Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Acked-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> cc: x86@kernel.org
2012-03-26x86: Merge the x86_32 and x86_64 cpu_idle() functionsRichard Weinberger1-107/+0
Both functions are mostly identical. The differences are: - x86_32's cpu_idle() makes use of check_pgt_cache(), which is a nop on both x86_32 and x86_64. - x86_64's cpu_idle() uses enter/__exit_idle/(), on x86_32 these function are a nop. - In contrast to x86_32, x86_64 calls rcu_idle_enter/exit() in the innermost loop because idle notifications need RCU. Calling these function on x86_32 also in the innermost loop does not hurt. So we can merge both functions. Signed-off-by: Richard Weinberger <richard@nod.at> Acked-by: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com> Cc: paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com Cc: josh@joshtriplett.org Cc: tj@kernel.org Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1332709204-22496-1-git-send-email-richard@nod.at Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2012-03-22Merge branch 'x86-fpu-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-0/+1
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull x86/fpu changes from Ingo Molnar. * 'x86-fpu-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: i387: Split up <asm/i387.h> into exported and internal interfaces i387: Uninline the generic FP helpers that we expose to kernel modules
2012-03-22Merge branches 'x86-cpu-for-linus', 'x86-boot-for-linus', ↵Linus Torvalds1-0/+1
'x86-cpufeature-for-linus', 'x86-process-for-linus' and 'x86-uv-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull trivial x86 branches from Ingo Molnar: small one-liners to fix up details. * 'x86-cpu-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: x86: Remove some noise from boot log when starting cpus * 'x86-boot-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: x86, boot: Fix port argument to inl() function * 'x86-cpufeature-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: x86, cpufeature: Add CPU features from Intel document 319433-012A * 'x86-process-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: x86_64: Record stack pointer before task execution begins * 'x86-uv-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: x86/UV: Lower UV rtc clocksource rating
2012-03-01sched/rt: Use schedule_preempt_disabled()Thomas Gleixner1-3/+1
Coccinelle based conversion. Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/n/tip-24swm5zut3h9c4a6s46x8rws@git.kernel.org Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2012-02-26x86_64: Record stack pointer before task execution beginsSiddhesh Poyarekar1-0/+1
task->thread.usersp is unusable immediately after a binary is exec()'d until it undergoes a context switch cycle. The start_thread() function called during execve() saves the stack pointer into pt_regs and into old_rsp, but fails to record it into task->thread.usersp. Because of this, KSTK_ESP(task) returns an incorrect value for a 64-bit program until the task is switched out and back in since switch_to swaps %rsp values in and out into task->thread.usersp. Signed-off-by: Siddhesh Poyarekar <siddhesh.poyarekar@gmail.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1330273075-2949-1-git-send-email-siddhesh.poyarekar@gmail.com Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
2012-02-25x32: Only clear TIF_X32 flag onceBobby Powers1-1/+0
Commits bb212724 and d1a797f3 both added a call to clear_thread_flag(TIF_X32) under set_personality_64bit() - only one is needed. Signed-off-by: Bobby Powers <bobbypowers@gmail.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1330228774-24223-1-git-send-email-bobbypowers@gmail.com Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
2012-02-25x32: Make sure TS_COMPAT is cleared for x32 tasksBobby Powers1-0/+3
If a process has a non-x32 ia32 personality and changes to x32, the process would keep its TS_COMPAT flag. x32 uses the presence of the x32 flag on a syscall to determine compat status, so make sure TS_COMPAT is cleared. Signed-off-by: Bobby Powers <bobbypowers@gmail.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1330230338-25077-1-git-send-email-bobbypowers@gmail.com Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
2012-02-21i387: Split up <asm/i387.h> into exported and internal interfacesLinus Torvalds1-0/+1
