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/*
  FUSE: Filesystem in Userspace
  Copyright (C) 2001-2006  Miklos Szeredi <miklos@szeredi.hu>

  This program can be distributed under the terms of the GNU GPL.
  See the file COPYING.
*/

#include "fuse_i.h"

#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>

static const struct file_operations fuse_direct_io_file_operations;

static int fuse_send_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file, int isdir,
			  struct fuse_open_out *outargp)
{
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_open_in inarg;
	struct fuse_req *req;
	int err;

	req = fuse_get_req(fc);
	if (IS_ERR(req))
		return PTR_ERR(req);

	memset(&inarg, 0, sizeof(inarg));
	inarg.flags = file->f_flags & ~(O_CREAT | O_EXCL | O_NOCTTY);
	if (!fc->atomic_o_trunc)
		inarg.flags &= ~O_TRUNC;
	req->in.h.opcode = isdir ? FUSE_OPENDIR : FUSE_OPEN;
	req->in.h.nodeid = get_node_id(inode);
	req->in.numargs = 1;
	req->in.args[0].size = sizeof(inarg);
	req->in.args[0].value = &inarg;
	req->out.numargs = 1;
	req->out.args[0].size = sizeof(*outargp);
	req->out.args[0].value = outargp;
	request_send(fc, req);
	err = req->out.h.error;
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);

	return err;
}

struct fuse_file *fuse_file_alloc(void)
{
	struct fuse_file *ff;
	ff = kmalloc(sizeof(struct fuse_file), GFP_KERNEL);
	if (ff) {
		ff->reserved_req = fuse_request_alloc();
		if (!ff->reserved_req) {
			kfree(ff);
			ff = NULL;
		} else {
			INIT_LIST_HEAD(&ff->write_entry);
			atomic_set(&ff->count, 0);
		}
	}
	return ff;
}

void fuse_file_free(struct fuse_file *ff)
{
	fuse_request_free(ff->reserved_req);
	kfree(ff);
}

static struct fuse_file *fuse_file_get(struct fuse_file *ff)
{
	atomic_inc(&ff->count);
	return ff;
}

static void fuse_release_end(struct fuse_conn *fc, struct fuse_req *req)
{
	dput(req->misc.release.dentry);
	mntput(req->misc.release.vfsmount);
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);
}

static void fuse_file_put(struct fuse_file *ff)
{
	if (atomic_dec_and_test(&ff->count)) {
		struct fuse_req *req = ff->reserved_req;
		struct inode *inode = req->misc.release.dentry->d_inode;
		struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
		req->end = fuse_release_end;
		request_send_background(fc, req);
		kfree(ff);
	}
}

void fuse_finish_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file,
		      struct fuse_file *ff, struct fuse_open_out *outarg)
{
	if (outarg->open_flags & FOPEN_DIRECT_IO)
		file->f_op = &fuse_direct_io_file_operations;
	if (!(outarg->open_flags & FOPEN_KEEP_CACHE))
		invalidate_inode_pages2(inode->i_mapping);
	ff->fh = outarg->fh;
	file->private_data = fuse_file_get(ff);
}

int fuse_open_common(struct inode *inode, struct file *file, int isdir)
{
	struct fuse_open_out outarg;
	struct fuse_file *ff;
	int err;

	/* VFS checks this, but only _after_ ->open() */
	if (file->f_flags & O_DIRECT)
		return -EINVAL;

	err = generic_file_open(inode, file);
	if (err)
		return err;

	ff = fuse_file_alloc();
	if (!ff)
		return -ENOMEM;

	err = fuse_send_open(inode, file, isdir, &outarg);
	if (err)
		fuse_file_free(ff);
	else {
		if (isdir)
			outarg.open_flags &= ~FOPEN_DIRECT_IO;
		fuse_finish_open(inode, file, ff, &outarg);
	}

	return err;
}

void fuse_release_fill(struct fuse_file *ff, u64 nodeid, int flags, int opcode)
{
	struct fuse_req *req = ff->reserved_req;
	struct fuse_release_in *inarg = &req->misc.release.in;

	inarg->fh = ff->fh;
	inarg->flags = flags;
	req->in.h.opcode = opcode;
	req->in.h.nodeid = nodeid;
	req->in.numargs = 1;
	req->in.args[0].size = sizeof(struct fuse_release_in);
	req->in.args[0].value = inarg;
}

int fuse_release_common(struct inode *inode, struct file *file, int isdir)
{
	struct fuse_file *ff = file->private_data;
	if (ff) {
		struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
		struct fuse_req *req = ff->reserved_req;

		fuse_release_fill(ff, get_node_id(inode), file->f_flags,
				  isdir ? FUSE_RELEASEDIR : FUSE_RELEASE);

		/* Hold vfsmount and dentry until release is finished */
		req->misc.release.vfsmount = mntget(file->f_path.mnt);
		req->misc.release.dentry = dget(file->f_path.dentry);

		spin_lock(&fc->lock);
		list_del(&ff->write_entry);
		spin_unlock(&fc->lock);
		/*
		 * Normally this will send the RELEASE request,
		 * however if some asynchronous READ or WRITE requests
		 * are outstanding, the sending will be delayed
		 */
		fuse_file_put(ff);
	}

	/* Return value is ignored by VFS */
	return 0;
}

static int fuse_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
{
	return fuse_open_common(inode, file, 0);
}

static int fuse_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
{
	return fuse_release_common(inode, file, 0);
}

