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authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org>2005-04-16 15:20:36 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org>2005-04-16 15:20:36 -0700
commit1da177e4c3f41524e886b7f1b8a0c1fc7321cac2 (patch)
tree0bba044c4ce775e45a88a51686b5d9f90697ea9d /Documentation/cdrom
Linux-2.6.12-rc2
Initial git repository build. I'm not bothering with the full history, even though we have it. We can create a separate "historical" git archive of that later if we want to, and in the meantime it's about 3.2GB when imported into git - space that would just make the early git days unnecessarily complicated, when we don't have a lot of good infrastructure for it. Let it rip!
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/cdrom')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/00-INDEX33
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/Makefile21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/aztcd822
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/cdrom-standard.tex1022
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/cdu31a196
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/cm206185
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/gscd60
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/ide-cd574
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/isp16100
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/mcdx29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/optcd57
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/packet-writing.txt97
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/sbpcd1057
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/sjcd60
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cdrom/sonycd535121
15 files changed, 4434 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/00-INDEX b/Documentation/cdrom/00-INDEX
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..916dafe29d3f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/00-INDEX
@@ -0,0 +1,33 @@
+00-INDEX
+ - this file (info on CD-ROMs and Linux)
+Makefile
+ - only used to generate TeX output from the documentation.
+aztcd
+ - info on Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes/Conrad/CyCDROM driver.
+cdrom-standard.tex
+ - LaTeX document on standardizing the CD-ROM programming interface.
+cdu31a
+ - info on the Sony CDU31A/CDU33A CD-ROM driver.
+cm206
+ - info on the Philips/LMS cm206/cm260 CD-ROM driver.
+gscd
+ - info on the Goldstar R420 CD-ROM driver.
+ide-cd
+ - info on setting up and using ATAPI (aka IDE) CD-ROMs.
+isp16
+ - info on the CD-ROM interface on ISP16, MAD16 or Mozart sound card.
+mcd
+ - info on limitations of standard Mitsumi CD-ROM driver.
+mcdx
+ - info on improved Mitsumi CD-ROM driver.
+optcd
+ - info on the Optics Storage 8000 AT CD-ROM driver
+packet-writing.txt
+ - Info on the CDRW packet writing module
+sbpcd
+ - info on the SoundBlaster/Panasonic CD-ROM interface driver.
+sjcd
+ - info on the SANYO CDR-H94A CD-ROM interface driver.
+sonycd535
+ - info on the Sony CDU-535 (and 531) CD-ROM driver.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/Makefile b/Documentation/cdrom/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a19e321928e1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,21 @@
+LATEXFILE = cdrom-standard
+
+all:
+ make clean
+ latex $(LATEXFILE)
+ latex $(LATEXFILE)
+ @if [ -x `which gv` ]; then \
+ `dvips -q -t letter -o $(LATEXFILE).ps $(LATEXFILE).dvi` ;\
+ `gv -antialias -media letter -nocenter $(LATEXFILE).ps` ;\
+ else \
+ `xdvi $(LATEXFILE).dvi &` ;\
+ fi
+ make sortofclean
+
+clean:
+ rm -f $(LATEXFILE).ps $(LATEXFILE).dvi $(LATEXFILE).aux $(LATEXFILE).log
+
+sortofclean:
+ rm -f $(LATEXFILE).aux $(LATEXFILE).log
+
+
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/aztcd b/Documentation/cdrom/aztcd
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..6bf0290ef7ce
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/aztcd
@@ -0,0 +1,822 @@
+$Id: README.aztcd,v 2.60 1997/11/29 09:51:25 root Exp root $
+ Readme-File Documentation/cdrom/aztcd
+ for
+ AZTECH CD-ROM CDA268-01A, ORCHID CD-3110,
+ OKANO/WEARNES CDD110, CONRAD TXC, CyCDROM CR520, CR540
+ CD-ROM Drives
+ Version 2.6 and newer
+ (for other drives see 6.-8.)
+
+NOTE: THIS DRIVER WILL WORK WITH THE CD-ROM DRIVES LISTED, WHICH HAVE
+ A PROPRIETARY INTERFACE (implemented on a sound card or on an
+ ISA-AT-bus card).
+ IT WILL DEFINITELY NOT WORK WITH CD-ROM DRIVES WITH *IDE*-INTERFACE,
+ such as the Aztech CDA269-031SE !!! (The only known exceptions are
+ 'faked' IDE drives like the CyCDROM CR520ie which work with aztcd
+ under certain conditions, see 7.). IF YOU'RE USING A CD-ROM DRIVE
+ WITH IDE-INTERFACE, SOMETIMES ALSO CALLED ATAPI-COMPATIBLE, PLEASE
+ USE THE ide-cd.c DRIVER, WRITTEN BY MARK LORD AND SCOTT SNYDER !
+ THE STANDARD-KERNEL 1.2.x NOW ALSO SUPPORTS IDE-CDROM-DRIVES, SEE THE
+ HARDDISK (!) SECTION OF make config, WHEN COMPILING A NEW KERNEL!!!
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Contents of this file:
+ 1. NOTE
+ 2. INSTALLATION
+ 3. CONFIGURING YOUR KERNEL
+ 4. RECOMPILING YOUR KERNEL
+ 4.1 AZTCD AS A RUN-TIME LOADABLE MODULE
+ 4.2 CDROM CONNECTED TO A SOUNDCARD
+ 5. KNOWN PROBLEMS, FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
+ 5.1 MULTISESSION SUPPORT
+ 5.2 STATUS RECOGNITION
+ 5.3 DOSEMU's CDROM SUPPORT
+ 6. BUG REPORTS
+ 7. OTHER DRIVES
+ 8. IF YOU DON'T SUCCEED ... DEBUGGING
+ 9. TECHNICAL HISTORY OF THE DRIVER
+ 10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
+ 11. PROGRAMMING ADD ONS: CDPLAY.C
+ APPENDIX: Source code of cdplay.c
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+1. NOTE
+This software has been successfully in alpha and beta test and is part of
+the standard kernel since kernel 1.1.8x since December 1994. It works with
+AZTECH CDA268-01A, ORCHID CDS-3110, ORCHID/WEARNES CDD110 and CONRAD TXC
+(Nr.99 31 23 -series 04) and has proven to be stable with kernel
+versions 1.0.9 and newer. But with any software there still may be bugs in it.
+So if you encounter problems, you are invited to help us improve this software.
+Please send me a detailed bug report (see chapter BUG REPORTS). You are also
+invited in helping us to increase the number of drives, which are supported.
+
+Please read the README-files carefully and always keep a backup copy of your
+old kernel, in order to reboot if something goes wrong!
+
+2. INSTALLATION
+The driver consists of a header file 'aztcd.h', which normally should reside
+in /usr/src/linux/drivers/cdrom and the source code 'aztcd.c', which normally
+resides in the same place. It uses /dev/aztcd (/dev/aztcd0 in some distri-
+butions), which must be a valid block device with major number 29 and reside
+in directory /dev. To mount a CD-ROM, your kernel needs to have the ISO9660-
+filesystem support included.
+
+PLEASE NOTE: aztcd.c has been developed in parallel to the linux kernel,
+which had and is having many major and minor changes which are not backward
+compatible. Quite definitely aztcd.c version 1.80 and newer will NOT work
+in kernels older than 1.3.33. So please always use the most recent version
+of aztcd.c with the appropriate linux-kernel.
+
+3. CONFIGURING YOUR KERNEL
+If your kernel is already configured for using the AZTECH driver you will
+see the following message while Linux boots:
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: DriverVersion=<version number> BaseAddress=<baseaddress>
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: FirmwareVersion=<firmware version id of your I/O-card>>>
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: <drive type> detected
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: End
+If the message looks different and you are sure to have a supported drive,
+it may have a different base address. The Aztech driver does look for the
+CD-ROM drive at the base address specified in aztcd.h at compile time. This
+address can be overwritten by boot parameter aztcd=....You should reboot and
+start Linux with boot parameter aztcd=<base address>, e.g. aztcd=0x320. If
+you do not know the base address, start your PC with DOS and look at the boot
+message of your CD-ROM's DOS driver. If that still does not help, use boot
+parameter aztcd=<base address>,0x79 , this tells aztcd to try a little harder.
+aztcd may be configured to use autoprobing the base address by recompiling
+it (see chapter 4.).
+
+If the message looks correct, as user 'root' you should be able to mount the
+drive by
+ mount -t iso9660 -r /dev/aztcd0 /mnt
+and use it as any other filesystem. (If this does not work, check if
+/dev/aztcd0 and /mnt do exist and create them, if necessary by doing
+ mknod /dev/aztcd0 b 29 0
+ mkdir /mnt
+
+If you still get a different message while Linux boots or when you get the
+message, that the ISO9660-filesystem is not supported by your kernel, when
+you try to mount the CD-ROM drive, you have to recompile your kernel.
+
+If you do *not* have an Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes/TXC drive and want to
+bypass drive detection during Linux boot up, start with boot parameter aztcd=0.
+
+Most distributions nowadays do contain a boot disk image containing aztcd.
+Please note, that this driver will not work with IDE/ATAPI drives! With these
+you must use ide-cd.c instead.
+
+4. RECOMPILING YOUR KERNEL
+If your kernel is not yet configured for the AZTECH driver and the ISO9660-
+filesystem, you have to recompile your kernel:
+
+- Edit aztcd.h to set the I/O-address to your I/O-Base address (AZT_BASE_ADDR),
+ the driver does not use interrupts or DMA, so if you are using an AZTECH
+ CD268, an ORCHID CD-3110 or ORCHID/WEARNES CDD110 that's the only item you
+ have to set up. If you have a soundcard, read chapter 4.2.
+ Users of other drives should read chapter OTHER DRIVES of this file.
+ You also can configure that address by kernel boot parameter aztcd=...
+- aztcd may be configured to use autoprobing the base address by setting
+ AZT_BASE_ADDR to '-1'. In that case aztcd probes the addresses listed
+ under AZT_BASE_AUTO. But please remember, that autoprobing always may
+ incorrectly influence other hardware components too!
+- There are some other points, which may be configured, e.g. auto-eject the
+ CD when unmounting a drive, tray locking etc., see aztcd.h for details.
+- If you're using a linux kernel version prior to 2.1.0, in aztcd.h
+ uncomment the line '#define AZT_KERNEL_PRIOR_2_1'
+- Build a new kernel, configure it for 'Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes support'
+ (if you want aztcd to be part of the kernel). Do not configure it for
+ 'Aztech... support', if you want to use aztcd as a run time loadable module.
+ But in any case you must have the ISO9660-filesystem included in your
+ kernel.
+- Activate the new kernel, normally this is done by running LILO (don't for-
+ get to configure it before and to keep a copy of your old kernel in case
+ something goes wrong!).
+- Reboot
+- If you've included aztcd in your kernel, you now should see during boot
+ some messages like
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: DriverVersion=<version number> BaseAddress=<baseaddress>
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: FirmwareVersion=<firmware version id of your I/O-card>
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: <drive type> detected
+ Aztech CD-ROM Init: End
+- If you have not included aztcd in your kernel, but want to load aztcd as a
+ run time loadable module see 4.1.
+- If the message looks correct, as user 'root' you should be able to mount
+ the drive by
+ mount -t iso9660 -r /dev/aztcd0 /mnt
+ and use it as any other filesystem. (If this does not work, check if
+ /dev/aztcd0 and /mnt do exist and create them, if necessary by doing
+ mknod /dev/aztcd0 b 29 0
+ mkdir /mnt
+- If this still does not help, see chapters OTHER DRIVES and DEBUGGING.
+
+4.1 AZTCD AS A RUN-TIME LOADABLE MODULE
+If you do not need aztcd permanently, you can also load and remove the driver
+during runtime via insmod and rmmod. To build aztcd as a loadable module you
+must configure your kernel for AZTECH module support (answer 'm' when con-
+figuring the kernel). Anyhow, you may run into problems, if the version of
+your boot kernel is not the same than the source kernel version, from which
+you create the modules. So rebuild your kernel, if necessary.
+
+Now edit the base address of your AZTECH interface card in
+/usr/src/linux/drivers/cdrom/aztcd.h to the appropriate value.
+aztcd may be configured to use autoprobing the base address by setting
+AZT_BASE_ADDR to '-1'. In that case aztcd probes the addresses listed
+under AZT_BASE_AUTO. But please remember, that autoprobing always may
+incorrectly influence other hardware components too!
+There are also some special features which may be configured, e.g.
+auto-eject a CD when unmounting the drive etc; see aztcd.h for details.
+Then change to /usr/src/linux and do a
+ make modules
+ make modules_install
+After that you can run-time load the driver via
+ insmod /lib/modules/X.X.X/misc/aztcd.o
+and remove it via rmmod aztcd.
+If you did not set the correct base address in aztcd.h, you can also supply the
+base address when loading the driver via
+ insmod /lib/modules/X.X.X/misc/aztcd.o aztcd=<base address>
+Again specifying aztcd=-1 will cause autoprobing.