While various modules include <asm/i387.h> to get access to things we actually *intend* for them to use, most of that header file was really pretty low-level internal stuff that we really don't want to expose to others. So split the header file into two: the small exported interfaces remain in <asm/i387.h>, while the internal definitions that are only used by core architecture code are now in <asm/fpu-internal.h>. The guiding principle for this was to expose functions that we export to modules, and leave them in <asm/i387.h>, while stuff that is used by task switching or was marked GPL-only is in <asm/fpu-internal.h>. The fpu-internal.h file could be further split up too, especially since arch/x86/kvm/ uses some of the remaining stuff for its module. But that kvm usage should probably be abstracted out a bit, and at least now the internal FPU accessor functions are much more contained. Even if it isn't perhaps as contained as it _could_ be. Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/alpine.LFD.2.02.1202211340330.5354@i5.linux-foundation.org Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@linux.intel.com>
2012-02-20x32: Handle process creationH. Peter Anvin1-7/+16
Allow an x32 process to be started. Originally-by: H. J. Lu <hjl.tools@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl>
2012-02-20x32: Add a thread flag for x32 processesH. Peter Anvin1-0/+2
An x32 process is *almost* the same thing as a 64-bit process with a 32-bit address limit, but there are a few minor differences -- in particular core dumps are 32 bits and signal handling is different. Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
2012-02-20x86: Factor out TIF_IA32 from 32-bit address spaceH. Peter Anvin1-0/+2
Factor out IA32 (compatibility instruction set) from 32-bit address space in the thread_info flags; this is a precondition patch for x32 support. Originally-by: H. J. Lu <hjl.tools@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/n/tip-4pr1xnnksprt7t0h3w5fw4rv@git.kernel.org
2012-02-20i387: support lazy restore of FPU stateLinus Torvalds1-1/+1
This makes us recognize when we try to restore FPU state that matches what we already have in the FPU on this CPU, and avoids the restore entirely if so. To do this, we add two new data fields: - a percpu 'fpu_owner_task' variable that gets written any time we update the "has_fpu" field, and thus acts as a kind of back-pointer to the task that owns the CPU. The exception is when we save the FPU state as part of a context switch - if the save can keep the FPU state around, we leave the 'fpu_owner_task' variable pointing at the task whose FP state still remains on the CPU. - a per-thread 'last_cpu' field, that indicates which CPU that thread used its FPU on last. We update this on every context switch (writing an invalid CPU number if the last context switch didn't leave the FPU in a lazily usable state), so we know that *that* thread has done nothing else with the FPU since. These two fields together can be used when next switching back to the task to see if the CPU still matches: if 'fpu_owner_task' matches the task we are switching to, we know that no other task (or kernel FPU usage) touched the FPU on this CPU in the meantime, and if the current CPU number matches the 'last_cpu' field, we know that this thread did no other FP work on any other CPU, so the FPU state on the CPU must match what was saved on last context switch. In that case, we can avoid the 'f[x]rstor' entirely, and just clear the CR0.TS bit. Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-02-20i387: fix up some fpu_counter confusionLinus Torvalds1-0/+1
This makes sure we clear the FPU usage counter for newly created tasks, just so that we start off in a known state (for example, don't try to preload the FPU state on the first task switch etc). It also fixes a thinko in when we increment the fpu_counter at task switch time, introduced by commit 34ddc81a230b ("i387: re-introduce FPU state preloading at context switch time"). We should increment the *new* task fpu_counter, not the old task, and only if we decide to use that state (whether lazily or preloaded). Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-02-18i387: re-introduce FPU state preloading at context switch timeLinus Torvalds1-1/+4
