aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/Documentation/PCI
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
authorKusanagi Kouichi <slash@ac.auone-net.jp>2010-01-01 20:36:09 -0800
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2010-01-02 10:09:44 -0800
commit4207a152bc242effd0b8231143aa5b9f7a1593a9 (patch)
treeb12dee07b0e65309a71986f29d73d40d79fe4de2 /Documentation/PCI
parent8d9f99c335ef66e4c44afe8f61816b0edeafba91 (diff)
Documentation: Rename Documentation/DMA-mapping.txt
It seems that Documentation/DMA-mapping.txt was supposed to be renamed to Documentation/PCI/PCI-DMA-mapping.txt. Signed-off-by: Kusanagi Kouichi <slash@ac.auone-net.jp> Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/PCI')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/PCI/PCI-DMA-mapping.txt766
1 files changed, 766 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/PCI/PCI-DMA-mapping.txt b/Documentation/PCI/PCI-DMA-mapping.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ecad88d9fe59
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/PCI/PCI-DMA-mapping.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,766 @@
+ Dynamic DMA mapping
+ ===================
+
+ David S. Miller <davem@redhat.com>
+ Richard Henderson <rth@cygnus.com>
+ Jakub Jelinek <jakub@redhat.com>
+
+This document describes the DMA mapping system in terms of the pci_
+API. For a similar API that works for generic devices, see
+DMA-API.txt.
+
+Most of the 64bit platforms have special hardware that translates bus
+addresses (DMA addresses) into physical addresses. This is similar to
+how page tables and/or a TLB translates virtual addresses to physical
+addresses on a CPU. This is needed so that e.g. PCI devices can
+access with a Single Address Cycle (32bit DMA address) any page in the
+64bit physical address space. Previously in Linux those 64bit
+platforms had to set artificial limits on the maximum RAM size in the
+system, so that the virt_to_bus() static scheme works (the DMA address
+translation tables were simply filled on bootup to map each bus
+address to the physical page __pa(bus_to_virt())).
+
+So that Linux can use the dynamic DMA mapping, it needs some help from the
+drivers, namely it has to take into account that DMA addresses should be
+mapped only for the time they are actually used and unmapped after the DMA
+transfer.
+
+The following API will work of course even on platforms where no such
+hardware exists, see e.g. arch/x86/include/asm/pci.h for how it is implemented on
+top of the virt_to_bus interface.
+
+First of all, you should make sure
+
+#include <linux/pci.h>
+
+is in your driver. This file will obtain for you the definition of the
+dma_addr_t (which can hold any valid DMA address for the platform)
+type which should be used everywhere you hold a DMA (bus) address
+returned from the DMA mapping functions.
+
+ What memory is DMA'able?
+
+The first piece of information you must know is what kernel memory can
+be used with the DMA mapping facilities. There has been an unwritten
+set of rules regarding this, and this text is an attempt to finally
+write them down.
+
+If you acquired your memory via the page allocator
+(i.e. __get_free_page*()) or the generic memory allocators
+(i.e. kmalloc() or kmem_cache_alloc()) then you may DMA to/from
+that memory using the addresses returned from those routines.
+
+This means specifically that you may _not_ use the memory/addresses
+returned from vmalloc() for DMA. It is possible to DMA to the
+_underlying_ memory mapped into a vmalloc() area, but this requires
+walking page tables to get the physical addresses, and then
+translating each of those pages back to a kernel address using
+something like __va(). [ EDIT: Update this when we integrate
+Gerd Knorr's generic code which does this. ]
+
+This rule also means that you may use neither kernel image addresses
+(items in data/text/bss segments), nor module image addresses, nor
+stack addresses for DMA. These could all be mapped somewhere entirely
+different than the rest of physical memory. Even if those classes of
+memory could physically work with DMA, you'd need to ensure the I/O
+buffers were cacheline-aligned. Without that, you'd see cacheline
+sharing problems (data corruption) on CPUs with DMA-incoherent caches.
+(The CPU could write to one word, DMA would write to a different one
+in the same cache line, and one of them could be overwritten.)
+
+Also, this means that you cannot take the return of a kmap()
+call and DMA to/from that. This is similar to vmalloc().
+
+What about block I/O and networking buffers? The block I/O and
+networking subsystems make sure that the buffers they use are valid
+for you to DMA from/to.