+If you do not have the iso9660-filesystem in your boot kernel, you also have
+to load it before you can mount the CDROM:
+ insmod /lib/modules/X.X.X/fs/isofs.o
+The mount procedure works as described in 4. above.
+(In all commands 'X.X.X' is the current linux kernel version number)
+
+4.2 CDROM CONNECTED TO A SOUNDCARD
+Most soundcards do have a bus interface to the CDROM-drive. In many cases
+this soundcard needs to be configured, before the CDROM can be used. This
+configuration procedure consists of writing some kind of initialization
+data to the soundcard registers. The AZTECH-CDROM driver in the moment does
+only support one type of soundcard (SoundWave32). Users of other soundcards
+should try to boot DOS first and let their DOS drivers initialize the
+soundcard and CDROM, then warm boot (or use loadlin) their PC to start
+Linux.
+Support for the CDROM-interface of SoundWave32-soundcards is directly
+implemented in the AZTECH driver. Please edit linux/drivers/cdrom/aztdc.h,
+uncomment line '#define AZT_SW32' and set the appropriate value for
+AZT_BASE_ADDR and AZT_SW32_BASE_ADDR. This support was tested with an Orchid
+CDS-3110 connected to a SoundWave32.
+If you want your soundcard to be supported, find out, how it needs to be
+configured and mail me (see 6.) the appropriate information.
+
+5. KNOWN PROBLEMS, FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
+5.1 MULTISESSION SUPPORT
+Multisession support for CD's still is a myth. I implemented and tested a basic
+support for multisession and XA CDs, but I still have not enough CDs and appli-
+cations to test it rigorously. So if you'd like to help me, please contact me
+(Email address see below). As of version 1.4 and newer you can enable the
+multisession support in aztcd.h by setting AZT_MULTISESSION to 1. Doing so
+will cause the ISO9660-filesystem to deal with multisession CDs, ie. redirect
+requests to the Table of Contents (TOC) information from the last session,
+which contains the info of all previous sessions etc.. If you do set
+AZT_MULTISESSION to 0, you can use multisession CDs anyway. In that case the
+drive's firmware will do automatic redirection. For the ISO9660-filesystem any
+multisession CD will then look like a 'normal' single session CD. But never-
+theless the data of all sessions are viewable and accessible. So with practical-
+ly all real world applications you won't notice the difference. But as future
+applications may make use of advanced multisession features, I've started to
+implement the interface for the ISO9660 multisession interface via ioctl
+CDROMMULTISESSION.
+
+5.2 STATUS RECOGNITION
+The drive status recognition does not work correctly in all cases. Changing
+a disk or having the door open, when a drive is already mounted, is detected
+by the Aztech driver itself, but nevertheless causes multiple read attempts
+by the different layers of the ISO9660-filesystem driver, which finally timeout,
+so you have to wait quite a little... But isn't it bad style to change a disk
+in a mounted drive, anyhow ?!
+
+The driver uses busy wait in most cases for the drive handshake (macros
+STEN_LOW and DTEN_LOW). I tested with a 486/DX2 at 66MHz and a Pentium at
+60MHz and 90MHz. Whenever you use a much faster machine you are likely to get
+timeout messages. In that case edit aztcd.h and increase the timeout value
+AZT_TIMEOUT.
+
+For some 'slow' drive commands I implemented waiting with a timer waitqueue
+(macro STEN_LOW_WAIT). If you get this timeout message, you may also edit
+aztcd.h and increase the timeout value AZT_STATUS_DELAY. The waitqueue has
+shown to be a little critical. If you get kernel panic messages, edit aztcd.c
+and substitute STEN_LOW_WAIT by STEN_LOW. Busy waiting with STEN_LOW is more
+stable, but also causes CPU overhead.
+
+5.3 DOSEMU's CD-ROM SUPPORT
+With release 1.20 aztcd was modified to allow access to CD-ROMS when running
+under dosemu-0.60.0 aztcd-versions before 1.20 are most likely to crash
+Linux, when a CD-ROM is accessed under dosemu. This problem has partly been
+fixed, but still when accessing a directory for the first time the system
+might hang for some 30sec. So be patient, when using dosemu's CD-ROM support
+in combination with aztcd :-) !
+This problem has now (July 1995) been fixed by a modification to dosemu's
+CD-ROM driver. The new version came with dosemu-0.60.2, see dosemu's
+README.CDROM.
+
+6. BUG REPORTS
+Please send detailed bug reports and bug fixes via EMail to
+
+ Werner.Zimmermann@fht-esslingen.de
+
+Please include a description of your CD-ROM drive type and interface card,
+the exact firmware message during Linux bootup, the version number of the
+AZTECH-CDROM-driver and the Linux kernel version. Also a description of your
+system's other hardware could be of interest, especially microprocessor type,
+clock frequency, other interface cards such as soundcards, ethernet adapter,
+game cards etc..
+
+I will try to collect the reports and make the necessary modifications from
+time to time. I may also come back to you directly with some bug fixes and
+ask you to do further testing and debugging.
+
+Editors of CD-ROMs are invited to send a 'cooperation' copy of their
+CD-ROMs to the volunteers, who provided the CD-ROM support for Linux. My
+snail mail address for such 'stuff' is
+ Prof. Dr. W. Zimmermann
+ Fachhochschule fuer Technik Esslingen
+ Fachbereich IT
+ Flandernstrasse 101
+ D-73732 Esslingen
+ Germany
+
+
+7. OTHER DRIVES
+The following drives ORCHID CDS3110, OKANO CDD110, WEARNES CDD110 and Conrad
+TXC Nr. 993123-series 04 nearly look the same as AZTECH CDA268-01A, especially
+they seem to use the same command codes. So it was quite simple to make the
+AZTECH driver work with these drives.
+
+Unfortunately I do not have any of these drives available, so I couldn't test
+it myself. In some installations, it seems necessary to initialize the drive
+with the DOS driver before (especially if combined with a sound card) and then
+do a warm boot (CTRL-ALT-RESET) or start Linux from DOS, e.g. with 'loadlin'.
+
+If you do not succeed, read chapter DEBUGGING. Thanks in advance!
+
+Sorry for the inconvenience, but it is difficult to develop for hardware,
+which you don't have available for testing. So if you like, please help us.
+
+If you do have a CyCDROM CR520ie thanks to Hilmar Berger's help your chances
+are good, that it will work with aztcd. The CR520ie is sold as an IDE-drive
+and really is connected to the IDE interface (primary at 0x1F0 or secondary
+at 0x170, configured as slave, not as master). Nevertheless it is not ATAPI
+compatible but still uses Aztech's command codes.
+
+
+8. DEBUGGING : IF YOU DON'T SUCCEED, TRY THE FOLLOWING
+-reread the complete README file
+-make sure, that your drive is hardware configured for
+ transfer mode: polled
+ IRQ: not used
+ DMA: not used
+ Base Address: something like 300, 320 ...
+ You can check this, when you start the DOS driver, which came with your
+ drive. By appropriately configuring the drive and the DOS driver you can
+ check, whether your drive does operate in this mode correctly under DOS. If
+ it does not operate under DOS, it won't under Linux.
+ If your drive's base address is something like 0x170 or 0x1F0 (and it is
+ not a CyCDROM CR520ie or CR 940ie) you most likely are having an IDE/ATAPI-
+ compatible drive, which is not supported by aztcd.c, use ide-cd.c instead.
+ Make sure the Base Address is configured correctly in aztcd.h, also make
+ sure, that /dev/aztcd0 exists with the correct major number (compare it with
+ the entry in file /usr/include/linux/major.h for the Aztech drive).
+-insert a CD-ROM and close the tray
+-cold boot your PC (i.e. via the power on switch or the reset button)
+-if you start Linux via DOS, e.g. using loadlin, make sure, that the DOS
+ driver for the CD-ROM drive is not loaded (comment out the calling lines
+ in DOS' config.sys!)
+-look for the aztcd: init message during Linux init and note them exactly
+-log in as root and do a mount -t iso9660 /dev/aztcd0 /mnt
+-if you don't succeed in the first time, try several times. Try also to open
+ and close the tray, then mount again. Please note carefully all commands
+ you typed in and the aztcd-messages, which you get.
+-if you get an 'Aztech CD-ROM init: aborted' message, read the remarks about
+ the version string below.
+
+If this does not help, do the same with the following differences
+-start DOS before; make now sure, that the DOS driver for the CD-ROM is
+ loaded under DOS (i.e. uncomment it again in config.sys)
+-warm boot your PC (i.e. via CTRL-ALT-DEL)
+ if you have it, you can also start via loadlin (try both).
+ ...
+ Again note all commands and the aztcd-messages.
+
+If you see STEN_LOW or STEN_LOW_WAIT error messages, increase the timeout
+values.
+
+If this still does not help,
+-look in aztcd.c for the lines #if 0
+ #define AZT_TEST1
+ ...
+ #endif
+ and substitute '#if 0' by '#if 1'.
+-recompile your kernel and repeat the above two procedures. You will now get
+ a bundle of debugging messages from the driver. Again note your commands
+ and the appropriate messages. If you have syslogd running, these messages
+ may also be found in syslogd's kernel log file. Nevertheless in some
+ installations syslogd does not yet run, when init() is called, thus look for
+ the aztcd-messages during init, before the login-prompt appears.
+ Then look in aztcd.c, to find out, what happened. The normal calling sequence
+ is: aztcd_init() during Linux bootup procedure init()
+ after doing a 'mount -t iso9660 /dev/aztcd0 /mnt' the normal calling sequence is
+ aztcd_open() -> Status 2c after cold reboot with CDROM or audio CD inserted
+ -> Status 8 after warm reboot with CDROM inserted
+ -> Status 2e after cold reboot with no disk, closed tray
+ -> Status 6e after cold reboot, mount with door open
+ aztUpdateToc()
+ aztGetDiskInfo()
+ aztGetQChannelInfo() repeated several times
+ aztGetToc()
+ aztGetQChannelInfo() repeated several times
+ a list of track information
+ do_aztcd_request() }
+ azt_transfer() } repeated several times
+ azt_poll }
+ Check, if there is a difference in the calling sequence or the status flags!
+
+ There are a lot of other messages, eg. the ACMD-command code (defined in
+ aztcd.h), status info from the getAztStatus-command and the state sequence of
+ the finite state machine in azt_poll(). The most important are the status
+ messages, look how they are defined and try to understand, if they make
+ sense in the context where they appear. With a CD-ROM inserted the status
+ should always be 8, except in aztcd_open(). Try to open the tray, insert an
+ audio disk, insert no disk or reinsert the CD-ROM and check, if the status
+ bits change accordingly. The status bits are the most likely point, where
+ the drive manufacturers may implement changes.
+
+If you still don't succeed, a good point to start is to look in aztcd.c in
+function aztcd_init, where the drive should be detected during init. Do the
+following:
+-reboot the system with boot parameter 'aztcd=<your base address>,0x79'. With
+ parameter 0x79 most of the drive version detection is bypassed. After that
+ you should see the complete version string including leading and trailing
+ blanks during init.
+ Now adapt the statement
+ if ((result[1]=='A')&&(result[2]=='Z' ...)
+ in aztcd_init() to exactly match the first 3 or 4 letters you have seen.
+-Another point is the 'smart' card detection feature in aztcd_init(). Normally
+ the CD-ROM drive is ready, when aztcd_init is trying to read the version
+ string and a time consuming ACMD_SOFT_RESET command can be avoided. This is
+ detected by looking, if AFL_OP_OK can be read correctly. If the CD-ROM drive
+ hangs in some unknown state, e.g. because of an error before a warm start or
+ because you first operated under DOS, even the version string may be correct,
+ but the following commands will not. Then change the code in such a way,
+ that the ACMD_SOFT_RESET is issued in any case, by substituting the
+ if-statement 'if ( ...=AFL_OP_OK)' by 'if (1)'.
+
+If you succeed, please mail me the exact version string of your drive and
+the code modifications, you have made together with a short explanation.
+If you don't succeed, you may mail me the output of the debugging messages.
+But remember, they are only useful, if they are exact and complete and you
+describe in detail your hardware setup and what you did (cold/warm reboot,
+with/without DOS, DOS-driver started/not started, which Linux-commands etc.)
+
+
+9. TECHNICAL HISTORY OF THE DRIVER
+The AZTECH-Driver is a rework of the Mitsumi-Driver. Four major items had to
+be reworked:
+
+a) The Mitsumi drive does issue complete status information acknowledging
+each command, the Aztech drive does only signal that the command was
+processed. So whenever the complete status information is needed, an extra
+ACMD_GET_STATUS command is issued. The handshake procedure for the drive
+can be found in the functions aztSendCmd(), sendAztCmd() and getAztStatus().
+
+b) The Aztech Drive does not have a ACMD_GET_DISK_INFO command, so the
+necessary info about the number of tracks (firstTrack, lastTrack), disk
+length etc. has to be read from the TOC in the lead in track (see function
+aztGetDiskInfo()).