After all the FPU state cleanups and finally finding the problem that caused all our FPU save/restore problems, this re-introduces the preloading of FPU state that was removed in commit b3b0870ef3ff ("i387: do not preload FPU state at task switch time"). However, instead of simply reverting the removal, this reimplements preloading with several fixes, most notably - properly abstracted as a true FPU state switch, rather than as open-coded save and restore with various hacks. In particular, implementing it as a proper FPU state switch allows us to optimize the CR0.TS flag accesses: there is no reason to set the TS bit only to then almost immediately clear it again. CR0 accesses are quite slow and expensive, don't flip the bit back and forth for no good reason. - Make sure that the same model works for both x86-32 and x86-64, so that there are no gratuitous differences between the two due to the way they save and restore segment state differently due to architectural differences that really don't matter to the FPU state. - Avoid exposing the "preload" state to the context switch routines, and in particular allow the concept of lazy state restore: if nothing else has used the FPU in the meantime, and the process is still on the same CPU, we can avoid restoring state from memory entirely, just re-expose the state that is still in the FPU unit. That optimized lazy restore isn't actually implemented here, but the infrastructure is set up for it. Of course, older CPU's that use 'fnsave' to save the state cannot take advantage of this, since the state saving also trashes the state. In other words, there is now an actual _design_ to the FPU state saving, rather than just random historical baggage. Hopefully it's easier to follow as a result. Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-02-16i387: move AMD K7/K8 fpu fxsave/fxrstor workaround from save to restoreLinus Torvalds1-3/+2
The AMD K7/K8 CPUs don't save/restore FDP/FIP/FOP unless an exception is pending. In order to not leak FIP state from one process to another, we need to do a floating point load after the fxsave of the old process, and before the fxrstor of the new FPU state. That resets the state to the (uninteresting) kernel load, rather than some potentially sensitive user information. We used to do this directly after the FPU state save, but that is actually very inconvenient, since it (a) corrupts what is potentially perfectly good FPU state that we might want to lazy avoid restoring later and (b) on x86-64 it resulted in a very annoying ordering constraint, where "__unlazy_fpu()" in the task switch needs to be delayed until after the DS segment has been reloaded just to get the new DS value. Coupling it to the fxrstor instead of the fxsave automatically avoids both of these issues, and also ensures that we only do it when actually necessary (the FP state after a save may never actually get used). It's simply a much more natural place for the leaked state cleanup. Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-02-16i387: do not preload FPU state at task switch timeLinus Torvalds1-23/+0
Yes, taking the trap to re-load the FPU/MMX state is expensive, but so is spending several days looking for a bug in the state save/restore code. And the preload code has some rather subtle interactions with both paravirtualization support and segment state restore, so it's not nearly as simple as it should be. Also, now that we no longer necessarily depend on a single bit (ie TS_USEDFPU) for keeping track of the state of the FPU, we migth be able to do better. If we are really switching between two processes that keep touching the FP state, save/restore is inevitable, but in the case of having one process that does most of the FPU usage, we may actually be able to do much better than the preloading. In particular, we may be able to keep track of which CPU the process ran on last, and also per CPU keep track of which process' FP state that CPU has. For modern CPU's that don't destroy the FPU contents on save time, that would allow us to do a lazy restore by just re-enabling the existing FPU state - with no restore cost at all! Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-01-06Merge branch 'x86-cleanups-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-3/+2
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip * 'x86-cleanups-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: x86: Use "do { } while(0)" for empty lock_cmos()/unlock_cmos() macros x86: Use "do { } while(0)" for empty flush_tlb_fix_spurious_fault() macro x86, CPU: Drop superfluous get_cpu_cap() prototype arch/x86/mm/pageattr.c: Quiet sparse noise; local functions should be static arch/x86/kernel/ptrace.c: Quiet sparse noise x86: Use kmemdup() in copy_thread(), rather than duplicating its implementation x86: Replace the EVT_TO_HPET_DEV() macro with an inline function