+
+ DMA addressing limitations
+
+Does your device have any DMA addressing limitations? For example, is
+your device only capable of driving the low order 24-bits of address
+on the PCI bus for SAC DMA transfers? If so, you need to inform the
+PCI layer of this fact.
+
+By default, the kernel assumes that your device can address the full
+32-bits in a SAC cycle. For a 64-bit DAC capable device, this needs
+to be increased. And for a device with limitations, as discussed in
+the previous paragraph, it needs to be decreased.
+
+pci_alloc_consistent() by default will return 32-bit DMA addresses.
+PCI-X specification requires PCI-X devices to support 64-bit
+addressing (DAC) for all transactions. And at least one platform (SGI
+SN2) requires 64-bit consistent allocations to operate correctly when
+the IO bus is in PCI-X mode. Therefore, like with pci_set_dma_mask(),
+it's good practice to call pci_set_consistent_dma_mask() to set the
+appropriate mask even if your device only supports 32-bit DMA
+(default) and especially if it's a PCI-X device.
+
+For correct operation, you must interrogate the PCI layer in your
+device probe routine to see if the PCI controller on the machine can
+properly support the DMA addressing limitation your device has. It is
+good style to do this even if your device holds the default setting,
+because this shows that you did think about these issues wrt. your
+device.
+
+The query is performed via a call to pci_set_dma_mask():
+
+ int pci_set_dma_mask(struct pci_dev *pdev, u64 device_mask);
+
+The query for consistent allocations is performed via a call to
+pci_set_consistent_dma_mask():
+
+ int pci_set_consistent_dma_mask(struct pci_dev *pdev, u64 device_mask);
+
+Here, pdev is a pointer to the PCI device struct of your device, and
+device_mask is a bit mask describing which bits of a PCI address your
+device supports. It returns zero if your card can perform DMA
+properly on the machine given the address mask you provided.
+
+If it returns non-zero, your device cannot perform DMA properly on
+this platform, and attempting to do so will result in undefined
+behavior. You must either use a different mask, or not use DMA.
+
+This means that in the failure case, you have three options:
+
+1) Use another DMA mask, if possible (see below).
+2) Use some non-DMA mode for data transfer, if possible.
+3) Ignore this device and do not initialize it.
+
+It is recommended that your driver print a kernel KERN_WARNING message
+when you end up performing either #2 or #3. In this manner, if a user
+of your driver reports that performance is bad or that the device is not
+even detected, you can ask them for the kernel messages to find out
+exactly why.
+
+The standard 32-bit addressing PCI device would do something like
+this:
+
+ if (pci_set_dma_mask(pdev, DMA_BIT_MASK(32))) {
+ printk(KERN_WARNING
+ "mydev: No suitable DMA available.\n");
+ goto ignore_this_device;
+ }
+
+Another common scenario is a 64-bit capable device. The approach
+here is to try for 64-bit DAC addressing, but back down to a
+32-bit mask should that fail. The PCI platform code may fail the
+64-bit mask not because the platform is not capable of 64-bit
+addressing. Rather, it may fail in this case simply because
+32-bit SAC addressing is done more efficiently than DAC addressing.
+Sparc64 is one platform which behaves in this way.
+
+Here is how you would handle a 64-bit capable device which can drive
+all 64-bits when accessing streaming DMA:
+
+ int using_dac;
+
+ if (!pci_set_dma_mask(pdev, DMA_BIT_MASK(64))) {
+ using_dac = 1;
+ } else if (!pci_set_dma_mask(pdev, DMA_BIT_MASK(32))) {
+ using_dac = 0;
+ } else {
+ printk(KERN_WARNING
+ "mydev: No suitable DMA available.\n");
+ goto ignore_this_device;
+ }
+
+If a card is capable of using 64-bit consistent allocations as well,
+the case would look like this:
+
+ int using_dac, consistent_using_dac;
+
+ if (!pci_set_dma_mask(pdev, DMA_BIT_MASK(64))) {
+ using_dac = 1;
+ consistent_using_dac = 1;
+ pci_set_consistent_dma_mask(pdev, DMA_BIT_MASK(64));
+ } else if (!pci_set_dma_mask(pdev, DMA_BIT_MASK(32))) {
+ using_dac = 0;
+ consistent_using_dac = 0;
+ pci_set_consistent_dma_mask(pdev, DMA_BIT_MASK(32));
+ } else {
+ printk(KERN_WARNING
+ "mydev: No suitable DMA available.\n");
+ goto ignore_this_device;
+ }
+
+pci_set_consistent_dma_mask() will always be able to set the same or a
+smaller mask as pci_set_dma_mask(). However for the rare case that a
+device driver only uses consistent allocations, one would have to
+check the return value from pci_set_consistent_dma_mask().