/*
 * Scramble the ID space with XTEA, so that the value of the files_struct
 * pointer is not exposed to userspace.
 */
u64 fuse_lock_owner_id(struct fuse_conn *fc, fl_owner_t id)
{
	u32 *k = fc->scramble_key;
	u64 v = (unsigned long) id;
	u32 v0 = v;
	u32 v1 = v >> 32;
	u32 sum = 0;
	int i;

	for (i = 0; i < 32; i++) {
		v0 += ((v1 << 4 ^ v1 >> 5) + v1) ^ (sum + k[sum & 3]);
		sum += 0x9E3779B9;
		v1 += ((v0 << 4 ^ v0 >> 5) + v0) ^ (sum + k[sum>>11 & 3]);
	}

	return (u64) v0 + ((u64) v1 << 32);
}

/*
 * Check if page is under writeback
 *
 * This is currently done by walking the list of writepage requests
 * for the inode, which can be pretty inefficient.
 */
static bool fuse_page_is_writeback(struct inode *inode, pgoff_t index)
{
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_inode *fi = get_fuse_inode(inode);
	struct fuse_req *req;
	bool found = false;

	spin_lock(&fc->lock);
	list_for_each_entry(req, &fi->writepages, writepages_entry) {
		pgoff_t curr_index;

		BUG_ON(req->inode != inode);
		curr_index = req->misc.write.in.offset >> PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT;
		if (curr_index == index) {
			found = true;
			break;
		}
	}
	spin_unlock(&fc->lock);

	return found;
}

/*
 * Wait for page writeback to be completed.
 *
 * Since fuse doesn't rely on the VM writeback tracking, this has to
 * use some other means.
 */
static int fuse_wait_on_page_writeback(struct inode *inode, pgoff_t index)
{
	struct fuse_inode *fi = get_fuse_inode(inode);

	wait_event(fi->page_waitq, !fuse_page_is_writeback(inode, index));
	return 0;
}

static int fuse_flush(struct file *file, fl_owner_t id)
{
	struct inode *inode = file->f_path.dentry->d_inode;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_file *ff = file->private_data;
	struct fuse_req *req;
	struct fuse_flush_in inarg;
	int err;

	if (is_bad_inode(inode))
		return -EIO;

	if (fc->no_flush)
		return 0;

	req = fuse_get_req_nofail(fc, file);
	memset(&inarg, 0, sizeof(inarg));
	inarg.fh = ff->fh;
	inarg.lock_owner = fuse_lock_owner_id(fc, id);
	req->in.h.opcode = FUSE_FLUSH;
	req->in.h.nodeid = get_node_id(inode);
	req->in.numargs = 1;
	req->in.args[0].size = sizeof(inarg);
	req->in.args[0].value = &inarg;
	req->force = 1;
	request_send(fc, req);
	err = req->out.h.error;
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);
	if (err == -ENOSYS) {
		fc->no_flush = 1;
		err = 0;
	}
	return err;
}

/*
 * Wait for all pending writepages on the inode to finish.
 *
 * This is currently done by blocking further writes with FUSE_NOWRITE
 * and waiting for all sent writes to complete.
 *
 * This must be called under i_mutex, otherwise the FUSE_NOWRITE usage
 * could conflict with truncation.
 */
static void fuse_sync_writes(struct inode *inode)
{
	fuse_set_nowrite(inode);
	fuse_release_nowrite(inode);
}

int fuse_fsync_common(struct file *file, struct dentry *de, int datasync,
		      int isdir)
{
	struct inode *inode = de->d_inode;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_file *ff = file->private_data;
	struct fuse_req *req;
	struct fuse_fsync_in inarg;
	int err;

	if (is_bad_inode(inode))
		return -EIO;

	if ((!isdir && fc->no_fsync) || (isdir && fc->no_fsyncdir))
		return 0;

	/*
	 * Start writeback against all dirty pages of the inode, then
	 * wait for all outstanding writes, before sending the FSYNC
	 * request.
	 */
	err = write_inode_now(inode, 0);
	if (err)
		return err;

	fuse_sync_writes(inode);

	req = fuse_get_req(fc);
	if (IS_ERR(req))
		return PTR_ERR(req);

	memset(&inarg, 0, sizeof(inarg));
	inarg.fh = ff->fh;
	inarg.fsync_flags = datasync ? 1 : 0;
	req->in.h.opcode = isdir ? FUSE_FSYNCDIR : FUSE_FSYNC;
	req->in.h.nodeid = get_node_id(inode);
	req->in.numargs = 1;
	req->in.args[0].size = sizeof(inarg);
	req->in.args[0].value = &inarg;
	request_send(fc, req);
	err = req->out.h.error;
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);
	if (err == -ENOSYS) {
		if (isdir)
			fc->no_fsyncdir = 1;
		else
			fc->no_fsync = 1;
		err = 0;
	}
	return err;
}

static int fuse_fsync(struct file *file, struct dentry *de, int datasync)
{
	return fuse_fsync_common(file, de, datasync, 0);
}

void fuse_read_fill(struct fuse_req *req, struct file *file,
		    struct inode *inode, loff_t pos, size_t count, int opcode)
{
	struct fuse_read_in *inarg = &req->misc.read.in;
	struct fuse_file *ff = file->private_data;

	inarg->fh = ff->fh;
	inarg->offset = pos;
	inarg->size = count;
	inarg->flags = file->f_flags;
	req->in.h.opcode = opcode;
	req->in.h.nodeid = get_node_id(inode);
	req->in.numargs = 1;
	req->in.args[0].size = sizeof(struct fuse_read_in);
	req->in.args[0].value = inarg;
	req->out.argpages = 1;
	req->out.argvar = 1;
	req->out.numargs = 1;
	req->out.args[0].size = count;
}