+
+c) Whenever data is read from the drive, the Mitsumi drive is started with a
+command to read an indefinite (0xffffff) number of sectors. When the appropriate
+number of sectors is read, the drive is stopped by a ACDM_STOP command. This
+does not work with the Aztech drive. I did not find a way to stop it. The
+stop and pause commands do only work in AUDIO mode but not in DATA mode.
+Therefore I had to modify the 'finite state machine' in function azt_poll to
+only read a certain number of sectors and then start a new read on demand. As I
+have not completely understood, how the buffer/caching scheme of the Mitsumi
+driver was implemented, I am not sure, if I have covered all cases correctly,
+whenever you get timeout messages, the bug is most likely to be in that
+function azt_poll() around switch(cmd) .... case ACD_S_DATA.
+
+d) I did not get information about changing drive mode. So I doubt, that the
+code around function azt_poll() case AZT_S_MODE does work. In my test I have
+not been able to switch to reading in raw mode. For reading raw mode, Aztech
+uses a different command than for cooked mode, which I only have implemen-
+ted in the ioctl-section but not in the section which is used by the ISO9660.
+
+The driver was developed on an AST PC with Intel 486/DX2, 8MB RAM, 340MB IDE
+hard disk and on an AST PC with Intel Pentium 60MHz, 16MB RAM, 520MB IDE
+running Linux kernel version 1.0.9 from the LST 1.8 Distribution. The kernel
+was compiled with gcc.2.5.8. My CD-ROM drive is an Aztech CDA268-01A. My
+drive says, that it has Firmware Version AZT26801A1.3. It came with an ISA-bus
+interface card and works with polled I/O without DMA and without interrupts.
+The code for all other drives was 'remote' tested and debugged by a number of
+volunteers on the Internet.
+
+Points, where I feel that possible problems might be and all points where I
+did not completely understand the drive's behaviour or trust my own code are
+marked with /*???*/ in the source code. There are also some parts in the
+Mitsumi driver, where I did not completely understand their code.
+
+
+10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
+Without the help of P.Bush, Aztech, who delivered technical information
+about the Aztech Drive and without the help of E.Moenkeberg, GWDG, who did a
+great job in analyzing the command structure of various CD-ROM drives, this
+work would not have been possible. E.Moenkeberg was also a great help in
+making the software 'kernel ready' and in answering many of the CDROM-related
+questions in the newsgroups. He really is *the* Linux CD-ROM guru. Thanks
+also to all the guys on the Internet, who collected valuable technical
+information about CDROMs.
+
+Joe Nardone (joe@access.digex.net) was a patient tester even for my first
+trial, which was more than slow, and made suggestions for code improvement.
+Especially the 'finite state machine' azt_poll() was rewritten by Joe to get
+clean C code and avoid the ugly 'gotos', which I copied from mcd.c.
+
+Robby Schirmer (schirmer@fmi.uni-passau.de) tested the audio stuff (ioctls)
+and suggested a lot of patches for them.
+
+Joseph Piskor and Peter Nugent were the first users with the ORCHID CD3110
+and also were very patient with the problems which occurred.
+
+Reinhard Max delivered the information for the CDROM-interface of the
+SoundWave32 soundcards.
+
+Jochen Kunz and Olaf Kaluza delivered the information for supporting Conrad's
+TXC drive.
+
+Hilmar Berger delivered the patches for supporting CyCDROM CR520ie.
+
+Anybody, who is interested in these items should have a look at 'ftp.gwdg.de',
+directory 'pub/linux/cdrom' and at 'ftp.cdrom.com', directory 'pub/cdrom'.
+
+11. PROGRAMMING ADD ONs: cdplay.c
+You can use the ioctl-functions included in aztcd.c in your own programs. As
+an example on how to do this, you will find a tiny CD Player for audio CDs
+named 'cdplay.c'. It allows you to play audio CDs. You can play a specified
+track, pause and resume or skip tracks forward and backwards. If you quit the
+program without stopping the drive, playing is continued. You can also
+(mis)use cdplay to read and hexdump data disks. You can find the code in the
+APPENDIX of this file, which you should cut out with an editor and store in a
+separate file 'cdplay.c'. To compile it and make it executable, do
+ gcc -s -Wall -O2 -L/usr/lib cdplay.c -o /usr/local/bin/cdplay # compiles it
+ chmod +755 /usr/local/bin/cdplay # makes it executable
+ ln -s /dev/aztcd0 /dev/cdrom # creates a link
+ (for /usr/lib substitute the top level directory, where your include files
+ reside, and for /usr/local/bin the directory, where you want the executable
+ binary to reside )
+
+You have to set the correct permissions for cdplay *and* for /dev/mcd0 or
+/dev/aztcd0 in order to use it. Remember, that you should not have /dev/cdrom
+mounted, when you're playing audio CDs.
+
+This program is just a hack for testing the ioctl-functions in aztcd.c. I will
+not maintain it, so if you run into problems, discard it or have a look into
+the source code 'cdplay.c'. The program does only contain a minimum of user
+protection and input error detection. If you use the commands in the wrong
+order or if you try to read a CD at wrong addresses, you may get error messages
+or even hang your machine. If you get STEN_LOW, STEN_LOW_WAIT or segment violation
+error messages when using cdplay, after that, the system might not be stable
+any more, so you'd better reboot. As the ioctl-functions run in kernel mode,
+most normal Linux-multitasking protection features do not work. By using
+uninitialized 'wild' pointers etc., it is easy to write to other users' data
+and program areas, destroy kernel tables etc.. So if you experiment with ioctls
+as always when you are doing systems programming and kernel hacking, you
+should have a backup copy of your system in a safe place (and you also
+should try restoring from a backup copy first)!
+
+A reworked and improved version called 'cdtester.c', which has yet more
+features for testing CDROM-drives can be found in
+Documentation/cdrom/sbpcd, written by E.Moenkeberg.
+
+Werner Zimmermann
+Fachhochschule fuer Technik Esslingen
+(EMail: Werner.Zimmermann@fht-esslingen.de)
+October, 1997
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+APPENDIX: Source code of cdplay.c
+
+/* Tiny Audio CD Player
+
+ Copyright 1994, 1995, 1996 Werner Zimmermann (Werner.Zimmermann@fht-esslingen.de)
+
+This program originally was written to test the audio functions of the
+AZTECH.CDROM-driver, but it should work with every CD-ROM drive. Before
+using it, you should set a symlink from /dev/cdrom to your real CDROM
+device.
+
+The GNU General Public License applies to this program.
+
+History: V0.1 W.Zimmermann: First release. Nov. 8, 1994
+ V0.2 W.Zimmermann: Enhanced functionality. Nov. 9, 1994
+ V0.3 W.Zimmermann: Additional functions. Nov. 28, 1994
+ V0.4 W.Zimmermann: fixed some bugs. Dec. 17, 1994
+ V0.5 W.Zimmermann: clean 'scanf' commands without compiler warnings
+ Jan. 6, 1995
+ V0.6 W.Zimmermann: volume control (still experimental). Jan. 24, 1995
+ V0.7 W.Zimmermann: read raw modified. July 26, 95
+*/
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <linux/cdrom.h>
+#include <linux/../../drivers/cdrom/aztcd.h>
+
+void help(void)
+{ printf("Available Commands: STOP s EJECT/CLOSE e QUIT q\n");
+ printf(" PLAY TRACK t PAUSE p RESUME r\n");
+ printf(" NEXT TRACK n REPEAT LAST l HELP h\n");
+ printf(" SUB CHANNEL c TRACK INFO i PLAY AT a\n");
+ printf(" READ d READ RAW w VOLUME v\n");
+}
+
+int main(void)
+{ int handle;
+ unsigned char command=' ', ini=0, first=1, last=1;
+ unsigned int cmd, i,j,k, arg1,arg2,arg3;
+ struct cdrom_ti ti;
+ struct cdrom_tochdr tocHdr;
+ struct cdrom_subchnl subchnl;
+ struct cdrom_tocentry entry;
+ struct cdrom_msf msf;
+ union { struct cdrom_msf msf;
+ unsigned char buf[CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW];
+ } azt;
+ struct cdrom_volctrl volctrl;
+
+ printf("\nMini-Audio CD-Player V0.72 (C) 1994,1995,1996 W.Zimmermann\n");
+ handle=open("/dev/cdrom",O_RDWR);
+ ioctl(handle,CDROMRESUME);
+
+ if (handle<=0)
+ { printf("Drive Error: already playing, no audio disk, door open\n");
+ printf(" or no permission (you must be ROOT in order to use this program)\n");
+ }
+ else
+ { help();
+ while (1)
+ { printf("Type command (h = help): ");
+ scanf("%s",&command);
+ switch (command)
+ { case 'e': cmd=CDROMEJECT;
+ ioctl(handle,cmd);
+ break;
+ case 'p': if (!ini)
+ { printf("Command not allowed - play track first\n");
+ }
+ else
+ { cmd=CDROMPAUSE;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'r': if (!ini)
+ { printf("Command not allowed - play track first\n");
+ }
+ else
+ { cmd=CDROMRESUME;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ }
+ break;
+ case 's': cmd=CDROMPAUSE;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd)) printf("Drive error or already stopped\n");
+ cmd=CDROMSTOP;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd)) printf("Drive error\n");
+ break;
+ case 't': cmd=CDROMREADTOCHDR;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&tocHdr)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ first=tocHdr.cdth_trk0;
+ last= tocHdr.cdth_trk1;
+ if ((first==0)||(first>last))
+ { printf ("--could not read TOC\n");
+ }
+ else
+ { printf("--first track: %d --last track: %d --enter track number: ",first,last);
+ cmd=CDROMPLAYTRKIND;
+ scanf("%i",&arg1);
+ ti.cdti_trk0=arg1;
+ if (ti.cdti_trk0<first) ti.cdti_trk0=first;
+ if (ti.cdti_trk0>last) ti.cdti_trk0=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind0=0;
+ ti.cdti_trk1=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind1=0;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&ti)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ ini=1;
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'n': if (!ini++)
+ { if (ioctl(handle,CDROMREADTOCHDR,&tocHdr)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ first=tocHdr.cdth_trk0;
+ last= tocHdr.cdth_trk1;
+ ti.cdti_trk0=first-1;
+ }
+ if ((first==0)||(first>last))
+ { printf ("--could not read TOC\n");
+ }
+ else
+ { cmd=CDROMPLAYTRKIND;
+ if (++ti.cdti_trk0 > last) ti.cdti_trk0=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind0=0;
+ ti.cdti_trk1=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind1=0;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&ti)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ ini=1;
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'l': if (!ini++)
+ { if (ioctl(handle,CDROMREADTOCHDR,&tocHdr)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ first=tocHdr.cdth_trk0;
+ last= tocHdr.cdth_trk1;
+ ti.cdti_trk0=first+1;
+ }
+ if ((first==0)||(first>last))
+ { printf ("--could not read TOC\n");
+ }
+ else
+ { cmd=CDROMPLAYTRKIND;
+ if (--ti.cdti_trk0 < first) ti.cdti_trk0=first;
+ ti.cdti_ind0=0;
+ ti.cdti_trk1=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind1=0;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&ti)) printf("Drive Error\n");
+ ini=1;
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'c': subchnl.cdsc_format=CDROM_MSF;
+ if (ioctl(handle,CDROMSUBCHNL,&subchnl))
+ printf("Drive Error\n");
+ else
+ { printf("AudioStatus:%s Track:%d Mode:%d MSF=%d:%d:%d\n", \
+ subchnl.cdsc_audiostatus==CDROM_AUDIO_PLAY ? "PLAYING":"NOT PLAYING",\
+ subchnl.cdsc_trk,subchnl.cdsc_adr, \
+ subchnl.cdsc_absaddr.msf.minute, subchnl.cdsc_absaddr.msf.second, \
+ subchnl.cdsc_absaddr.msf.frame);
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'i': if (!ini)
+ { printf("Command not allowed - play track first\n");
+ }
+ else
+ { cmd=CDROMREADTOCENTRY;
+ printf("Track No.: ");
+ scanf("%d",&arg1);
+ entry.cdte_track=arg1;
+ if (entry.cdte_track<first) entry.cdte_track=first;
+ if (entry.cdte_track>last) entry.cdte_track=last;
+ entry.cdte_format=CDROM_MSF;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&entry))
+ { printf("Drive error or invalid track no.\n");
+ }
+ else
+ { printf("Mode %d Track, starts at %d:%d:%d\n", \
+ entry.cdte_adr,entry.cdte_addr.msf.minute, \
+ entry.cdte_addr.msf.second,entry.cdte_addr.msf.frame);
+ }
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'a': cmd=CDROMPLAYMSF;
+ printf("Address (min:sec:frame) ");
+ scanf("%d:%d:%d",&arg1,&arg2,&arg3);
+ msf.cdmsf_min0 =arg1;
+ msf.cdmsf_sec0 =arg2;
+ msf.cdmsf_frame0=arg3;
+ if (msf.cdmsf_sec0 > 59) msf.cdmsf_sec0 =59;
+ if (msf.cdmsf_frame0> 74) msf.cdmsf_frame0=74;
+ msf.cdmsf_min1=60;
+ msf.cdmsf_sec1=00;
+ msf.cdmsf_frame1=00;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&msf))
+ { printf("Drive error or invalid address\n");
+ }
+ break;
+#ifdef AZT_PRIVATE_IOCTLS /*not supported by every CDROM driver*/
+ case 'd': cmd=CDROMREADCOOKED;
+ printf("Address (min:sec:frame) ");
+ scanf("%d:%d:%d",&arg1,&arg2,&arg3);