+
+Finally, if your device can only drive the low 24-bits of
+address during PCI bus mastering you might do something like:
+
+ if (pci_set_dma_mask(pdev, DMA_BIT_MASK(24))) {
+ printk(KERN_WARNING
+ "mydev: 24-bit DMA addressing not available.\n");
+ goto ignore_this_device;
+ }
+
+When pci_set_dma_mask() is successful, and returns zero, the PCI layer
+saves away this mask you have provided. The PCI layer will use this
+information later when you make DMA mappings.
+
+There is a case which we are aware of at this time, which is worth
+mentioning in this documentation. If your device supports multiple
+functions (for example a sound card provides playback and record
+functions) and the various different functions have _different_
+DMA addressing limitations, you may wish to probe each mask and
+only provide the functionality which the machine can handle. It
+is important that the last call to pci_set_dma_mask() be for the
+most specific mask.
+
+Here is pseudo-code showing how this might be done:
+
+ #define PLAYBACK_ADDRESS_BITS DMA_BIT_MASK(32)
+ #define RECORD_ADDRESS_BITS DMA_BIT_MASK(24)
+
+ struct my_sound_card *card;
+ struct pci_dev *pdev;
+
+ ...
+ if (!pci_set_dma_mask(pdev, PLAYBACK_ADDRESS_BITS)) {
+ card->playback_enabled = 1;
+ } else {
+ card->playback_enabled = 0;
+ printk(KERN_WARNING "%s: Playback disabled due to DMA limitations.\n",
+ card->name);
+ }
+ if (!pci_set_dma_mask(pdev, RECORD_ADDRESS_BITS)) {
+ card->record_enabled = 1;
+ } else {
+ card->record_enabled = 0;
+ printk(KERN_WARNING "%s: Record disabled due to DMA limitations.\n",
+ card->name);
+ }
+
+A sound card was used as an example here because this genre of PCI
+devices seems to be littered with ISA chips given a PCI front end,
+and thus retaining the 16MB DMA addressing limitations of ISA.
+
+ Types of DMA mappings
+
+There are two types of DMA mappings:
+
+- Consistent DMA mappings which are usually mapped at driver
+ initialization, unmapped at the end and for which the hardware should
+ guarantee that the device and the CPU can access the data
+ in parallel and will see updates made by each other without any
+ explicit software flushing.
+
+ Think of "consistent" as "synchronous" or "coherent".
+
+ The current default is to return consistent memory in the low 32
+ bits of the PCI bus space. However, for future compatibility you
+ should set the consistent mask even if this default is fine for your
+ driver.
+
+ Good examples of what to use consistent mappings for are:
+
+ - Network card DMA ring descriptors.
+ - SCSI adapter mailbox command data structures.
+ - Device firmware microcode executed out of
+ main memory.
+
+ The invariant these examples all require is that any CPU store
+ to memory is immediately visible to the device, and vice
+ versa. Consistent mappings guarantee this.
+
+ IMPORTANT: Consistent DMA memory does not preclude the usage of
+ proper memory barriers. The CPU may reorder stores to
+ consistent memory just as it may normal memory. Example:
+ if it is important for the device to see the first word
+ of a descriptor updated before the second, you must do
+ something like:
+
+ desc->word0 = address;
+ wmb();
+ desc->word1 = DESC_VALID;
+
+ in order to get correct behavior on all platforms.
+
+ Also, on some platforms your driver may need to flush CPU write
+ buffers in much the same way as it needs to flush write buffers
+ found in PCI bridges (such as by reading a register's value
+ after writing it).
+
+- Streaming DMA mappings which are usually mapped for one DMA transfer,
+ unmapped right after it (unless you use pci_dma_sync_* below) and for which
+ hardware can optimize for sequential accesses.
+
+ This of "streaming" as "asynchronous" or "outside the coherency
+ domain".
+
+ Good examples of what to use streaming mappings for are:
+
+ - Networking buffers transmitted/received by a device.