static size_t fuse_send_read(struct fuse_req *req, struct file *file,
			     struct inode *inode, loff_t pos, size_t count,
			     fl_owner_t owner)
{
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);

	fuse_read_fill(req, file, inode, pos, count, FUSE_READ);
	if (owner != NULL) {
		struct fuse_read_in *inarg = &req->misc.read.in;

		inarg->read_flags |= FUSE_READ_LOCKOWNER;
		inarg->lock_owner = fuse_lock_owner_id(fc, owner);
	}
	request_send(fc, req);
	return req->out.args[0].size;
}

static void fuse_read_update_size(struct inode *inode, loff_t size,
				  u64 attr_ver)
{
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_inode *fi = get_fuse_inode(inode);

	spin_lock(&fc->lock);
	if (attr_ver == fi->attr_version && size < inode->i_size) {
		fi->attr_version = ++fc->attr_version;
		i_size_write(inode, size);
	}
	spin_unlock(&fc->lock);
}

static int fuse_readpage(struct file *file, struct page *page)
{
	struct inode *inode = page->mapping->host;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_req *req;
	size_t num_read;
	loff_t pos = page_offset(page);
	size_t count = PAGE_CACHE_SIZE;
	u64 attr_ver;
	int err;

	err = -EIO;
	if (is_bad_inode(inode))
		goto out;

	/*
	 * Page writeback can extend beyond the liftime of the
	 * page-cache page, so make sure we read a properly synced
	 * page.
	 */
	fuse_wait_on_page_writeback(inode, page->index);

	req = fuse_get_req(fc);
	err = PTR_ERR(req);
	if (IS_ERR(req))
		goto out;

	attr_ver = fuse_get_attr_version(fc);

	req->out.page_zeroing = 1;
	req->num_pages = 1;
	req->pages[0] = page;
	num_read = fuse_send_read(req, file, inode, pos, count, NULL);
	err = req->out.h.error;
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);

	if (!err) {
		/*
		 * Short read means EOF.  If file size is larger, truncate it
		 */
		if (num_read < count)
			fuse_read_update_size(inode, pos + num_read, attr_ver);

		SetPageUptodate(page);
	}

	fuse_invalidate_attr(inode); /* atime changed */
 out:
	unlock_page(page);
	return err;
}

static void fuse_readpages_end(struct fuse_conn *fc, struct fuse_req *req)
{
	int i;
	size_t count = req->misc.read.in.size;
	size_t num_read = req->out.args[0].size;
	struct inode *inode = req->pages[0]->mapping->host;

	/*
	 * Short read means EOF.  If file size is larger, truncate it
	 */
	if (!req->out.h.error && num_read < count) {
		loff_t pos = page_offset(req->pages[0]) + num_read;
		fuse_read_update_size(inode, pos, req->misc.read.attr_ver);
	}

	fuse_invalidate_attr(inode); /* atime changed */

	for (i = 0; i < req->num_pages; i++) {
		struct page *page = req->pages[i];
		if (!req->out.h.error)
			SetPageUptodate(page);
		else
			SetPageError(page);
		unlock_page(page);
	}
	if (req->ff)
		fuse_file_put(req->ff);
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);
}

static void fuse_send_readpages(struct fuse_req *req, struct file *file,
				struct inode *inode)
{
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	loff_t pos = page_offset(req->pages[0]);
	size_t count = req->num_pages << PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT;
	req->out.page_zeroing = 1;
	fuse_read_fill(req, file, inode, pos, count, FUSE_READ);
	req->misc.read.attr_ver = fuse_get_attr_version(fc);
	if (fc->async_read) {
		struct fuse_file *ff = file->private_data;
		req->ff = fuse_file_get(ff);
		req->end = fuse_readpages_end;
		request_send_background(fc, req);
	} else {
		request_send(fc, req);
		fuse_readpages_end(fc, req);
	}
}

struct fuse_fill_data {
	struct fuse_req *req;
	struct file *file;
	struct inode *inode;
};

static int fuse_readpages_fill(void *_data, struct page *page)
{
	struct fuse_fill_data *data = _data;
	struct fuse_req *req = data->req;
	struct inode *inode = data->inode;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);

	fuse_wait_on_page_writeback(inode, page->index);

	if (req->num_pages &&
	    (req->num_pages == FUSE_MAX_PAGES_PER_REQ ||
	     (req->num_pages + 1) * PAGE_CACHE_SIZE > fc->max_read ||
	     req->pages[req->num_pages - 1]->index + 1 != page->index)) {
		fuse_send_readpages(req, data->file, inode);
		data->req = req = fuse_get_req(fc);
		if (IS_ERR(req)) {
			unlock_page(page);
			return PTR_ERR(req);
		}
	}
	req->pages[req->num_pages] = page;
	req->num_pages ++;
	return 0;
}

static int fuse_readpages(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
			  struct list_head *pages, unsigned nr_pages)
{
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_fill_data data;
	int err;

	err = -EIO;
	if (is_bad_inode(inode))
		goto out;

	data.file = file;
	data.inode = inode;
	data.req = fuse_get_req(fc);
	err = PTR_ERR(data.req);
	if (IS_ERR(data.req))
		goto out;