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_min0 =arg1;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 =arg2;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=arg3;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 > 59) azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 =59;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0> 74) azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=74;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&azt.msf))
+ { printf("Drive error, invalid address or unsupported command\n");
+ }
+ k=0;
+ getchar();
+ for (i=0;i<128;i++)
+ { printf("%4d:",i*16);
+ for (j=0;j<16;j++)
+ { printf("%2x ",azt.buf[i*16+j]);
+ }
+ for (j=0;j<16;j++)
+ { if (isalnum(azt.buf[i*16+j]))
+ printf("%c",azt.buf[i*16+j]);
+ else
+ printf(".");
+ }
+ printf("\n");
+ k++;
+ if (k>=20)
+ { printf("press ENTER to continue\n");
+ getchar();
+ k=0;
+ }
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'w': cmd=CDROMREADRAW;
+ printf("Address (min:sec:frame) ");
+ scanf("%d:%d:%d",&arg1,&arg2,&arg3);
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_min0 =arg1;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 =arg2;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=arg3;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 > 59) azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0 =59;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0> 74) azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=74;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&azt))
+ { printf("Drive error, invalid address or unsupported command\n");
+ }
+ k=0;
+ for (i=0;i<147;i++)
+ { printf("%4d:",i*16);
+ for (j=0;j<16;j++)
+ { printf("%2x ",azt.buf[i*16+j]);
+ }
+ for (j=0;j<16;j++)
+ { if (isalnum(azt.buf[i*16+j]))
+ printf("%c",azt.buf[i*16+j]);
+ else
+ printf(".");
+ }
+ printf("\n");
+ k++;
+ if (k>=20)
+ { getchar();
+ k=0;
+ }
+ }
+ break;
+#endif
+ case 'v': cmd=CDROMVOLCTRL;
+ printf("--Channel 0 Left (0-255): ");
+ scanf("%d",&arg1);
+ printf("--Channel 1 Right (0-255): ");
+ scanf("%d",&arg2);
+ volctrl.channel0=arg1;
+ volctrl.channel1=arg2;
+ volctrl.channel2=0;
+ volctrl.channel3=0;
+ if (ioctl(handle,cmd,&volctrl))
+ { printf("Drive error or unsupported command\n");
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'q': if (close(handle)) printf("Drive Error: CLOSE\n");
+ exit(0);
+ case 'h': help();
+ break;
+ default: printf("unknown command\n");
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/cdrom-standard.tex b/Documentation/cdrom/cdrom-standard.tex
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..92f94e597582
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/cdrom-standard.tex
@@ -0,0 +1,1022 @@
+\documentclass{article}
+\def\version{$Id: cdrom-standard.tex,v 1.9 1997/12/28 15:42:49 david Exp $}
+\newcommand{\newsection}[1]{\newpage\section{#1}}
+
+\evensidemargin=0pt
+\oddsidemargin=0pt
+\topmargin=-\headheight \advance\topmargin by -\headsep
+\textwidth=15.99cm \textheight=24.62cm % normal A4, 1'' margin
+
+\def\linux{{\sc Linux}}
+\def\cdrom{{\sc cd-rom}}
+\def\UCD{{\sc Uniform cd-rom Driver}}
+\def\cdromc{{\tt {cdrom.c}}}
+\def\cdromh{{\tt {cdrom.h}}}
+\def\fo{\sl} % foreign words
+\def\ie{{\fo i.e.}}
+\def\eg{{\fo e.g.}}
+
+\everymath{\it} \everydisplay{\it}
+\catcode `\_=\active \def_{\_\penalty100 }
+\catcode`\<=\active \def<#1>{{\langle\hbox{\rm#1}\rangle}}
+
+\begin{document}
+\title{A \linux\ \cdrom\ standard}
+\author{David van Leeuwen\\{\normalsize\tt david@ElseWare.cistron.nl}
+\\{\footnotesize updated by Erik Andersen {\tt(andersee@debian.org)}}
+\\{\footnotesize updated by Jens Axboe {\tt(axboe@image.dk)}}}
+\date{12 March 1999}
+
+\maketitle
+
+\newsection{Introduction}
+
+\linux\ is probably the Unix-like operating system that supports
+the widest variety of hardware devices. The reasons for this are
+presumably
+\begin{itemize}
+\item
+ The large list of hardware devices available for the many platforms
+ that \linux\ now supports (\ie, i386-PCs, Sparc Suns, etc.)
+\item
+ The open design of the operating system, such that anybody can write a
+ driver for \linux.
+\item
+ There is plenty of source code around as examples of how to write a driver.
+\end{itemize}
+The openness of \linux, and the many different types of available
+hardware has allowed \linux\ to support many different hardware devices.
+Unfortunately, the very openness that has allowed \linux\ to support
+all these different devices has also allowed the behavior of each
+device driver to differ significantly from one device to another.
+This divergence of behavior has been very significant for \cdrom\
+devices; the way a particular drive reacts to a `standard' $ioctl()$
+call varies greatly from one device driver to another. To avoid making
+their drivers totally inconsistent, the writers of \linux\ \cdrom\
+drivers generally created new device drivers by understanding, copying,
+and then changing an existing one. Unfortunately, this practice did not
+maintain uniform behavior across all the \linux\ \cdrom\ drivers.
+
+This document describes an effort to establish Uniform behavior across
+all the different \cdrom\ device drivers for \linux. This document also
+defines the various $ioctl$s, and how the low-level \cdrom\ device
+drivers should implement them. Currently (as of the \linux\ 2.1.$x$
+development kernels) several low-level \cdrom\ device drivers, including
+both IDE/ATAPI and SCSI, now use this Uniform interface.
+
+When the \cdrom\ was developed, the interface between the \cdrom\ drive
+and the computer was not specified in the standards. As a result, many
+different \cdrom\ interfaces were developed. Some of them had their
+own proprietary design (Sony, Mitsumi, Panasonic, Philips), other
+manufacturers adopted an existing electrical interface and changed
+the functionality (CreativeLabs/SoundBlaster, Teac, Funai) or simply
+adapted their drives to one or more of the already existing electrical
+interfaces (Aztech, Sanyo, Funai, Vertos, Longshine, Optics Storage and
+most of the `NoName' manufacturers). In cases where a new drive really
+brought its own interface or used its own command set and flow control
+scheme, either a separate driver had to be written, or an existing
+driver had to be enhanced. History has delivered us \cdrom\ support for
+many of these different interfaces. Nowadays, almost all new \cdrom\
+drives are either IDE/ATAPI or SCSI, and it is very unlikely that any
+manufacturer will create a new interface. Even finding drives for the
+old proprietary interfaces is getting difficult.
+
+When (in the 1.3.70's) I looked at the existing software interface,
+which was expressed through \cdromh, it appeared to be a rather wild
+set of commands and data formats.\footnote{I cannot recollect what
+kernel version I looked at, then, presumably 1.2.13 and 1.3.34---the
+latest kernel that I was indirectly involved in.} It seemed that many
+features of the software interface had been added to accommodate the
+capabilities of a particular drive, in an {\fo ad hoc\/} manner. More
+importantly, it appeared that the behavior of the `standard' commands
+was different for most of the different drivers: \eg, some drivers
+close the tray if an $open()$ call occurs when the tray is open, while
+others do not. Some drivers lock the door upon opening the device, to
+prevent an incoherent file system, but others don't, to allow software
+ejection. Undoubtedly, the capabilities of the different drives vary,
+but even when two drives have the same capability their drivers'
+behavior was usually different.
+
+I decided to start a discussion on how to make all the \linux\ \cdrom\
+drivers behave more uniformly. I began by contacting the developers of
+the many \cdrom\ drivers found in the \linux\ kernel. Their reactions
+encouraged me to write the \UCD\ which this document is intended to
+describe. The implementation of the \UCD\ is in the file \cdromc. This
+driver is intended to be an additional software layer that sits on top
+of the low-level device drivers for each \cdrom\ drive. By adding this
+additional layer, it is possible to have all the different \cdrom\
+devices behave {\em exactly\/} the same (insofar as the underlying
+hardware will allow).
+
+The goal of the \UCD\ is {\em not\/} to alienate driver developers who
+have not yet taken steps to support this effort. The goal of \UCD\ is
+simply to give people writing application programs for \cdrom\ drives
+{\em one\/} \linux\ \cdrom\ interface with consistent behavior for all
+\cdrom\ devices. In addition, this also provides a consistent interface
+between the low-level device driver code and the \linux\ kernel. Care
+is taken that 100\,\% compatibility exists with the data structures and
+programmer's interface defined in \cdromh. This guide was written to
+help \cdrom\ driver developers adapt their code to use the \UCD\ code
+defined in \cdromc.
+
+Personally, I think that the most important hardware interfaces are
+the IDE/ATAPI drives and, of course, the SCSI drives, but as prices
+of hardware drop continuously, it is also likely that people may have
+more than one \cdrom\ drive, possibly of mixed types. It is important
+that these drives behave in the same way. In December 1994, one of the
+cheapest \cdrom\ drives was a Philips cm206, a double-speed proprietary
+drive. In the months that I was busy writing a \linux\ driver for it,
+proprietary drives became obsolete and IDE/ATAPI drives became the
+standard. At the time of the last update to this document (November
+1997) it is becoming difficult to even {\em find} anything less than a
+16 speed \cdrom\ drive, and 24 speed drives are common.
+
+\newsection{Standardizing through another software level}
+\label{cdrom.c}
+
+At the time this document was conceived, all drivers directly
+implemented the \cdrom\ $ioctl()$ calls through their own routines. This
+led to the danger of different drivers forgetting to do important things
+like checking that the user was giving the driver valid data. More
+importantly, this led to the divergence of behavior, which has already
+been discussed.
+
+For this reason, the \UCD\ was created to enforce consistent \cdrom\
+drive behavior, and to provide a common set of services to the various
+low-level \cdrom\ device drivers. The \UCD\ now provides another
+software-level, that separates the $ioctl()$ and $open()$ implementation
+from the actual hardware implementation. Note that this effort has
+made few changes which will affect a user's application programs. The
+greatest change involved moving the contents of the various low-level
+\cdrom\ drivers' header files to the kernel's cdrom directory. This was
+done to help ensure that the user is only presented with only one cdrom
+interface, the interface defined in \cdromh.
+
+\cdrom\ drives are specific enough (\ie, different from other
+block-devices such as floppy or hard disc drives), to define a set
+of common {\em \cdrom\ device operations}, $<cdrom-device>_dops$.
+These operations are different from the classical block-device file
+operations, $<block-device>_fops$.
+
+The routines for the \UCD\ interface level are implemented in the file
+\cdromc. In this file, the \UCD\ interfaces with the kernel as a block
+device by registering the following general $struct\ file_operations$:
+$$
+\halign{$#$\ \hfil&$#$\ \hfil&$/*$ \rm# $*/$\hfil\cr
+struct& file_operations\ cdrom_fops = \{\hidewidth\cr
+ &NULL, & lseek \cr
+ &block_read, & read---general block-dev read \cr
+ &block_write, & write---general block-dev write \cr
+ &NULL, & readdir \cr
+ &NULL, & select \cr
+ &cdrom_ioctl, & ioctl \cr
+ &NULL, & mmap \cr
+ &cdrom_open, & open \cr
+ &cdrom_release, & release \cr
+ &NULL, & fsync \cr
+ &NULL, & fasync \cr
+ &cdrom_media_changed, & media change \cr
+ &NULL & revalidate \cr
+\};\cr
+}
+$$
+
+Every active \cdrom\ device shares this $struct$. The routines
+declared above are all implemented in \cdromc, since this file is the
+place where the behavior of all \cdrom-devices is defined and
+standardized. The actual interface to the various types of \cdrom\
+hardware is still performed by various low-level \cdrom-device
+drivers. These routines simply implement certain {\em capabilities\/}
+that are common to all \cdrom\ (and really, all removable-media
+devices).
+
+Registration of a low-level \cdrom\ device driver is now done through
+the general routines in \cdromc, not through the Virtual File System
+(VFS) any more. The interface implemented in \cdromc\ is carried out
+through two general structures that contain information about the
+capabilities of the driver, and the specific drives on which the
+driver operates. The structures are:
+\begin{description}
+\item[$cdrom_device_ops$]
+ This structure contains information about the low-level driver for a
+ \cdrom\ device. This structure is conceptually connected to the major
+ number of the device (although some drivers may have different
+ major numbers, as is the case for the IDE driver).