+ - Filesystem buffers written/read by a SCSI device.
+
+ The interfaces for using this type of mapping were designed in
+ such a way that an implementation can make whatever performance
+ optimizations the hardware allows. To this end, when using
+ such mappings you must be explicit about what you want to happen.
+
+Neither type of DMA mapping has alignment restrictions that come
+from PCI, although some devices may have such restrictions.
+Also, systems with caches that aren't DMA-coherent will work better
+when the underlying buffers don't share cache lines with other data.
+
+
+ Using Consistent DMA mappings.
+
+To allocate and map large (PAGE_SIZE or so) consistent DMA regions,
+you should do:
+
+ dma_addr_t dma_handle;
+
+ cpu_addr = pci_alloc_consistent(pdev, size, &dma_handle);
+
+where pdev is a struct pci_dev *. This may be called in interrupt context.
+You should use dma_alloc_coherent (see DMA-API.txt) for buses
+where devices don't have struct pci_dev (like ISA, EISA).
+
+This argument is needed because the DMA translations may be bus
+specific (and often is private to the bus which the device is attached
+to).
+
+Size is the length of the region you want to allocate, in bytes.
+
+This routine will allocate RAM for that region, so it acts similarly to
+__get_free_pages (but takes size instead of a page order). If your
+driver needs regions sized smaller than a page, you may prefer using
+the pci_pool interface, described below.
+
+The consistent DMA mapping interfaces, for non-NULL pdev, will by
+default return a DMA address which is SAC (Single Address Cycle)
+addressable. Even if the device indicates (via PCI dma mask) that it
+may address the upper 32-bits and thus perform DAC cycles, consistent
+allocation will only return > 32-bit PCI addresses for DMA if the
+consistent dma mask has been explicitly changed via
+pci_set_consistent_dma_mask(). This is true of the pci_pool interface
+as well.
+
+pci_alloc_consistent returns two values: the virtual address which you
+can use to access it from the CPU and dma_handle which you pass to the
+card.
+
+The cpu return address and the DMA bus master address are both
+guaranteed to be aligned to the smallest PAGE_SIZE order which
+is greater than or equal to the requested size. This invariant
+exists (for example) to guarantee that if you allocate a chunk
+which is smaller than or equal to 64 kilobytes, the extent of the
+buffer you receive will not cross a 64K boundary.
+
+To unmap and free such a DMA region, you call:
+
+ pci_free_consistent(pdev, size, cpu_addr, dma_handle);
+
+where pdev, size are the same as in the above call and cpu_addr and
+dma_handle are the values pci_alloc_consistent returned to you.
+This function may not be called in interrupt context.
+
+If your driver needs lots of smaller memory regions, you can write
+custom code to subdivide pages returned by pci_alloc_consistent,
+or you can use the pci_pool API to do that. A pci_pool is like
+a kmem_cache, but it uses pci_alloc_consistent not __get_free_pages.
+Also, it understands common hardware constraints for alignment,
+like queue heads needing to be aligned on N byte boundaries.
+
+Create a pci_pool like this:
+
+ struct pci_pool *pool;
+
+ pool = pci_pool_create(name, pdev, size, align, alloc);
+
+The "name" is for diagnostics (like a kmem_cache name); pdev and size
+are as above. The device's hardware alignment requirement for this
+type of data is "align" (which is expressed in bytes, and must be a
+power of two). If your device has no boundary crossing restrictions,
+pass 0 for alloc; passing 4096 says memory allocated from this pool
+must not cross 4KByte boundaries (but at that time it may be better to
+go for pci_alloc_consistent directly instead).
+
+Allocate memory from a pci pool like this:
+
+ cpu_addr = pci_pool_alloc(pool, flags, &dma_handle);
+
+flags are SLAB_KERNEL if blocking is permitted (not in_interrupt nor
+holding SMP locks), SLAB_ATOMIC otherwise. Like pci_alloc_consistent,
+this returns two values, cpu_addr and dma_handle.
+
+Free memory that was allocated from a pci_pool like this:
+
+ pci_pool_free(pool, cpu_addr, dma_handle);
+
+where pool is what you passed to pci_pool_alloc, and cpu_addr and
+dma_handle are the values pci_pool_alloc returned. This function
+may be called in interrupt context.