	err = read_cache_pages(mapping, pages, fuse_readpages_fill, &data);
	if (!err) {
		if (data.req->num_pages)
			fuse_send_readpages(data.req, file, inode);
		else
			fuse_put_request(fc, data.req);
	}
out:
	return err;
}

static ssize_t fuse_file_aio_read(struct kiocb *iocb, const struct iovec *iov,
				  unsigned long nr_segs, loff_t pos)
{
	struct inode *inode = iocb->ki_filp->f_mapping->host;

	if (pos + iov_length(iov, nr_segs) > i_size_read(inode)) {
		int err;
		/*
		 * If trying to read past EOF, make sure the i_size
		 * attribute is up-to-date.
		 */
		err = fuse_update_attributes(inode, NULL, iocb->ki_filp, NULL);
		if (err)
			return err;
	}

	return generic_file_aio_read(iocb, iov, nr_segs, pos);
}

static void fuse_write_fill(struct fuse_req *req, struct file *file,
			    struct fuse_file *ff, struct inode *inode,
			    loff_t pos, size_t count, int writepage)
{
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_write_in *inarg = &req->misc.write.in;
	struct fuse_write_out *outarg = &req->misc.write.out;

	memset(inarg, 0, sizeof(struct fuse_write_in));
	inarg->fh = ff->fh;
	inarg->offset = pos;
	inarg->size = count;
	inarg->write_flags = writepage ? FUSE_WRITE_CACHE : 0;
	inarg->flags = file ? file->f_flags : 0;
	req->in.h.opcode = FUSE_WRITE;
	req->in.h.nodeid = get_node_id(inode);
	req->in.argpages = 1;
	req->in.numargs = 2;
	if (fc->minor < 9)
		req->in.args[0].size = FUSE_COMPAT_WRITE_IN_SIZE;
	else
		req->in.args[0].size = sizeof(struct fuse_write_in);
	req->in.args[0].value = inarg;
	req->in.args[1].size = count;
	req->out.numargs = 1;
	req->out.args[0].size = sizeof(struct fuse_write_out);
	req->out.args[0].value = outarg;
}

static size_t fuse_send_write(struct fuse_req *req, struct file *file,
			      struct inode *inode, loff_t pos, size_t count,
			      fl_owner_t owner)
{
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	fuse_write_fill(req, file, file->private_data, inode, pos, count, 0);
	if (owner != NULL) {
		struct fuse_write_in *inarg = &req->misc.write.in;
		inarg->write_flags |= FUSE_WRITE_LOCKOWNER;
		inarg->lock_owner = fuse_lock_owner_id(fc, owner);
	}
	request_send(fc, req);
	return req->misc.write.out.size;
}

static int fuse_write_begin(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
			loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned flags,
			struct page **pagep, void **fsdata)
{
	pgoff_t index = pos >> PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT;

	*pagep = __grab_cache_page(mapping, index);
	if (!*pagep)
		return -ENOMEM;
	return 0;
}

static void fuse_write_update_size(struct inode *inode, loff_t pos)
{
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_inode *fi = get_fuse_inode(inode);

	spin_lock(&fc->lock);
	fi->attr_version = ++fc->attr_version;
	if (pos > inode->i_size)
		i_size_write(inode, pos);
	spin_unlock(&fc->lock);
}

static int fuse_buffered_write(struct file *file, struct inode *inode,
			       loff_t pos, unsigned count, struct page *page)
{
	int err;
	size_t nres;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	unsigned offset = pos & (PAGE_CACHE_SIZE - 1);
	struct fuse_req *req;

	if (is_bad_inode(inode))
		return -EIO;

	/*
	 * Make sure writepages on the same page are not mixed up with
	 * plain writes.
	 */
	fuse_wait_on_page_writeback(inode, page->index);

	req = fuse_get_req(fc);
	if (IS_ERR(req))
		return PTR_ERR(req);

	req->num_pages = 1;
	req->pages[0] = page;
	req->page_offset = offset;
	nres = fuse_send_write(req, file, inode, pos, count, NULL);
	err = req->out.h.error;
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);
	if (!err && !nres)
		err = -EIO;
	if (!err) {
		pos += nres;
		fuse_write_update_size(inode, pos);
		if (count == PAGE_CACHE_SIZE)
			SetPageUptodate(page);
	}
	fuse_invalidate_attr(inode);
	return err ? err : nres;
}

static int fuse_write_end(struct file *file, struct address_space *mapping,
			loff_t pos, unsigned len, unsigned copied,
			struct page *page, void *fsdata)
{
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	int res = 0;

	if (copied)
		res = fuse_buffered_write(file, inode, pos, copied, page);

	unlock_page(page);
	page_cache_release(page);
	return res;
}

static size_t fuse_send_write_pages(struct fuse_req *req, struct file *file,
				    struct inode *inode, loff_t pos,
				    size_t count)
{
	size_t res;
	unsigned offset;
	unsigned i;

	for (i = 0; i < req->num_pages; i++)
		fuse_wait_on_page_writeback(inode, req->pages[i]->index);

	res = fuse_send_write(req, file, inode, pos, count, NULL);

	offset = req->page_offset;
	count = res;
	for (i = 0; i < req->num_pages; i++) {
		struct page *page = req->pages[i];

		if (!req->out.h.error && !offset && count >= PAGE_CACHE_SIZE)
			SetPageUptodate(page);

		if (count > PAGE_CACHE_SIZE - offset)
			count -= PAGE_CACHE_SIZE - offset;
		else
			count = 0;
		offset = 0;