+\item[$cdrom_device_info$]
+ This structure contains information about a particular \cdrom\ drive,
+ such as its device name, speed, etc. This structure is conceptually
+ connected to the minor number of the device.
+\end{description}
+
+Registering a particular \cdrom\ drive with the \UCD\ is done by the
+low-level device driver though a call to:
+$$register_cdrom(struct\ cdrom_device_info * <device>_info)
+$$
+The device information structure, $<device>_info$, contains all the
+information needed for the kernel to interface with the low-level
+\cdrom\ device driver. One of the most important entries in this
+structure is a pointer to the $cdrom_device_ops$ structure of the
+low-level driver.
+
+The device operations structure, $cdrom_device_ops$, contains a list
+of pointers to the functions which are implemented in the low-level
+device driver. When \cdromc\ accesses a \cdrom\ device, it does it
+through the functions in this structure. It is impossible to know all
+the capabilities of future \cdrom\ drives, so it is expected that this
+list may need to be expanded from time to time as new technologies are
+developed. For example, CD-R and CD-R/W drives are beginning to become
+popular, and support will soon need to be added for them. For now, the
+current $struct$ is:
+$$
+\halign{$#$\ \hfil&$#$\ \hfil&\hbox to 10em{$#$\hss}&
+ $/*$ \rm# $*/$\hfil\cr
+struct& cdrom_device_ops\ \{ \hidewidth\cr
+ &int& (* open)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *, int)\cr
+ &void& (* release)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *);\cr
+ &int& (* drive_status)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *, int);\cr
+ &int& (* media_changed)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *, int);\cr
+ &int& (* tray_move)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *, int);\cr
+ &int& (* lock_door)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *, int);\cr
+ &int& (* select_speed)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *, int);\cr
+ &int& (* select_disc)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *, int);\cr
+ &int& (* get_last_session) (struct\ cdrom_device_info *,
+ struct\ cdrom_multisession *{});\cr
+ &int& (* get_mcn)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *, struct\ cdrom_mcn *{});\cr
+ &int& (* reset)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *);\cr
+ &int& (* audio_ioctl)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *, unsigned\ int,
+ void *{});\cr
+ &int& (* dev_ioctl)(struct\ cdrom_device_info *, unsigned\ int,
+ unsigned\ long);\cr
+\noalign{\medskip}
+ &const\ int& capability;& capability flags \cr
+ &int& n_minors;& number of active minor devices \cr
+\};\cr
+}
+$$
+When a low-level device driver implements one of these capabilities,
+it should add a function pointer to this $struct$. When a particular
+function is not implemented, however, this $struct$ should contain a
+NULL instead. The $capability$ flags specify the capabilities of the
+\cdrom\ hardware and/or low-level \cdrom\ driver when a \cdrom\ drive
+is registered with the \UCD. The value $n_minors$ should be a positive
+value indicating the number of minor devices that are supported by
+the low-level device driver, normally~1. Although these two variables
+are `informative' rather than `operational,' they are included in
+$cdrom_device_ops$ because they describe the capability of the {\em
+driver\/} rather than the {\em drive}. Nomenclature has always been
+difficult in computer programming.
+
+Note that most functions have fewer parameters than their
+$blkdev_fops$ counterparts. This is because very little of the
+information in the structures $inode$ and $file$ is used. For most
+drivers, the main parameter is the $struct$ $cdrom_device_info$, from
+which the major and minor number can be extracted. (Most low-level
+\cdrom\ drivers don't even look at the major and minor number though,
+since many of them only support one device.) This will be available
+through $dev$ in $cdrom_device_info$ described below.
+
+The drive-specific, minor-like information that is registered with
+\cdromc, currently contains the following fields:
+$$
+\halign{$#$\ \hfil&$#$\ \hfil&\hbox to 10em{$#$\hss}&
+ $/*$ \rm# $*/$\hfil\cr
+struct& cdrom_device_info\ \{ \hidewidth\cr
+ & struct\ cdrom_device_ops *& ops;& device operations for this major\cr
+ & struct\ cdrom_device_info *& next;& next device_info for this major\cr
+ & void *& handle;& driver-dependent data\cr
+\noalign{\medskip}
+ & kdev_t& dev;& device number (incorporates minor)\cr
+ & int& mask;& mask of capability: disables them \cr
+ & int& speed;& maximum speed for reading data \cr
+ & int& capacity;& number of discs in a jukebox \cr
+\noalign{\medskip}
+ &int& options : 30;& options flags \cr
+ &unsigned& mc_flags : 2;& media-change buffer flags \cr
+ & int& use_count;& number of times device is opened\cr
+ & char& name[20];& name of the device type\cr
+\}\cr
+}$$
+Using this $struct$, a linked list of the registered minor devices is
+built, using the $next$ field. The device number, the device operations
+struct and specifications of properties of the drive are stored in this
+structure.
+
+The $mask$ flags can be used to mask out some of the capabilities listed
+in $ops\to capability$, if a specific drive doesn't support a feature
+of the driver. The value $speed$ specifies the maximum head-rate of the
+drive, measured in units of normal audio speed (176\,kB/sec raw data or
+150\,kB/sec file system data). The value $n_discs$ should reflect the
+number of discs the drive can hold simultaneously, if it is designed
+as a juke-box, or otherwise~1. The parameters are declared $const$
+because they describe properties of the drive, which don't change after
+registration.
+
+A few registers contain variables local to the \cdrom\ drive. The
+flags $options$ are used to specify how the general \cdrom\ routines
+should behave. These various flags registers should provide enough
+flexibility to adapt to the different users' wishes (and {\em not\/} the
+`arbitrary' wishes of the author of the low-level device driver, as is
+the case in the old scheme). The register $mc_flags$ is used to buffer
+the information from $media_changed()$ to two separate queues. Other
+data that is specific to a minor drive, can be accessed through $handle$,
+which can point to a data structure specific to the low-level driver.
+The fields $use_count$, $next$, $options$ and $mc_flags$ need not be
+initialized.
+
+The intermediate software layer that \cdromc\ forms will perform some
+additional bookkeeping. The use count of the device (the number of
+processes that have the device opened) is registered in $use_count$. The
+function $cdrom_ioctl()$ will verify the appropriate user-memory regions
+for read and write, and in case a location on the CD is transferred,
+it will `sanitize' the format by making requests to the low-level
+drivers in a standard format, and translating all formats between the
+user-software and low level drivers. This relieves much of the drivers'
+memory checking and format checking and translation. Also, the necessary
+structures will be declared on the program stack.
+
+The implementation of the functions should be as defined in the
+following sections. Two functions {\em must\/} be implemented, namely
+$open()$ and $release()$. Other functions may be omitted, their
+corresponding capability flags will be cleared upon registration.
+Generally, a function returns zero on success and negative on error. A
+function call should return only after the command has completed, but of
+course waiting for the device should not use processor time.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ open(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi, int\ purpose)$}
+
+$Open()$ should try to open the device for a specific $purpose$, which
+can be either:
+\begin{itemize}
+\item[0] Open for reading data, as done by {\tt {mount()}} (2), or the
+user commands {\tt {dd}} or {\tt {cat}}.
+\item[1] Open for $ioctl$ commands, as done by audio-CD playing
+programs.
+\end{itemize}
+Notice that any strategic code (closing tray upon $open()$, etc.)\ is
+done by the calling routine in \cdromc, so the low-level routine
+should only be concerned with proper initialization, such as spinning
+up the disc, etc. % and device-use count
+
+
+\subsection{$Void\ release(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi)$}
+
+
+Device-specific actions should be taken such as spinning down the device.
+However, strategic actions such as ejection of the tray, or unlocking
+the door, should be left over to the general routine $cdrom_release()$.
+This is the only function returning type $void$.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ drive_status(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi, int\ slot_nr)$}
+\label{drive status}
+
+The function $drive_status$, if implemented, should provide
+information on the status of the drive (not the status of the disc,
+which may or may not be in the drive). If the drive is not a changer,
+$slot_nr$ should be ignored. In \cdromh\ the possibilities are listed:
+$$
+\halign{$#$\ \hfil&$/*$ \rm# $*/$\hfil\cr
+CDS_NO_INFO& no information available\cr
+CDS_NO_DISC& no disc is inserted, tray is closed\cr
+CDS_TRAY_OPEN& tray is opened\cr
+CDS_DRIVE_NOT_READY& something is wrong, tray is moving?\cr
+CDS_DISC_OK& a disc is loaded and everything is fine\cr
+}
+$$
+
+\subsection{$Int\ media_changed(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi, int\ disc_nr)$}
+
+This function is very similar to the original function in $struct\
+file_operations$. It returns 1 if the medium of the device $cdi\to
+dev$ has changed since the last call, and 0 otherwise. The parameter
+$disc_nr$ identifies a specific slot in a juke-box, it should be
+ignored for single-disc drives. Note that by `re-routing' this
+function through $cdrom_media_changed()$, we can implement separate
+queues for the VFS and a new $ioctl()$ function that can report device
+changes to software (\eg, an auto-mounting daemon).
+
+\subsection{$Int\ tray_move(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi, int\ position)$}
+
+This function, if implemented, should control the tray movement. (No
+other function should control this.) The parameter $position$ controls
+the desired direction of movement:
+\begin{itemize}
+\item[0] Close tray
+\item[1] Open tray
+\end{itemize}
+This function returns 0 upon success, and a non-zero value upon
+error. Note that if the tray is already in the desired position, no
+action need be taken, and the return value should be 0.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ lock_door(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi, int\ lock)$}
+
+This function (and no other code) controls locking of the door, if the
+drive allows this. The value of $lock$ controls the desired locking
+state:
+\begin{itemize}
+\item[0] Unlock door, manual opening is allowed
+\item[1] Lock door, tray cannot be ejected manually
+\end{itemize}
+This function returns 0 upon success, and a non-zero value upon
+error. Note that if the door is already in the requested state, no
+action need be taken, and the return value should be 0.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ select_speed(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi, int\ speed)$}
+
+Some \cdrom\ drives are capable of changing their head-speed. There
+are several reasons for changing the speed of a \cdrom\ drive. Badly
+pressed \cdrom s may benefit from less-than-maximum head rate. Modern
+\cdrom\ drives can obtain very high head rates (up to $24\times$ is
+common). It has been reported that these drives can make reading
+errors at these high speeds, reducing the speed can prevent data loss
+in these circumstances. Finally, some of these drives can
+make an annoyingly loud noise, which a lower speed may reduce. %Finally,
+%although the audio-low-pass filters probably aren't designed for it,
+%more than real-time playback of audio might be used for high-speed
+%copying of audio tracks.
+
+This function specifies the speed at which data is read or audio is
+played back. The value of $speed$ specifies the head-speed of the
+drive, measured in units of standard cdrom speed (176\,kB/sec raw data
+or 150\,kB/sec file system data). So to request that a \cdrom\ drive
+operate at 300\,kB/sec you would call the CDROM_SELECT_SPEED $ioctl$
+with $speed=2$. The special value `0' means `auto-selection', \ie,
+maximum data-rate or real-time audio rate. If the drive doesn't have
+this `auto-selection' capability, the decision should be made on the
+current disc loaded and the return value should be positive. A negative
+return value indicates an error.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ select_disc(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi, int\ number)$}
+
+If the drive can store multiple discs (a juke-box) this function
+will perform disc selection. It should return the number of the
+selected disc on success, a negative value on error. Currently, only
+the ide-cd driver supports this functionality.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ get_last_session(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi, struct\
+ cdrom_multisession * ms_info)$}
+
+This function should implement the old corresponding $ioctl()$. For
+device $cdi\to dev$, the start of the last session of the current disc
+should be returned in the pointer argument $ms_info$. Note that
+routines in \cdromc\ have sanitized this argument: its requested
+format will {\em always\/} be of the type $CDROM_LBA$ (linear block
+addressing mode), whatever the calling software requested. But
+sanitization goes even further: the low-level implementation may
+return the requested information in $CDROM_MSF$ format if it wishes so
+(setting the $ms_info\rightarrow addr_format$ field appropriately, of
+course) and the routines in \cdromc\ will make the transformation if
+necessary. The return value is 0 upon success.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ get_mcn(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi, struct\
+ cdrom_mcn * mcn)$}
+
+Some discs carry a `Media Catalog Number' (MCN), also called
+`Universal Product Code' (UPC). This number should reflect the number
+that is generally found in the bar-code on the product. Unfortunately,
+the few discs that carry such a number on the disc don't even use the
+same format. The return argument to this function is a pointer to a
+pre-declared memory region of type $struct\ cdrom_mcn$. The MCN is
+expected as a 13-character string, terminated by a null-character.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ reset(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi)$}
+
+This call should perform a hard-reset on the drive (although in
+circumstances that a hard-reset is necessary, a drive may very well not
+listen to commands anymore). Preferably, control is returned to the
+caller only after the drive has finished resetting. If the drive is no
+longer listening, it may be wise for the underlying low-level cdrom
+driver to time out.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ audio_ioctl(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi, unsigned\
+ int\ cmd, void * arg)$}
+
+Some of the \cdrom-$ioctl$s defined in \cdromh\ can be
+implemented by the routines described above, and hence the function
+$cdrom_ioctl$ will use those. However, most $ioctl$s deal with
+audio-control. We have decided to leave these to be accessed through a
+single function, repeating the arguments $cmd$ and $arg$. Note that
+the latter is of type $void*{}$, rather than $unsigned\ long\
+int$. The routine $cdrom_ioctl()$ does do some useful things,
+though. It sanitizes the address format type to $CDROM_MSF$ (Minutes,
+Seconds, Frames) for all audio calls. It also verifies the memory
+location of $arg$, and reserves stack-memory for the argument. This
+makes implementation of the $audio_ioctl()$ much simpler than in the
+old driver scheme. For example, you may look up the function
+$cm206_audio_ioctl()$ in {\tt {cm206.c}} that should be updated with
+this documentation.