+
+Destroy a pci_pool by calling:
+
+ pci_pool_destroy(pool);
+
+Make sure you've called pci_pool_free for all memory allocated
+from a pool before you destroy the pool. This function may not
+be called in interrupt context.
+
+ DMA Direction
+
+The interfaces described in subsequent portions of this document
+take a DMA direction argument, which is an integer and takes on
+one of the following values:
+
+ PCI_DMA_BIDIRECTIONAL
+ PCI_DMA_TODEVICE
+ PCI_DMA_FROMDEVICE
+ PCI_DMA_NONE
+
+One should provide the exact DMA direction if you know it.
+
+PCI_DMA_TODEVICE means "from main memory to the PCI device"
+PCI_DMA_FROMDEVICE means "from the PCI device to main memory"
+It is the direction in which the data moves during the DMA
+transfer.
+
+You are _strongly_ encouraged to specify this as precisely
+as you possibly can.
+
+If you absolutely cannot know the direction of the DMA transfer,
+specify PCI_DMA_BIDIRECTIONAL. It means that the DMA can go in
+either direction. The platform guarantees that you may legally
+specify this, and that it will work, but this may be at the
+cost of performance for example.
+
+The value PCI_DMA_NONE is to be used for debugging. One can
+hold this in a data structure before you come to know the
+precise direction, and this will help catch cases where your
+direction tracking logic has failed to set things up properly.
+
+Another advantage of specifying this value precisely (outside of
+potential platform-specific optimizations of such) is for debugging.
+Some platforms actually have a write permission boolean which DMA
+mappings can be marked with, much like page protections in the user
+program address space. Such platforms can and do report errors in the
+kernel logs when the PCI controller hardware detects violation of the
+permission setting.
+
+Only streaming mappings specify a direction, consistent mappings
+implicitly have a direction attribute setting of
+PCI_DMA_BIDIRECTIONAL.
+
+The SCSI subsystem tells you the direction to use in the
+'sc_data_direction' member of the SCSI command your driver is
+working on.
+
+For Networking drivers, it's a rather simple affair. For transmit
+packets, map/unmap them with the PCI_DMA_TODEVICE direction
+specifier. For receive packets, just the opposite, map/unmap them
+with the PCI_DMA_FROMDEVICE direction specifier.
+
+ Using Streaming DMA mappings
+
+The streaming DMA mapping routines can be called from interrupt
+context. There are two versions of each map/unmap, one which will
+map/unmap a single memory region, and one which will map/unmap a
+scatterlist.
+
+To map a single region, you do:
+
+ struct pci_dev *pdev = mydev->pdev;
+ dma_addr_t dma_handle;
+ void *addr = buffer->ptr;
+ size_t size = buffer->len;
+
+ dma_handle = pci_map_single(pdev, addr, size, direction);
+
+and to unmap it:
+
+ pci_unmap_single(pdev, dma_handle, size, direction);
+
+You should call pci_unmap_single when the DMA activity is finished, e.g.
+from the interrupt which told you that the DMA transfer is done.
+
+Using cpu pointers like this for single mappings has a disadvantage,
+you cannot reference HIGHMEM memory in this way. Thus, there is a
+map/unmap interface pair akin to pci_{map,unmap}_single. These
+interfaces deal with page/offset pairs instead of cpu pointers.
+Specifically:
+
+ struct pci_dev *pdev = mydev->pdev;
+ dma_addr_t dma_handle;
+ struct page *page = buffer->page;
+ unsigned long offset = buffer->offset;
+ size_t size = buffer->len;
+
+ dma_handle = pci_map_page(pdev, page, offset, size, direction);
+
+ ...
+
+ pci_unmap_page(pdev, dma_handle, size, direction);
+
+Here, "offset" means byte offset within the given page.
+
+With scatterlists, you map a region gathered from several regions by:
+
+ int i, count = pci_map_sg(pdev, sglist, nents, direction);
+ struct scatterlist *sg;
+
+ for_each_sg(sglist, sg, count, i) {
+ hw_address[i] = sg_dma_address(sg);
+ hw_len[i] = sg_dma_len(sg);
+ }
+
+where nents is the number of entries in the sglist.
+
+The implementation is free to merge several consecutive sglist entries
+into one (e.g. if DMA mapping is done with PAGE_SIZE granularity, any
+consecutive sglist entries can be merged into one provided the first one
+ends and the second one starts on a page boundary - in fact this is a huge
+advantage for cards which either cannot do scatter-gather or have very
+limited number of scatter-gather entries) and returns the actual number
+of sg entries it mapped them to. On failure 0 is returned.