		unlock_page(page);
		page_cache_release(page);
	}

	return res;
}

static ssize_t fuse_fill_write_pages(struct fuse_req *req,
			       struct address_space *mapping,
			       struct iov_iter *ii, loff_t pos)
{
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(mapping->host);
	unsigned offset = pos & (PAGE_CACHE_SIZE - 1);
	size_t count = 0;
	int err;

	req->page_offset = offset;

	do {
		size_t tmp;
		struct page *page;
		pgoff_t index = pos >> PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT;
		size_t bytes = min_t(size_t, PAGE_CACHE_SIZE - offset,
				     iov_iter_count(ii));

		bytes = min_t(size_t, bytes, fc->max_write - count);

 again:
		err = -EFAULT;
		if (iov_iter_fault_in_readable(ii, bytes))
			break;

		err = -ENOMEM;
		page = __grab_cache_page(mapping, index);
		if (!page)
			break;

		pagefault_disable();
		tmp = iov_iter_copy_from_user_atomic(page, ii, offset, bytes);
		pagefault_enable();
		flush_dcache_page(page);

		if (!tmp) {
			unlock_page(page);
			page_cache_release(page);
			bytes = min(bytes, iov_iter_single_seg_count(ii));
			goto again;
		}

		err = 0;
		req->pages[req->num_pages] = page;
		req->num_pages++;

		iov_iter_advance(ii, tmp);
		count += tmp;
		pos += tmp;
		offset += tmp;
		if (offset == PAGE_CACHE_SIZE)
			offset = 0;

	} while (iov_iter_count(ii) && count < fc->max_write &&
		 req->num_pages < FUSE_MAX_PAGES_PER_REQ && offset == 0);

	return count > 0 ? count : err;
}

static ssize_t fuse_perform_write(struct file *file,
				  struct address_space *mapping,
				  struct iov_iter *ii, loff_t pos)
{
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	int err = 0;
	ssize_t res = 0;

	if (is_bad_inode(inode))
		return -EIO;

	do {
		struct fuse_req *req;
		ssize_t count;

		req = fuse_get_req(fc);
		if (IS_ERR(req)) {
			err = PTR_ERR(req);
			break;
		}

		count = fuse_fill_write_pages(req, mapping, ii, pos);
		if (count <= 0) {
			err = count;
		} else {
			size_t num_written;

			num_written = fuse_send_write_pages(req, file, inode,
							    pos, count);
			err = req->out.h.error;
			if (!err) {
				res += num_written;
				pos += num_written;

				/* break out of the loop on short write */
				if (num_written != count)
					err = -EIO;
			}
		}
		fuse_put_request(fc, req);
	} while (!err && iov_iter_count(ii));

	if (res > 0)
		fuse_write_update_size(inode, pos);

	fuse_invalidate_attr(inode);

	return res > 0 ? res : err;
}

static ssize_t fuse_file_aio_write(struct kiocb *iocb, const struct iovec *iov,
				   unsigned long nr_segs, loff_t pos)
{
	struct file *file = iocb->ki_filp;
	struct address_space *mapping = file->f_mapping;
	size_t count = 0;
	ssize_t written = 0;
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	ssize_t err;
	struct iov_iter i;

	WARN_ON(iocb->ki_pos != pos);

	err = generic_segment_checks(iov, &nr_segs, &count, VERIFY_READ);
	if (err)
		return err;

	mutex_lock(&inode->i_mutex);
	vfs_check_frozen(inode->i_sb, SB_FREEZE_WRITE);

	/* We can write back this queue in page reclaim */
	current->backing_dev_info = mapping->backing_dev_info;

	err = generic_write_checks(file, &pos, &count, S_ISBLK(inode->i_mode));
	if (err)
		goto out;

	if (count == 0)
		goto out;

	err = remove_suid(file->f_path.dentry);
	if (err)
		goto out;

	file_update_time(file);

	iov_iter_init(&i, iov, nr_segs, count, 0);
	written = fuse_perform_write(file, mapping, &i, pos);
	if (written >= 0)
		iocb->ki_pos = pos + written;

out:
	current->backing_dev_info = NULL;
	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);

	return written ? written : err;
}

static void fuse_release_user_pages(struct fuse_req *req, int write)
{
	unsigned i;

	for (i = 0; i < req->num_pages; i++) {
		struct page *page = req->pages[i];
		if (write)
			set_page_dirty_lock(page);
		put_page(page);
	}
}

static int fuse_get_user_pages(struct fuse_req *req, const char __user *buf,
			       unsigned nbytes, int write)
{
	unsigned long user_addr = (unsigned long) buf;
	unsigned offset = user_addr & ~PAGE_MASK;
	int npages;

	/* This doesn't work with nfsd */
	if (!current->mm)
		return -EPERM;

	nbytes = min(nbytes, (unsigned) FUSE_MAX_PAGES_PER_REQ << PAGE_SHIFT);
	npages = (nbytes + offset + PAGE_SIZE - 1) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
	npages = clamp(npages, 1, FUSE_MAX_PAGES_PER_REQ);
	down_read(&current->mm->mmap_sem);
	npages = get_user_pages(current, current->mm, user_addr, npages, write,
				0, req->pages, NULL);
	up_read(&current->mm->mmap_sem);
	if (npages < 0)
		return npages;