+
+An unimplemented ioctl should return $-ENOSYS$, but a harmless request
+(\eg, $CDROMSTART$) may be ignored by returning 0 (success). Other
+errors should be according to the standards, whatever they are. When
+an error is returned by the low-level driver, the \UCD\ tries whenever
+possible to return the error code to the calling program. (We may decide
+to sanitize the return value in $cdrom_ioctl()$ though, in order to
+guarantee a uniform interface to the audio-player software.)
+
+\subsection{$Int\ dev_ioctl(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi, unsigned\ int\
+ cmd, unsigned\ long\ arg)$}
+
+Some $ioctl$s seem to be specific to certain \cdrom\ drives. That is,
+they are introduced to service some capabilities of certain drives. In
+fact, there are 6 different $ioctl$s for reading data, either in some
+particular kind of format, or audio data. Not many drives support
+reading audio tracks as data, I believe this is because of protection
+of copyrights of artists. Moreover, I think that if audio-tracks are
+supported, it should be done through the VFS and not via $ioctl$s. A
+problem here could be the fact that audio-frames are 2352 bytes long,
+so either the audio-file-system should ask for 75264 bytes at once
+(the least common multiple of 512 and 2352), or the drivers should
+bend their backs to cope with this incoherence (to which I would be
+opposed). Furthermore, it is very difficult for the hardware to find
+the exact frame boundaries, since there are no synchronization headers
+in audio frames. Once these issues are resolved, this code should be
+standardized in \cdromc.
+
+Because there are so many $ioctl$s that seem to be introduced to
+satisfy certain drivers,\footnote{Is there software around that
+ actually uses these? I'd be interested!} any `non-standard' $ioctl$s
+are routed through the call $dev_ioctl()$. In principle, `private'
+$ioctl$s should be numbered after the device's major number, and not
+the general \cdrom\ $ioctl$ number, {\tt {0x53}}. Currently the
+non-supported $ioctl$s are: {\it CDROMREADMODE1, CDROMREADMODE2,
+ CDROMREADAUDIO, CDROMREADRAW, CDROMREADCOOKED, CDROMSEEK,
+ CDROMPLAY\-BLK and CDROM\-READALL}.
+
+
+\subsection{\cdrom\ capabilities}
+\label{capability}
+
+Instead of just implementing some $ioctl$ calls, the interface in
+\cdromc\ supplies the possibility to indicate the {\em capabilities\/}
+of a \cdrom\ drive. This can be done by ORing any number of
+capability-constants that are defined in \cdromh\ at the registration
+phase. Currently, the capabilities are any of:
+$$
+\halign{$#$\ \hfil&$/*$ \rm# $*/$\hfil\cr
+CDC_CLOSE_TRAY& can close tray by software control\cr
+CDC_OPEN_TRAY& can open tray\cr
+CDC_LOCK& can lock and unlock the door\cr
+CDC_SELECT_SPEED& can select speed, in units of $\sim$150\,kB/s\cr
+CDC_SELECT_DISC& drive is juke-box\cr
+CDC_MULTI_SESSION& can read sessions $>\rm1$\cr
+CDC_MCN& can read Media Catalog Number\cr
+CDC_MEDIA_CHANGED& can report if disc has changed\cr
+CDC_PLAY_AUDIO& can perform audio-functions (play, pause, etc)\cr
+CDC_RESET& hard reset device\cr
+CDC_IOCTLS& driver has non-standard ioctls\cr
+CDC_DRIVE_STATUS& driver implements drive status\cr
+}
+$$
+The capability flag is declared $const$, to prevent drivers from
+accidentally tampering with the contents. The capability fags actually
+inform \cdromc\ of what the driver can do. If the drive found
+by the driver does not have the capability, is can be masked out by
+the $cdrom_device_info$ variable $mask$. For instance, the SCSI \cdrom\
+driver has implemented the code for loading and ejecting \cdrom's, and
+hence its corresponding flags in $capability$ will be set. But a SCSI
+\cdrom\ drive might be a caddy system, which can't load the tray, and
+hence for this drive the $cdrom_device_info$ struct will have set
+the $CDC_CLOSE_TRAY$ bit in $mask$.
+
+In the file \cdromc\ you will encounter many constructions of the type
+$$\it
+if\ (cdo\rightarrow capability \mathrel\& \mathord{\sim} cdi\rightarrow mask
+ \mathrel{\&} CDC_<capability>) \ldots
+$$
+There is no $ioctl$ to set the mask\dots The reason is that
+I think it is better to control the {\em behavior\/} rather than the
+{\em capabilities}.
+
+\subsection{Options}
+
+A final flag register controls the {\em behavior\/} of the \cdrom\
+drives, in order to satisfy different users' wishes, hopefully
+independently of the ideas of the respective author who happened to
+have made the drive's support available to the \linux\ community. The
+current behavior options are:
+$$
+\halign{$#$\ \hfil&$/*$ \rm# $*/$\hfil\cr
+CDO_AUTO_CLOSE& try to close tray upon device $open()$\cr
+CDO_AUTO_EJECT& try to open tray on last device $close()$\cr
+CDO_USE_FFLAGS& use $file_pointer\rightarrow f_flags$ to indicate
+ purpose for $open()$\cr
+CDO_LOCK& try to lock door if device is opened\cr
+CDO_CHECK_TYPE& ensure disc type is data if opened for data\cr
+}
+$$
+
+The initial value of this register is $CDO_AUTO_CLOSE \mathrel|
+CDO_USE_FFLAGS \mathrel| CDO_LOCK$, reflecting my own view on user
+interface and software standards. Before you protest, there are two
+new $ioctl$s implemented in \cdromc, that allow you to control the
+behavior by software. These are:
+$$
+\halign{$#$\ \hfil&$/*$ \rm# $*/$\hfil\cr
+CDROM_SET_OPTIONS& set options specified in $(int)\ arg$\cr
+CDROM_CLEAR_OPTIONS& clear options specified in $(int)\ arg$\cr
+}
+$$
+One option needs some more explanation: $CDO_USE_FFLAGS$. In the next
+newsection we explain what the need for this option is.
+
+A software package {\tt setcd}, available from the Debian distribution
+and {\tt sunsite.unc.edu}, allows user level control of these flags.
+
+\newsection{The need to know the purpose of opening the \cdrom\ device}
+
+Traditionally, Unix devices can be used in two different `modes',
+either by reading/writing to the device file, or by issuing
+controlling commands to the device, by the device's $ioctl()$
+call. The problem with \cdrom\ drives, is that they can be used for
+two entirely different purposes. One is to mount removable
+file systems, \cdrom s, the other is to play audio CD's. Audio commands
+are implemented entirely through $ioctl$s, presumably because the
+first implementation (SUN?) has been such. In principle there is
+nothing wrong with this, but a good control of the `CD player' demands
+that the device can {\em always\/} be opened in order to give the
+$ioctl$ commands, regardless of the state the drive is in.
+
+On the other hand, when used as a removable-media disc drive (what the
+original purpose of \cdrom s is) we would like to make sure that the
+disc drive is ready for operation upon opening the device. In the old
+scheme, some \cdrom\ drivers don't do any integrity checking, resulting
+in a number of i/o errors reported by the VFS to the kernel when an
+attempt for mounting a \cdrom\ on an empty drive occurs. This is not a
+particularly elegant way to find out that there is no \cdrom\ inserted;
+it more-or-less looks like the old IBM-PC trying to read an empty floppy
+drive for a couple of seconds, after which the system complains it
+can't read from it. Nowadays we can {\em sense\/} the existence of a
+removable medium in a drive, and we believe we should exploit that
+fact. An integrity check on opening of the device, that verifies the
+availability of a \cdrom\ and its correct type (data), would be
+desirable.
+
+These two ways of using a \cdrom\ drive, principally for data and
+secondarily for playing audio discs, have different demands for the
+behavior of the $open()$ call. Audio use simply wants to open the
+device in order to get a file handle which is needed for issuing
+$ioctl$ commands, while data use wants to open for correct and
+reliable data transfer. The only way user programs can indicate what
+their {\em purpose\/} of opening the device is, is through the $flags$
+parameter (see {\tt {open(2)}}). For \cdrom\ devices, these flags aren't
+implemented (some drivers implement checking for write-related flags,
+but this is not strictly necessary if the device file has correct
+permission flags). Most option flags simply don't make sense to
+\cdrom\ devices: $O_CREAT$, $O_NOCTTY$, $O_TRUNC$, $O_APPEND$, and
+$O_SYNC$ have no meaning to a \cdrom.
+
+We therefore propose to use the flag $O_NONBLOCK$ to indicate
+that the device is opened just for issuing $ioctl$
+commands. Strictly, the meaning of $O_NONBLOCK$ is that opening and
+subsequent calls to the device don't cause the calling process to
+wait. We could interpret this as ``don't wait until someone has
+inserted some valid data-\cdrom.'' Thus, our proposal of the
+implementation for the $open()$ call for \cdrom s is:
+\begin{itemize}
+\item If no other flags are set than $O_RDONLY$, the device is opened
+for data transfer, and the return value will be 0 only upon successful
+initialization of the transfer. The call may even induce some actions
+on the \cdrom, such as closing the tray.
+\item If the option flag $O_NONBLOCK$ is set, opening will always be
+successful, unless the whole device doesn't exist. The drive will take
+no actions whatsoever.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\subsection{And what about standards?}
+
+You might hesitate to accept this proposal as it comes from the
+\linux\ community, and not from some standardizing institute. What
+about SUN, SGI, HP and all those other Unix and hardware vendors?
+Well, these companies are in the lucky position that they generally
+control both the hardware and software of their supported products,
+and are large enough to set their own standard. They do not have to
+deal with a dozen or more different, competing hardware
+configurations.\footnote{Incidentally, I think that SUN's approach to
+mounting \cdrom s is very good in origin: under Solaris a
+volume-daemon automatically mounts a newly inserted \cdrom\ under {\tt
+{/cdrom/$<volume-name>$/}}. In my opinion they should have pushed this
+further and have {\em every\/} \cdrom\ on the local area network be
+mounted at the similar location, \ie, no matter in which particular
+machine you insert a \cdrom, it will always appear at the same
+position in the directory tree, on every system. When I wanted to
+implement such a user-program for \linux, I came across the
+differences in behavior of the various drivers, and the need for an
+$ioctl$ informing about media changes.}
+
+We believe that using $O_NONBLOCK$ to indicate that a device is being opened
+for $ioctl$ commands only can be easily introduced in the \linux\
+community. All the CD-player authors will have to be informed, we can
+even send in our own patches to the programs. The use of $O_NONBLOCK$
+has most likely no influence on the behavior of the CD-players on
+other operating systems than \linux. Finally, a user can always revert
+to old behavior by a call to $ioctl(file_descriptor, CDROM_CLEAR_OPTIONS,
+CDO_USE_FFLAGS)$.
+
+\subsection{The preferred strategy of $open()$}
+
+The routines in \cdromc\ are designed in such a way that run-time
+configuration of the behavior of \cdrom\ devices (of {\em any\/} type)
+can be carried out, by the $CDROM_SET/CLEAR_OPTIONS$ $ioctls$. Thus, various
+modes of operation can be set:
+\begin{description}
+\item[$CDO_AUTO_CLOSE \mathrel| CDO_USE_FFLAGS \mathrel| CDO_LOCK$] This
+is the default setting. (With $CDO_CHECK_TYPE$ it will be better, in the
+future.) If the device is not yet opened by any other process, and if
+the device is being opened for data ($O_NONBLOCK$ is not set) and the
+tray is found to be open, an attempt to close the tray is made. Then,
+it is verified that a disc is in the drive and, if $CDO_CHECK_TYPE$ is
+set, that it contains tracks of type `data mode 1.' Only if all tests
+are passed is the return value zero. The door is locked to prevent file
+system corruption. If the drive is opened for audio ($O_NONBLOCK$ is
+set), no actions are taken and a value of 0 will be returned.