+
+Then you should loop count times (note: this can be less than nents times)
+and use sg_dma_address() and sg_dma_len() macros where you previously
+accessed sg->address and sg->length as shown above.
+
+To unmap a scatterlist, just call:
+
+ pci_unmap_sg(pdev, sglist, nents, direction);
+
+Again, make sure DMA activity has already finished.
+
+PLEASE NOTE: The 'nents' argument to the pci_unmap_sg call must be
+ the _same_ one you passed into the pci_map_sg call,
+ it should _NOT_ be the 'count' value _returned_ from the
+ pci_map_sg call.
+
+Every pci_map_{single,sg} call should have its pci_unmap_{single,sg}
+counterpart, because the bus address space is a shared resource (although
+in some ports the mapping is per each BUS so less devices contend for the
+same bus address space) and you could render the machine unusable by eating
+all bus addresses.
+
+If you need to use the same streaming DMA region multiple times and touch
+the data in between the DMA transfers, the buffer needs to be synced
+properly in order for the cpu and device to see the most uptodate and
+correct copy of the DMA buffer.
+
+So, firstly, just map it with pci_map_{single,sg}, and after each DMA
+transfer call either:
+
+ pci_dma_sync_single_for_cpu(pdev, dma_handle, size, direction);
+
+or:
+
+ pci_dma_sync_sg_for_cpu(pdev, sglist, nents, direction);
+
+as appropriate.
+
+Then, if you wish to let the device get at the DMA area again,
+finish accessing the data with the cpu, and then before actually
+giving the buffer to the hardware call either:
+
+ pci_dma_sync_single_for_device(pdev, dma_handle, size, direction);
+
+or:
+
+ pci_dma_sync_sg_for_device(dev, sglist, nents, direction);
+
+as appropriate.
+
+After the last DMA transfer call one of the DMA unmap routines
+pci_unmap_{single,sg}. If you don't touch the data from the first pci_map_*
+call till pci_unmap_*, then you don't have to call the pci_dma_sync_*
+routines at all.
+
+Here is pseudo code which shows a situation in which you would need
+to use the pci_dma_sync_*() interfaces.
+
+ my_card_setup_receive_buffer(struct my_card *cp, char *buffer, int len)
+ {
+ dma_addr_t mapping;
+
+ mapping = pci_map_single(cp->pdev, buffer, len, PCI_DMA_FROMDEVICE);
+
+ cp->rx_buf = buffer;
+ cp->rx_len = len;
+ cp->rx_dma = mapping;
+
+ give_rx_buf_to_card(cp);
+ }
+
+ ...
+
+ my_card_interrupt_handler(int irq, void *devid, struct pt_regs *regs)
+ {
+ struct my_card *cp = devid;
+
+ ...
+ if (read_card_status(cp) == RX_BUF_TRANSFERRED) {
+ struct my_card_header *hp;
+
+ /* Examine the header to see if we wish
+ * to accept the data. But synchronize
+ * the DMA transfer with the CPU first
+ * so that we see updated contents.
+ */
+ pci_dma_sync_single_for_cpu(cp->pdev, cp->rx_dma,
+ cp->rx_len,
+ PCI_DMA_FROMDEVICE);
+
+ /* Now it is safe to examine the buffer. */
+ hp = (struct my_card_header *) cp->rx_buf;
+ if (header_is_ok(hp)) {
+ pci_unmap_single(cp->pdev, cp->rx_dma, cp->rx_len,
+ PCI_DMA_FROMDEVICE);
+ pass_to_upper_layers(cp->rx_buf);
+ make_and_setup_new_rx_buf(cp);
+ } else {
+ /* Just sync the buffer and give it back
+ * to the card.
+ */
+ pci_dma_sync_single_for_device(cp->pdev,
+ cp->rx_dma,
+ cp->rx_len,
+ PCI_DMA_FROMDEVICE);
+ give_rx_buf_to_card(cp);
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+Drivers converted fully to this interface should not use virt_to_bus any
+longer, nor should they use bus_to_virt. Some drivers have to be changed a
+little bit, because there is no longer an equivalent to bus_to_virt in the
+dynamic DMA mapping scheme - you have to always store the DMA addresses
+returned by the pci_alloc_consistent, pci_pool_alloc, and pci_map_single
+calls (pci_map_sg stores them in the scatterlist itself if the platform
+supports dynamic DMA mapping in hardware) in your driver structures and/or
+in the card registers.