	req->num_pages = npages;
	req->page_offset = offset;
	return 0;
}

static ssize_t fuse_direct_io(struct file *file, const char __user *buf,
			      size_t count, loff_t *ppos, int write)
{
	struct inode *inode = file->f_path.dentry->d_inode;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	size_t nmax = write ? fc->max_write : fc->max_read;
	loff_t pos = *ppos;
	ssize_t res = 0;
	struct fuse_req *req;

	if (is_bad_inode(inode))
		return -EIO;

	req = fuse_get_req(fc);
	if (IS_ERR(req))
		return PTR_ERR(req);

	while (count) {
		size_t nres;
		size_t nbytes_limit = min(count, nmax);
		size_t nbytes;
		int err = fuse_get_user_pages(req, buf, nbytes_limit, !write);
		if (err) {
			res = err;
			break;
		}
		nbytes = (req->num_pages << PAGE_SHIFT) - req->page_offset;
		nbytes = min(nbytes_limit, nbytes);
		if (write)
			nres = fuse_send_write(req, file, inode, pos, nbytes,
					       current->files);
		else
			nres = fuse_send_read(req, file, inode, pos, nbytes,
					      current->files);
		fuse_release_user_pages(req, !write);
		if (req->out.h.error) {
			if (!res)
				res = req->out.h.error;
			break;
		} else if (nres > nbytes) {
			res = -EIO;
			break;
		}
		count -= nres;
		res += nres;
		pos += nres;
		buf += nres;
		if (nres != nbytes)
			break;
		if (count) {
			fuse_put_request(fc, req);
			req = fuse_get_req(fc);
			if (IS_ERR(req))
				break;
		}
	}
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);
	if (res > 0) {
		if (write)
			fuse_write_update_size(inode, pos);
		*ppos = pos;
	}
	fuse_invalidate_attr(inode);

	return res;
}

static ssize_t fuse_direct_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf,
				     size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
{
	return fuse_direct_io(file, buf, count, ppos, 0);
}

static ssize_t fuse_direct_write(struct file *file, const char __user *buf,
				 size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
{
	struct inode *inode = file->f_path.dentry->d_inode;
	ssize_t res;
	/* Don't allow parallel writes to the same file */
	mutex_lock(&inode->i_mutex);
	res = generic_write_checks(file, ppos, &count, 0);
	if (!res)
		res = fuse_direct_io(file, buf, count, ppos, 1);
	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
	return res;
}

static void fuse_writepage_free(struct fuse_conn *fc, struct fuse_req *req)
{
	__free_page(req->pages[0]);
	fuse_file_put(req->ff);
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);
}

static void fuse_writepage_finish(struct fuse_conn *fc, struct fuse_req *req)
{
	struct inode *inode = req->inode;
	struct fuse_inode *fi = get_fuse_inode(inode);
	struct backing_dev_info *bdi = inode->i_mapping->backing_dev_info;

	list_del(&req->writepages_entry);
	dec_bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_WRITEBACK);
	dec_zone_page_state(req->pages[0], NR_WRITEBACK_TEMP);
	bdi_writeout_inc(bdi);
	wake_up(&fi->page_waitq);
}

/* Called under fc->lock, may release and reacquire it */
static void fuse_send_writepage(struct fuse_conn *fc, struct fuse_req *req)
{
	struct fuse_inode *fi = get_fuse_inode(req->inode);
	loff_t size = i_size_read(req->inode);
	struct fuse_write_in *inarg = &req->misc.write.in;

	if (!fc->connected)
		goto out_free;

	if (inarg->offset + PAGE_CACHE_SIZE <= size) {
		inarg->size = PAGE_CACHE_SIZE;
	} else if (inarg->offset < size) {
		inarg->size = size & (PAGE_CACHE_SIZE - 1);
	} else {
		/* Got truncated off completely */
		goto out_free;
	}

	req->in.args[1].size = inarg->size;
	fi->writectr++;
	request_send_background_locked(fc, req);
	return;

 out_free:
	fuse_writepage_finish(fc, req);
	spin_unlock(&fc->lock);
	fuse_writepage_free(fc, req);
	spin_lock(&fc->lock);
}

/*
 * If fi->writectr is positive (no truncate or fsync going on) send
 * all queued writepage requests.
 *
 * Called with fc->lock
 */
void fuse_flush_writepages(struct inode *inode)
{
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_inode *fi = get_fuse_inode(inode);
	struct fuse_req *req;

	while (fi->writectr >= 0 && !list_empty(&fi->queued_writes)) {
		req = list_entry(fi->queued_writes.next, struct fuse_req, list);
		list_del_init(&req->list);
		fuse_send_writepage(fc, req);
	}
}

static void fuse_writepage_end(struct fuse_conn *fc, struct fuse_req *req)
{
	struct inode *inode = req->inode;
	struct fuse_inode *fi = get_fuse_inode(inode);

	mapping_set_error(inode->i_mapping, req->out.h.error);
	spin_lock(&fc->lock);
	fi->writectr--;
	fuse_writepage_finish(fc, req);
	spin_unlock(&fc->lock);
	fuse_writepage_free(fc, req);
}

static int fuse_writepage_locked(struct page *page)
{
	struct address_space *mapping = page->mapping;
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_inode *fi = get_fuse_inode(inode);
	struct fuse_req *req;
	struct fuse_file *ff;
	struct page *tmp_page;

	set_page_writeback(page);

	req = fuse_request_alloc_nofs();
	if (!req)
		goto err;

	tmp_page = alloc_page(GFP_NOFS | __GFP_HIGHMEM);
	if (!tmp_page)
		goto err_free;