+\item[$CDO_AUTO_CLOSE \mathrel| CDO_AUTO_EJECT \mathrel| CDO_LOCK$] This
+mimics the behavior of the current sbpcd-driver. The option flags are
+ignored, the tray is closed on the first open, if necessary. Similarly,
+the tray is opened on the last release, \ie, if a \cdrom\ is unmounted,
+it is automatically ejected, such that the user can replace it.
+\end{description}
+We hope that these option can convince everybody (both driver
+maintainers and user program developers) to adopt the new \cdrom\
+driver scheme and option flag interpretation.
+
+\newsection{Description of routines in \cdromc}
+
+Only a few routines in \cdromc\ are exported to the drivers. In this
+new section we will discuss these, as well as the functions that `take
+over' the \cdrom\ interface to the kernel. The header file belonging
+to \cdromc\ is called \cdromh. Formerly, some of the contents of this
+file were placed in the file {\tt {ucdrom.h}}, but this file has now been
+merged back into \cdromh.
+
+\subsection{$Struct\ file_operations\ cdrom_fops$}
+
+The contents of this structure were described in section~\ref{cdrom.c}.
+A pointer to this structure is assigned to the $fops$ field
+of the $struct gendisk$.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ register_cdrom( struct\ cdrom_device_info\ * cdi)$}
+
+This function is used in about the same way one registers $cdrom_fops$
+with the kernel, the device operations and information structures,
+as described in section~\ref{cdrom.c}, should be registered with the
+\UCD:
+$$
+register_cdrom(\&<device>_info));
+$$
+This function returns zero upon success, and non-zero upon
+failure. The structure $<device>_info$ should have a pointer to the
+driver's $<device>_dops$, as in
+$$
+\vbox{\halign{&$#$\hfil\cr
+struct\ &cdrom_device_info\ <device>_info = \{\cr
+& <device>_dops;\cr
+&\ldots\cr
+\}\cr
+}}$$
+Note that a driver must have one static structure, $<device>_dops$, while
+it may have as many structures $<device>_info$ as there are minor devices
+active. $Register_cdrom()$ builds a linked list from these.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ unregister_cdrom(struct\ cdrom_device_info * cdi)$}
+
+Unregistering device $cdi$ with minor number $MINOR(cdi\to dev)$ removes
+the minor device from the list. If it was the last registered minor for
+the low-level driver, this disconnects the registered device-operation
+routines from the \cdrom\ interface. This function returns zero upon
+success, and non-zero upon failure.
+
+\subsection{$Int\ cdrom_open(struct\ inode * ip, struct\ file * fp)$}
+
+This function is not called directly by the low-level drivers, it is
+listed in the standard $cdrom_fops$. If the VFS opens a file, this
+function becomes active. A strategy is implemented in this routine,
+taking care of all capabilities and options that are set in the
+$cdrom_device_ops$ connected to the device. Then, the program flow is
+transferred to the device_dependent $open()$ call.
+
+\subsection{$Void\ cdrom_release(struct\ inode *ip, struct\ file
+*fp)$}
+
+This function implements the reverse-logic of $cdrom_open()$, and then
+calls the device-dependent $release()$ routine. When the use-count has
+reached 0, the allocated buffers are flushed by calls to $sync_dev(dev)$
+and $invalidate_buffers(dev)$.
+
+
+\subsection{$Int\ cdrom_ioctl(struct\ inode *ip, struct\ file *fp,
+unsigned\ int\ cmd, unsigned\ long\ arg)$}
+\label{cdrom-ioctl}
+
+This function handles all the standard $ioctl$ requests for \cdrom\
+devices in a uniform way. The different calls fall into three
+categories: $ioctl$s that can be directly implemented by device
+operations, ones that are routed through the call $audio_ioctl()$, and
+the remaining ones, that are presumable device-dependent. Generally, a
+negative return value indicates an error.
+
+\subsubsection{Directly implemented $ioctl$s}
+\label{ioctl-direct}
+
+The following `old' \cdrom-$ioctl$s are implemented by directly
+calling device-operations in $cdrom_device_ops$, if implemented and
+not masked:
+\begin{description}
+\item[CDROMMULTISESSION] Requests the last session on a \cdrom.
+\item[CDROMEJECT] Open tray.
+\item[CDROMCLOSETRAY] Close tray.
+\item[CDROMEJECT_SW] If $arg\not=0$, set behavior to auto-close (close
+tray on first open) and auto-eject (eject on last release), otherwise
+set behavior to non-moving on $open()$ and $release()$ calls.
+\item[CDROM_GET_MCN] Get the Media Catalog Number from a CD.
+\end{description}
+
+\subsubsection{$Ioctl$s routed through $audio_ioctl()$}
+\label{ioctl-audio}
+
+The following set of $ioctl$s are all implemented through a call to
+the $cdrom_fops$ function $audio_ioctl()$. Memory checks and
+allocation are performed in $cdrom_ioctl()$, and also sanitization of
+address format ($CDROM_LBA$/$CDROM_MSF$) is done.
+\begin{description}
+\item[CDROMSUBCHNL] Get sub-channel data in argument $arg$ of type $struct\
+cdrom_subchnl *{}$.
+\item[CDROMREADTOCHDR] Read Table of Contents header, in $arg$ of type
+$struct\ cdrom_tochdr *{}$.
+\item[CDROMREADTOCENTRY] Read a Table of Contents entry in $arg$ and
+specified by $arg$ of type $struct\ cdrom_tocentry *{}$.
+\item[CDROMPLAYMSF] Play audio fragment specified in Minute, Second,
+Frame format, delimited by $arg$ of type $struct\ cdrom_msf *{}$.
+\item[CDROMPLAYTRKIND] Play audio fragment in track-index format
+delimited by $arg$ of type $struct\ \penalty-1000 cdrom_ti *{}$.
+\item[CDROMVOLCTRL] Set volume specified by $arg$ of type $struct\
+cdrom_volctrl *{}$.
+\item[CDROMVOLREAD] Read volume into by $arg$ of type $struct\
+cdrom_volctrl *{}$.
+\item[CDROMSTART] Spin up disc.
+\item[CDROMSTOP] Stop playback of audio fragment.
+\item[CDROMPAUSE] Pause playback of audio fragment.
+\item[CDROMRESUME] Resume playing.
+\end{description}
+
+\subsubsection{New $ioctl$s in \cdromc}
+
+The following $ioctl$s have been introduced to allow user programs to
+control the behavior of individual \cdrom\ devices. New $ioctl$
+commands can be identified by the underscores in their names.
+\begin{description}
+\item[CDROM_SET_OPTIONS] Set options specified by $arg$. Returns the
+option flag register after modification. Use $arg = \rm0$ for reading
+the current flags.
+\item[CDROM_CLEAR_OPTIONS] Clear options specified by $arg$. Returns
+ the option flag register after modification.
+\item[CDROM_SELECT_SPEED] Select head-rate speed of disc specified as
+ by $arg$ in units of standard cdrom speed (176\,kB/sec raw data or
+ 150\,kB/sec file system data). The value 0 means `auto-select', \ie,
+ play audio discs at real time and data discs at maximum speed. The value
+ $arg$ is checked against the maximum head rate of the drive found in the
+ $cdrom_dops$.
+\item[CDROM_SELECT_DISC] Select disc numbered $arg$ from a juke-box.
+ First disc is numbered 0. The number $arg$ is checked against the
+ maximum number of discs in the juke-box found in the $cdrom_dops$.
+\item[CDROM_MEDIA_CHANGED] Returns 1 if a disc has been changed since
+ the last call. Note that calls to $cdrom_media_changed$ by the VFS
+ are treated by an independent queue, so both mechanisms will detect
+ a media change once. For juke-boxes, an extra argument $arg$
+ specifies the slot for which the information is given. The special
+ value $CDSL_CURRENT$ requests that information about the currently
+ selected slot be returned.
+\item[CDROM_DRIVE_STATUS] Returns the status of the drive by a call to
+ $drive_status()$. Return values are defined in section~\ref{drive
+ status}. Note that this call doesn't return information on the
+ current playing activity of the drive; this can be polled through an
+ $ioctl$ call to $CDROMSUBCHNL$. For juke-boxes, an extra argument
+ $arg$ specifies the slot for which (possibly limited) information is
+ given. The special value $CDSL_CURRENT$ requests that information
+ about the currently selected slot be returned.
+\item[CDROM_DISC_STATUS] Returns the type of the disc currently in the
+ drive. It should be viewed as a complement to $CDROM_DRIVE_STATUS$.
+ This $ioctl$ can provide \emph {some} information about the current
+ disc that is inserted in the drive. This functionality used to be
+ implemented in the low level drivers, but is now carried out
+ entirely in \UCD.
+
+ The history of development of the CD's use as a carrier medium for
+ various digital information has lead to many different disc types.
+ This $ioctl$ is useful only in the case that CDs have \emph {only
+ one} type of data on them. While this is often the case, it is
+ also very common for CDs to have some tracks with data, and some
+ tracks with audio. Because this is an existing interface, rather
+ than fixing this interface by changing the assumptions it was made
+ under, thereby breaking all user applications that use this
+ function, the \UCD\ implements this $ioctl$ as follows: If the CD in
+ question has audio tracks on it, and it has absolutely no CD-I, XA,
+ or data tracks on it, it will be reported as $CDS_AUDIO$. If it has
+ both audio and data tracks, it will return $CDS_MIXED$. If there
+ are no audio tracks on the disc, and if the CD in question has any
+ CD-I tracks on it, it will be reported as $CDS_XA_2_2$. Failing
+ that, if the CD in question has any XA tracks on it, it will be
+ reported as $CDS_XA_2_1$. Finally, if the CD in question has any
+ data tracks on it, it will be reported as a data CD ($CDS_DATA_1$).
+
+ This $ioctl$ can return:
+ $$
+ \halign{$#$\ \hfil&$/*$ \rm# $*/$\hfil\cr
+ CDS_NO_INFO& no information available\cr
+ CDS_NO_DISC& no disc is inserted, or tray is opened\cr
+ CDS_AUDIO& Audio disc (2352 audio bytes/frame)\cr
+ CDS_DATA_1& data disc, mode 1 (2048 user bytes/frame)\cr
+ CDS_XA_2_1& mixed data (XA), mode 2, form 1 (2048 user bytes)\cr
+ CDS_XA_2_2& mixed data (XA), mode 2, form 1 (2324 user bytes)\cr
+ CDS_MIXED& mixed audio/data disc\cr
+ }
+ $$
+ For some information concerning frame layout of the various disc
+ types, see a recent version of \cdromh.
+
+\item[CDROM_CHANGER_NSLOTS] Returns the number of slots in a
+ juke-box.
+\item[CDROMRESET] Reset the drive.
+\item[CDROM_GET_CAPABILITY] Returns the $capability$ flags for the
+ drive. Refer to section \ref{capability} for more information on
+ these flags.
+\item[CDROM_LOCKDOOR] Locks the door of the drive. $arg == \rm0$
+ unlocks the door, any other value locks it.
+\item[CDROM_DEBUG] Turns on debugging info. Only root is allowed
+ to do this. Same semantics as CDROM_LOCKDOOR.
+\end{description}
+
+\subsubsection{Device dependent $ioctl$s}
+
+Finally, all other $ioctl$s are passed to the function $dev_ioctl()$,
+if implemented. No memory allocation or verification is carried out.
+
+\newsection{How to update your driver}
+
+\begin{enumerate}
+\item Make a backup of your current driver.
+\item Get hold of the files \cdromc\ and \cdromh, they should be in
+ the directory tree that came with this documentation.
+\item Make sure you include \cdromh.
+\item Change the 3rd argument of $register_blkdev$ from
+$\&<your-drive>_fops$ to $\&cdrom_fops$.
+\item Just after that line, add the following to register with the \UCD:
+ $$register_cdrom(\&<your-drive>_info);$$
+ Similarly, add a call to $unregister_cdrom()$ at the appropriate place.
+\item Copy an example of the device-operations $struct$ to your
+ source, \eg, from {\tt {cm206.c}} $cm206_dops$, and change all
+ entries to names corresponding to your driver, or names you just
+ happen to like. If your driver doesn't support a certain function,
+ make the entry $NULL$. At the entry $capability$ you should list all
+ capabilities your driver currently supports. If your driver
+ has a capability that is not listed, please send me a message.
+\item Copy the $cdrom_device_info$ declaration from the same example
+ driver, and modify the entries according to your needs. If your
+ driver dynamically determines the capabilities of the hardware, this
+ structure should also be declared dynamically.
+\item Implement all functions in your $<device>_dops$ structure,
+ according to prototypes listed in \cdromh, and specifications given
+ in section~\ref{cdrom.c}. Most likely you have already implemented
+ the code in a large part, and you will almost certainly need to adapt the
+ prototype and return values.