+
+All PCI drivers should be using these interfaces with no exceptions.
+It is planned to completely remove virt_to_bus() and bus_to_virt() as
+they are entirely deprecated. Some ports already do not provide these
+as it is impossible to correctly support them.
+
+ Optimizing Unmap State Space Consumption
+
+On many platforms, pci_unmap_{single,page}() is simply a nop.
+Therefore, keeping track of the mapping address and length is a waste
+of space. Instead of filling your drivers up with ifdefs and the like
+to "work around" this (which would defeat the whole purpose of a
+portable API) the following facilities are provided.
+
+Actually, instead of describing the macros one by one, we'll
+transform some example code.
+
+1) Use DECLARE_PCI_UNMAP_{ADDR,LEN} in state saving structures.
+ Example, before:
+
+ struct ring_state {
+ struct sk_buff *skb;
+ dma_addr_t mapping;
+ __u32 len;
+ };
+
+ after:
+
+ struct ring_state {
+ struct sk_buff *skb;
+ DECLARE_PCI_UNMAP_ADDR(mapping)
+ DECLARE_PCI_UNMAP_LEN(len)
+ };
+
+ NOTE: DO NOT put a semicolon at the end of the DECLARE_*()
+ macro.
+
+2) Use pci_unmap_{addr,len}_set to set these values.
+ Example, before:
+
+ ringp->mapping = FOO;
+ ringp->len = BAR;
+
+ after:
+
+ pci_unmap_addr_set(ringp, mapping, FOO);
+ pci_unmap_len_set(ringp, len, BAR);
+
+3) Use pci_unmap_{addr,len} to access these values.
+ Example, before:
+
+ pci_unmap_single(pdev, ringp->mapping, ringp->len,
+ PCI_DMA_FROMDEVICE);
+
+ after:
+
+ pci_unmap_single(pdev,
+ pci_unmap_addr(ringp, mapping),
+ pci_unmap_len(ringp, len),
+ PCI_DMA_FROMDEVICE);
+
+It really should be self-explanatory. We treat the ADDR and LEN
+separately, because it is possible for an implementation to only
+need the address in order to perform the unmap operation.
+
+ Platform Issues
+
+If you are just writing drivers for Linux and do not maintain
+an architecture port for the kernel, you can safely skip down
+to "Closing".
+
+1) Struct scatterlist requirements.
+
+ Struct scatterlist must contain, at a minimum, the following
+ members:
+
+ struct page *page;
+ unsigned int offset;
+ unsigned int length;
+
+ The base address is specified by a "page+offset" pair.
+
+ Previous versions of struct scatterlist contained a "void *address"
+ field that was sometimes used instead of page+offset. As of Linux
+ 2.5., page+offset is always used, and the "address" field has been
+ deleted.
+
+2) More to come...
+
+ Handling Errors
+
+DMA address space is limited on some architectures and an allocation
+failure can be determined by:
+
+- checking if pci_alloc_consistent returns NULL or pci_map_sg returns 0
+
+- checking the returned dma_addr_t of pci_map_single and pci_map_page
+ by using pci_dma_mapping_error():
+
+ dma_addr_t dma_handle;
+
+ dma_handle = pci_map_single(pdev, addr, size, direction);
+ if (pci_dma_mapping_error(pdev, dma_handle)) {
+ /*
+ * reduce current DMA mapping usage,
+ * delay and try again later or
+ * reset driver.
+ */
+ }
+
+ Closing
+
+This document, and the API itself, would not be in it's current
+form without the feedback and suggestions from numerous individuals.
+We would like to specifically mention, in no particular order, the
+following people:
+
+ Russell King <rmk@arm.linux.org.uk>
+ Leo Dagum <dagum@barrel.engr.sgi.com>
+ Ralf Baechle <ralf@oss.sgi.com>
+ Grant Grundler <grundler@cup.hp.com>
+ Jay Estabrook <Jay.Estabrook@compaq.com>
+ Thomas Sailer <sailer@ife.ee.ethz.ch>
+ Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de>
+ Jens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
+ David Mosberger-Tang <davidm@hpl.hp.com>

Privacy Policy