	spin_lock(&fc->lock);
	BUG_ON(list_empty(&fi->write_files));
	ff = list_entry(fi->write_files.next, struct fuse_file, write_entry);
	req->ff = fuse_file_get(ff);
	spin_unlock(&fc->lock);

	fuse_write_fill(req, NULL, ff, inode, page_offset(page), 0, 1);

	copy_highpage(tmp_page, page);
	req->num_pages = 1;
	req->pages[0] = tmp_page;
	req->page_offset = 0;
	req->end = fuse_writepage_end;
	req->inode = inode;

	inc_bdi_stat(mapping->backing_dev_info, BDI_WRITEBACK);
	inc_zone_page_state(tmp_page, NR_WRITEBACK_TEMP);
	end_page_writeback(page);

	spin_lock(&fc->lock);
	list_add(&req->writepages_entry, &fi->writepages);
	list_add_tail(&req->list, &fi->queued_writes);
	fuse_flush_writepages(inode);
	spin_unlock(&fc->lock);

	return 0;

err_free:
	fuse_request_free(req);
err:
	end_page_writeback(page);
	return -ENOMEM;
}

static int fuse_writepage(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc)
{
	int err;

	err = fuse_writepage_locked(page);
	unlock_page(page);

	return err;
}

static int fuse_launder_page(struct page *page)
{
	int err = 0;
	if (clear_page_dirty_for_io(page)) {
		struct inode *inode = page->mapping->host;
		err = fuse_writepage_locked(page);
		if (!err)
			fuse_wait_on_page_writeback(inode, page->index);
	}
	return err;
}

/*
 * Write back dirty pages now, because there may not be any suitable
 * open files later
 */
static void fuse_vma_close(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	filemap_write_and_wait(vma->vm_file->f_mapping);
}

/*
 * Wait for writeback against this page to complete before allowing it
 * to be marked dirty again, and hence written back again, possibly
 * before the previous writepage completed.
 *
 * Block here, instead of in ->writepage(), so that the userspace fs
 * can only block processes actually operating on the filesystem.
 *
 * Otherwise unprivileged userspace fs would be able to block
 * unrelated:
 *
 * - page migration
 * - sync(2)
 * - try_to_free_pages() with order > PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER
 */
static int fuse_page_mkwrite(struct vm_area_struct *vma, struct page *page)
{
	/*
	 * Don't use page->mapping as it may become NULL from a
	 * concurrent truncate.
	 */
	struct inode *inode = vma->vm_file->f_mapping->host;

	fuse_wait_on_page_writeback(inode, page->index);
	return 0;
}

static struct vm_operations_struct fuse_file_vm_ops = {
	.close		= fuse_vma_close,
	.fault		= filemap_fault,
	.page_mkwrite	= fuse_page_mkwrite,
};

static int fuse_file_mmap(struct file *file, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
{
	if ((vma->vm_flags & VM_SHARED) && (vma->vm_flags & VM_MAYWRITE)) {
		struct inode *inode = file->f_dentry->d_inode;
		struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
		struct fuse_inode *fi = get_fuse_inode(inode);
		struct fuse_file *ff = file->private_data;
		/*
		 * file may be written through mmap, so chain it onto the
		 * inodes's write_file list
		 */
		spin_lock(&fc->lock);
		if (list_empty(&ff->write_entry))
			list_add(&ff->write_entry, &fi->write_files);
		spin_unlock(&fc->lock);
	}
	file_accessed(file);
	vma->vm_ops = &fuse_file_vm_ops;
	return 0;
}

static int convert_fuse_file_lock(const struct fuse_file_lock *ffl,
				  struct file_lock *fl)
{
	switch (ffl->type) {
	case F_UNLCK:
		break;

	case F_RDLCK:
	case F_WRLCK:
		if (ffl->start > OFFSET_MAX || ffl->end > OFFSET_MAX ||
		    ffl->end < ffl->start)
			return -EIO;

		fl->fl_start = ffl->start;
		fl->fl_end = ffl->end;
		fl->fl_pid = ffl->pid;
		break;

	default:
		return -EIO;
	}
	fl->fl_type = ffl->type;
	return 0;
}

static void fuse_lk_fill(struct fuse_req *req, struct file *file,
			 const struct file_lock *fl, int opcode, pid_t pid,
			 int flock)
{
	struct inode *inode = file->f_path.dentry->d_inode;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_file *ff = file->private_data;
	struct fuse_lk_in *arg = &req->misc.lk_in;

	arg->fh = ff->fh;
	arg->owner = fuse_lock_owner_id(fc, fl->fl_owner);
	arg->lk.start = fl->fl_start;
	arg->lk.end = fl->fl_end;
	arg->lk.type = fl->fl_type;
	arg->lk.pid = pid;
	if (flock)
		arg->lk_flags |= FUSE_LK_FLOCK;
	req->in.h.opcode = opcode;
	req->in.h.nodeid = get_node_id(inode);
	req->in.numargs = 1;
	req->in.args[0].size = sizeof(*arg);
	req->in.args[0].value = arg;
}

static int fuse_getlk(struct file *file, struct file_lock *fl)
{
	struct inode *inode = file->f_path.dentry->d_inode;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_req *req;
	struct fuse_lk_out outarg;
	int err;

	req = fuse_get_req(fc);
	if (IS_ERR(req))
		return PTR_ERR(req);

	fuse_lk_fill(req, file, fl, FUSE_GETLK, 0, 0);
	req->out.numargs = 1;
	req->out.args[0].size = sizeof(outarg);
	req->out.args[0].value = &outarg;
	request_send(fc, req);
	err = req->out.h.error;
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);
	if (!err)
		err = convert_fuse_file_lock(&outarg.lk, fl);

	return err;
}

static int fuse_setlk(struct file *file, struct file_lock *fl, int flock)
{
	struct inode *inode = file->f_path.dentry->d_inode;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_req *req;
	int opcode = (fl->fl_flags & FL_SLEEP) ? FUSE_SETLKW : FUSE_SETLK;
	pid_t pid = fl->fl_type != F_UNLCK ? current->tgid : 0;
	int err;