2011-12-11x86: Enter rcu extended qs after idle notifier callFrederic Weisbecker1-2/+8
The idle notifier, called by enter_idle(), enters into rcu read side critical section but at that time we already switched into the RCU-idle window (rcu_idle_enter() has been called). And it's illegal to use rcu_read_lock() in that state. This results in rcu reporting its bad mood: [ 1.275635] WARNING: at include/linux/rcupdate.h:194 __atomic_notifier_call_chain+0xd2/0x110() [ 1.275635] Hardware name: AMD690VM-FMH [ 1.275635] Modules linked in: [ 1.275635] Pid: 0, comm: swapper Not tainted 3.0.0-rc6+ #252 [ 1.275635] Call Trace: [ 1.275635] [<ffffffff81051c8a>] warn_slowpath_common+0x7a/0xb0 [ 1.275635] [<ffffffff81051cd5>] warn_slowpath_null+0x15/0x20 [ 1.275635] [<ffffffff817d6f22>] __atomic_notifier_call_chain+0xd2/0x110 [ 1.275635] [<ffffffff817d6f71>] atomic_notifier_call_chain+0x11/0x20 [ 1.275635] [<ffffffff810018a0>] enter_idle+0x20/0x30 [ 1.275635] [<ffffffff81001995>] cpu_idle+0xa5/0x110 [ 1.275635] [<ffffffff817a7465>] rest_init+0xe5/0x140 [ 1.275635] [<ffffffff817a73c8>] ? rest_init+0x48/0x140 [ 1.275635] [<ffffffff81cc5ca3>] start_kernel+0x3d1/0x3dc [ 1.275635] [<ffffffff81cc5321>] x86_64_start_reservations+0x131/0x135 [ 1.275635] [<ffffffff81cc5412>] x86_64_start_kernel+0xed/0xf4 [ 1.275635] ---[ end trace a22d306b065d4a66 ]--- Fix this by entering rcu extended quiescent state later, just before the CPU goes to sleep. Signed-off-by: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com> Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2011-12-11nohz: Allow rcu extended quiescent state handling seperately from tick stopFrederic Weisbecker1-2/+2
It is assumed that rcu won't be used once we switch to tickless mode and until we restart the tick. However this is not always true, as in x86-64 where we dereference the idle notifiers after the tick is stopped. To prepare for fixing this, add two new APIs: tick_nohz_idle_enter_norcu() and tick_nohz_idle_exit_norcu(). If no use of RCU is made in the idle loop between tick_nohz_enter_idle() and tick_nohz_exit_idle() calls, the arch must instead call the new *_norcu() version such that the arch doesn't need to call rcu_idle_enter() and rcu_idle_exit(). Otherwise the arch must call tick_nohz_enter_idle() and tick_nohz_exit_idle() and also call explicitly: - rcu_idle_enter() after its last use of RCU before the CPU is put to sleep. - rcu_idle_exit() before the first use of RCU after the CPU is woken up. Signed-off-by: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com> Cc: Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org> Cc: Guan Xuetao <gxt@mprc.pku.edu.cn> Cc: David Miller <davem@davemloft.net> Cc: Chris Metcalf <cmetcalf@tilera.com> Cc: Hans-Christian Egtvedt <hans-christian.egtvedt@atmel.com> Cc: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org> Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: Russell King <linux@arm.linux.org.uk> Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Cc: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Cc: Paul Mundt <lethal@linux-sh.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
2011-12-11nohz: Separate out irq exit and idle loop dyntick logicFrederic Weisbecker1-2/+2
The tick_nohz_stop_sched_tick() function, which tries to delay the next timer tick as long as possible, can be called from two places: - From the idle loop to start the dytick idle mode - From interrupt exit if we have interrupted the dyntick idle mode, so that we reprogram the next tick event in case the irq changed some internal state that requires this action. There are only few minor differences between both that are handled by that function, driven by the ts->inidle cpu variable and the inidle parameter. The whole guarantees that we only update the dyntick mode on irq exit if we actually interrupted the dyntick idle mode, and that we enter in RCU extended quiescent state from idle loop entry only. Split this function into: - tick_nohz_idle_enter(), which sets ts->inidle to 1, enters dynticks idle mode unconditionally if it can, and enters into RCU extended quiescent state. - tick_nohz_irq_exit() which only updates the dynticks idle mode when ts->inidle is set (ie: if tick_nohz_idle_enter() has been called). To maintain symmetry, tick_nohz_restart_sched_tick() has been renamed into tick_nohz_idle_exit(). This simplifies the code and micro-optimize the irq exit path (no need for local_irq_save there). This also prepares for the split between