	/* Unlock on close is handled by the flush method */
	if (fl->fl_flags & FL_CLOSE)
		return 0;

	req = fuse_get_req(fc);
	if (IS_ERR(req))
		return PTR_ERR(req);

	fuse_lk_fill(req, file, fl, opcode, pid, flock);
	request_send(fc, req);
	err = req->out.h.error;
	/* locking is restartable */
	if (err == -EINTR)
		err = -ERESTARTSYS;
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);
	return err;
}

static int fuse_file_lock(struct file *file, int cmd, struct file_lock *fl)
{
	struct inode *inode = file->f_path.dentry->d_inode;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	int err;

	if (cmd == F_GETLK) {
		if (fc->no_lock) {
			posix_test_lock(file, fl);
			err = 0;
		} else
			err = fuse_getlk(file, fl);
	} else {
		if (fc->no_lock)
			err = posix_lock_file_wait(file, fl);
		else
			err = fuse_setlk(file, fl, 0);
	}
	return err;
}

static int fuse_file_flock(struct file *file, int cmd, struct file_lock *fl)
{
	struct inode *inode = file->f_path.dentry->d_inode;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	int err;

	if (fc->no_lock) {
		err = flock_lock_file_wait(file, fl);
	} else {
		/* emulate flock with POSIX locks */
		fl->fl_owner = (fl_owner_t) file;
		err = fuse_setlk(file, fl, 1);
	}

	return err;
}

static sector_t fuse_bmap(struct address_space *mapping, sector_t block)
{
	struct inode *inode = mapping->host;
	struct fuse_conn *fc = get_fuse_conn(inode);
	struct fuse_req *req;
	struct fuse_bmap_in inarg;
	struct fuse_bmap_out outarg;
	int err;

	if (!inode->i_sb->s_bdev || fc->no_bmap)
		return 0;

	req = fuse_get_req(fc);
	if (IS_ERR(req))
		return 0;

	memset(&inarg, 0, sizeof(inarg));
	inarg.block = block;
	inarg.blocksize = inode->i_sb->s_blocksize;
	req->in.h.opcode = FUSE_BMAP;
	req->in.h.nodeid = get_node_id(inode);
	req->in.numargs = 1;
	req->in.args[0].size = sizeof(inarg);
	req->in.args[0].value = &inarg;
	req->out.numargs = 1;
	req->out.args[0].size = sizeof(outarg);
	req->out.args[0].value = &outarg;
	request_send(fc, req);
	err = req->out.h.error;
	fuse_put_request(fc, req);
	if (err == -ENOSYS)
		fc->no_bmap = 1;

	return err ? 0 : outarg.block;
}

static loff_t fuse_file_llseek(struct file *file, loff_t offset, int origin)
{
	loff_t retval;
	struct inode *inode = file->f_path.dentry->d_inode;

	mutex_lock(&inode->i_mutex);
	switch (origin) {
	case SEEK_END:
		offset += i_size_read(inode);
		break;
	case SEEK_CUR:
		offset += file->f_pos;
	}
	retval = -EINVAL;
	if (offset >= 0 && offset <= inode->i_sb->s_maxbytes) {
		if (offset != file->f_pos) {
			file->f_pos = offset;
			file->f_version = 0;
		}
		retval = offset;
	}
	mutex_unlock(&inode->i_mutex);
	return retval;
}

static const struct file_operations fuse_file_operations = {
	.llseek		= fuse_file_llseek,
	.read		= do_sync_read,
	.aio_read	= fuse_file_aio_read,
	.write		= do_sync_write,
	.aio_write	= fuse_file_aio_write,
	.mmap		= fuse_file_mmap,
	.open		= fuse_open,
	.flush		= fuse_flush,
	.release	= fuse_release,
	.fsync		= fuse_fsync,
	.lock		= fuse_file_lock,
	.flock		= fuse_file_flock,
	.splice_read	= generic_file_splice_read,
};

static const struct file_operations fuse_direct_io_file_operations = {
	.llseek		= fuse_file_llseek,
	.read		= fuse_direct_read,
	.write		= fuse_direct_write,
	.open		= fuse_open,
	.flush		= fuse_flush,
	.release	= fuse_release,
	.fsync		= fuse_fsync,
	.lock		= fuse_file_lock,
	.flock		= fuse_file_flock,
	/* no mmap and splice_read */
};

static const struct address_space_operations fuse_file_aops  = {
	.readpage	= fuse_readpage,
	.writepage	= fuse_writepage,
	.launder_page	= fuse_launder_page,
	.write_begin	= fuse_write_begin,
	.write_end	= fuse_write_end,
	.readpages	= fuse_readpages,
	.set_page_dirty	= __set_page_dirty_nobuffers,
	.bmap		= fuse_bmap,
};

void fuse_init_file_inode(struct inode *inode)
{
	inode->i_fop = &fuse_file_operations;
	inode->i_data.a_ops = &fuse_file_aops;
}

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