dynticks and rcu extended quiescent state logics. We'll need this split to further fix illegal uses of RCU in extended quiescent states in the idle loop. Signed-off-by: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com> Cc: Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org> Cc: Guan Xuetao <gxt@mprc.pku.edu.cn> Cc: David Miller <davem@davemloft.net> Cc: Chris Metcalf <cmetcalf@tilera.com> Cc: Hans-Christian Egtvedt <hans-christian.egtvedt@atmel.com> Cc: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org> Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: Russell King <linux@arm.linux.org.uk> Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Cc: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Cc: Paul Mundt <lethal@linux-sh.org> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Josh Triplett <josh@joshtriplett.org>
2011-12-05x86: Use kmemdup() in copy_thread(), rather than duplicating its implementationThomas Meyer1-3/+2
The semantic patch that makes this change is available in scripts/coccinelle/api/memdup.cocci. Signed-off-by: Thomas Meyer <thomas@m3y3r.de> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1321569820.1624.275.camel@localhost.localdomain Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2011-10-10x86, nmi: Add in logic to handle multiple events and unknown NMIsDon Zickus1-0/+2
Previous patches allow the NMI subsystem to process multipe NMI events in one NMI. As previously discussed this can cause issues when an event triggered another NMI but is processed in the current NMI. This causes the next NMI to go unprocessed and become an 'unknown' NMI. To handle this, we first have to flag whether or not the NMI handler handled more than one event or not. If it did, then there exists a chance that the next NMI might be already processed. Once the NMI is flagged as a candidate to be swallowed, we next look for a back-to-back NMI condition. This is determined by looking at the %rip from pt_regs. If it is the same as the previous NMI, it is assumed the cpu did not have a chance to jump back into a non-NMI context and execute code and instead handled another NMI. If both of those conditions are true then we will swallow any unknown NMI. There still exists a chance that we accidentally swallow a real unknown NMI, but for now things seem better. An optimization has also been added to the nmi notifier rountine. Because x86 can latch up to one NMI while currently processing an NMI, we don't have to worry about executing _all_ the handlers in a standalone NMI. The idea is if multiple NMIs come in, the second NMI will represent them. For those back-to-back NMI cases, we have the potentail to drop NMIs. Therefore only execute all the handlers in the second half of a detected back-to-back NMI. Signed-off-by: Don Zickus <dzickus@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1317409584-23662-5-git-send-email-dzickus@redhat.com Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2011-08-03cpuidle: stop depending on pm_idleLen Brown1-1/+3
cpuidle users should call cpuidle_call_idle() directly rather than via (pm_idle)() function pointer. Architecture may choose to continue using (pm_idle)(), but cpuidle need not depend on it: my_arch_cpu_idle() ... if(cpuidle_call_idle()) pm_idle(); cc: Kevin Hilman <khilman@deeprootsystems.com> cc: Paul Mundt <lethal@linux-sh.org> cc: x86@kernel.org Acked-by: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@linux.intel.com> Signed-off-by: Len Brown <len.brown@intel.com>
2011-06-09exec: delay address limit change until point of no returnMathias Krause1-1/+0
Unconditionally changing the address limit to USER_DS and not restoring it to its old value in the error path is wrong because it prevents us using kernel memory on repeated calls to this function. This, in fact, breaks the fallback of hard coded paths to the init program from being ever successful if the first candidate fails to load. With this patch applied switching to USER_DS is delayed until the point of no return is reached which makes it possible to have a multi-arch rootfs with one arch specific init binary for each of the (hard coded) probed paths. Since the address limit is already set to USER_DS when start_thread() will be invoked, this redundancy can be safely removed. Signed-off-by: Mathias Krause <minipli@googlemail.com> Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Cc: stable@kernel.org Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

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