+\item Rename your $<device>_ioctl()$ function to $audio_ioctl$ and
+ change the prototype a little. Remove entries listed in the first
+ part in section~\ref{cdrom-ioctl}, if your code was OK, these are
+ just calls to the routines you adapted in the previous step.
+\item You may remove all remaining memory checking code in the
+ $audio_ioctl()$ function that deals with audio commands (these are
+ listed in the second part of section~\ref{cdrom-ioctl}). There is no
+ need for memory allocation either, so most $case$s in the $switch$
+ statement look similar to:
+ $$
+ case\ CDROMREADTOCENTRY\colon get_toc_entry\bigl((struct\
+ cdrom_tocentry *{})\ arg\bigr);
+ $$
+\item All remaining $ioctl$ cases must be moved to a separate
+ function, $<device>_ioctl$, the device-dependent $ioctl$s. Note that
+ memory checking and allocation must be kept in this code!
+\item Change the prototypes of $<device>_open()$ and
+ $<device>_release()$, and remove any strategic code (\ie, tray
+ movement, door locking, etc.).
+\item Try to recompile the drivers. We advise you to use modules, both
+ for {\tt {cdrom.o}} and your driver, as debugging is much easier this
+ way.
+\end{enumerate}
+
+\newsection{Thanks}
+
+Thanks to all the people involved. First, Erik Andersen, who has
+taken over the torch in maintaining \cdromc\ and integrating much
+\cdrom-related code in the 2.1-kernel. Thanks to Scott Snyder and
+Gerd Knorr, who were the first to implement this interface for SCSI
+and IDE-CD drivers and added many ideas for extension of the data
+structures relative to kernel~2.0. Further thanks to Heiko Eissfeldt,
+Thomas Quinot, Jon Tombs, Ken Pizzini, Eberhard M\"onkeberg and Andrew
+Kroll, the \linux\ \cdrom\ device driver developers who were kind
+enough to give suggestions and criticisms during the writing. Finally
+of course, I want to thank Linus Torvalds for making this possible in
+the first place.
+
+\vfill
+$ \version\ $
+\eject
+\end{document}
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/cdu31a b/Documentation/cdrom/cdu31a
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c0667da09c00
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/cdu31a
@@ -0,0 +1,196 @@
+
+ CDU31A/CDU33A Driver Info
+ -------------------------
+
+Information on the Sony CDU31A/CDU33A CDROM driver for the Linux
+kernel.
+
+ Corey Minyard (minyard@metronet.com)
+
+ Colossians 3:17
+
+Crude Table of Contents
+-----------------------
+
+ Setting Up the Hardware
+ Configuring the Kernel
+ Configuring as a Module
+ Driver Special Features
+
+
+This device driver handles Sony CDU31A/CDU33A CDROM drives and
+provides a complete block-level interface as well as an ioctl()
+interface as specified in include/linux/cdrom.h). With this
+interface, CDROMs can be accessed, standard audio CDs can be played
+back normally, and CD audio information can be read off the drive.
+
+Note that this will only work for CDU31A/CDU33A drives. Some vendors
+market their drives as CDU31A compatible. They lie. Their drives are
+really CDU31A hardware interface compatible (they can plug into the
+same card). They are not software compatible.
+
+Setting Up the Hardware
+-----------------------
+
+The CDU31A driver is unable to safely tell if an interface card is
+present that it can use because the interface card does not announce
+its presence in any way besides placing 4 I/O locations in memory. It
+used to just probe memory and attempt commands, but Linus wisely asked
+me to remove that because it could really screw up other hardware in
+the system.
+
+Because of this, you must tell the kernel where the drive interface
+is, what interrupts are used, and possibly if you are on a PAS-16
+soundcard.
+
+If you have the Sony CDU31A/CDU33A drive interface card, the following
+diagram will help you set it up. If you have another card, you are on
+your own. You need to make sure that the I/O address and interrupt is
+not used by another card in the system. You will need to know the I/O
+address and interrupt you have set. Note that use of interrupts is
+highly recommended, if possible, it really cuts down on CPU used.
+Unfortunately, most soundcards do not support interrupts for their
+CDROM interfaces. By default, the Sony interface card comes with
+interrupts disabled.
+
+ +----------+-----------------+----------------------+
+ | JP1 | 34 Pin Conn | |
+ | JP2 +-----------------+ |
+ | JP3 |
+ | JP4 |
+ | +--+
+ | | +-+
+ | | | | External
+ | | | | Connector
+ | | | |
+ | | +-+
+ | +--+
+ | |
+ | +--------+
+ | |
+ +------------------------------------------+
+
+ JP1 sets the Base Address, using the following settings:
+
+ Address Pin 1 Pin 2
+ ------- ----- -----
+ 0x320 Short Short
+ 0x330 Short Open
+ 0x340 Open Short
+ 0x360 Open Open
+
+ JP2 and JP3 configure the DMA channel; they must be set the same.
+
+ DMA Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3
+ --- ----- ----- -----
+ 1 On Off On
+ 2 Off On Off
+ 3 Off Off On
+
+ JP4 Configures the IRQ:
+
+ IRQ Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4
+ --- ----- ----- ----- -----
+ 3 Off Off On Off
+ 4 Off Off* Off On
+ 5 On Off Off Off
+ 6 Off On Off Off
+
+ The documentation states to set this for interrupt
+ 4, but I think that is a mistake.
+
+Note that if you have another interface card, you will need to look at
+the documentation to find the I/O base address. This is specified to
+the SLCD.SYS driver for DOS with the /B: parameter, so you can look at
+you DOS driver setup to find the address, if necessary.
+
+Configuring the Kernel
+----------------------
+
+You must tell the kernel where the drive is at boot time. This can be
+done at the Linux boot prompt, by using LILO, or by using Bootlin.
+Note that this is no substitute for HOWTOs and LILO documentation, if
+you are confused please read those for info on bootline configuration
+and LILO.
+
+At the linux boot prompt, press the ALT key and add the following line
+after the boot name (you can let the kernel boot, it will tell you the
+default boot name while booting):
+
+ cdu31a=<base address>,<interrupt>[,PAS]
+
+The base address needs to have "0x" in front of it, since it is in
+hex. For instance, to configure a drive at address 320 on interrupt 5,
+use the following:
+
+ cdu31a=0x320,5
+
+I use the following boot line:
+
+ cdu31a=0x1f88,0,PAS
+
+because I have a PAS-16 which does not support interrupt for the
+CDU31A interface.
+
+Adding this as an append line at the beginning of the /etc/lilo.conf
+file will set it for lilo configurations. I have the following as the
+first line in my lilo.conf file:
+
+ append="cdu31a=0x1f88,0"
+
+I'm not sure how to set up Bootlin (I have never used it), if someone
+would like to fill in this section please do.
+
+
+Configuring as a Module
+-----------------------
+
+The driver supports loading as a module. However, you must specify
+the boot address and interrupt on the boot line to insmod. You can't
+use modprobe to load it, since modprobe doesn't support setting
+variables.
+
+Anyway, I use the following line to load my driver as a module
+
+ /sbin/insmod /lib/modules/`uname -r`/misc/cdu31a.o cdu31a_port=0x1f88
+
+You can set the following variables in the driver:
+
+ cdu31a_port=<I/O address> - sets the base I/O. If hex, put 0x in
+ front of it. This must be specified.
+
+ cdu31a_irq=<interrupt> - Sets the interrupt number. Leaving this
+ off will turn interrupts off.
+
+
+Driver Special Features
+-----------------------
+
+This section describes features beyond the normal audio and CD-ROM
+functions of the drive.
+
+2048 byte buffer mode
+
+If a disk is mounted with -o block=2048, data is copied straight from
+the drive data port to the buffer. Otherwise, the readahead buffer
+must be involved to hold the other 1K of data when a 1K block
+operation is done. Note that with 2048 byte blocks you cannot execute
+files from the CD.
+
+XA compatibility
+
+The driver should support XA disks for both the CDU31A and CDU33A. It
+does this transparently, the using program doesn't need to set it.
+
+Multi-Session
+
+A multi-session disk looks just like a normal disk to the user. Just
+mount one normally, and all the data should be there. A special
+thanks to Koen for help with this!
+
+Raw sector I/O
+
+Using the CDROMREADAUDIO it is possible to read raw audio and data
+tracks. Both operations return 2352 bytes per sector. On the data
+tracks, the first 12 bytes is not returned by the drive and the value
+of that data is indeterminate.
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/cm206 b/Documentation/cdrom/cm206
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..810368f4f7c4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/cm206
@@ -0,0 +1,185 @@
+This is the readme file for the driver for the Philips/LMS cdrom drive
+cm206 in combination with the cm260 host adapter card.
+
+ (c) 1995 David A. van Leeuwen
+
+Changes since version 0.99
+--------------------------
+- Interfacing to the kernel is routed though an extra interface layer,
+ cdrom.c. This allows runtime-configurable `behavior' of the cdrom-drive,
+ independent of the driver.
+
+Features since version 0.33
+---------------------------
+- Full audio support, that is, both workman, workbone and cdp work
+ now reasonably. Reading TOC still takes some time. xmcd has been
+ reported to run successfully.
+- Made auto-probe code a little better, I hope
+
+Features since version 0.28
+---------------------------
+- Full speed transfer rate (300 kB/s).
+- Minimum kernel memory usage for buffering (less than 3 kB).
+- Multisession support.
+- Tray locking.
+- Statistics of driver accessible to the user.
+- Module support.
+- Auto-probing of adapter card's base port and irq line,
+ also configurable at boot time or module load time.
+
+
+Decide how you are going to use the driver. There are two
+options:
+
+ (a) installing the driver as a resident part of the kernel
+ (b) compiling the driver as a loadable module
+
+ Further, you must decide if you are going to specify the base port
+ address and the interrupt request line of the adapter card cm260 as
+ boot options for (a), module parameters for (b), use automatic
+ probing of these values, or hard-wire your adaptor card's settings
+ into the source code. If you don't care, you can choose
+ autoprobing, which is the default. In that case you can move on to
+ the next step.
+
+Compiling the kernel
+--------------------
+1) move to /usr/src/linux and do a
+
+ make config
+
+ If you have chosen option (a), answer yes to CONFIG_CM206 and
+ CONFIG_ISO9660_FS.
+
+ If you have chosen option (b), answer yes to CONFIG_MODVERSIONS
+ and no (!) to CONFIG_CM206 and CONFIG_ISO9660_FS.
+
+2) then do a
+
+ make clean; make zImage; make modules
+
+3) do the usual things to install a new image (backup the old one, run
+ `rdev -R zImage 1', copy the new image in place, run lilo). Might
+ be `make zlilo'.
+
+Using the driver as a module
+----------------------------
+If you will only occasionally use the cd-rom driver, you can choose
+option (b), install as a loadable module. You may have to re-compile
+the module when you upgrade the kernel to a new version.
+
+Since version 0.96, much of the functionality has been transferred to
+a generic cdrom interface in the file cdrom.c. The module cm206.o
+depends on cdrom.o. If the latter is not compiled into the kernel,
+you must explicitly load it before cm206.o:
+
+ insmod /usr/src/linux/modules/cdrom.o
+
+To install the module, you use the command, as root
+
+ insmod /usr/src/linux/modules/cm206.o
+
+You can specify the base address on the command line as well as the irq
+line to be used, e.g.
+
+ insmod /usr/src/linux/modules/cm206.o cm206=0x300,11
+
+The order of base port and irq line doesn't matter; if you specify only
+one, the other will have the value of the compiled-in default. You
+may also have to install the file-system module `iso9660.o', if you
+didn't compile that into the kernel.
+
+
+Using the driver as part of the kernel
+--------------------------------------
+If you have chosen option (a), you can specify the base-port
+address and irq on the lilo boot command line, e.g.:
+
+ LILO: linux cm206=0x340,11
+
+This assumes that your linux kernel image keyword is `linux'.
+If you specify either IRQ (3--11) or base port (0x300--0x370),
+auto probing is turned off for both settings, thus setting the
+other value to the compiled-in default.
+
+Note that you can also put these parameters in the lilo configuration file:
+
+# linux config
+image = /vmlinuz
+ root = /dev/hda1
+ label = Linux
+ append = "cm206=0x340,11"
+ read-only
+
+
+If module parameters and LILO config options don't work
+-------------------------------------------------------
+If autoprobing does not work, you can hard-wire the default values
+of the base port address (CM206_BASE) and interrupt request line
+(CM206_IRQ) into the file /usr/src/linux/drivers/cdrom/cm206.h. Change
+the defines of CM206_IRQ and CM206_BASE.
+
+
+Mounting the cdrom
+------------------
+1) Make sure that the right device is installed in /dev.
+
+ mknod /dev/cm206cd b 32 0
+
+2) Make sure there is a mount point, e.g., /cdrom
+
+ mkdir /cdrom
+
+3) mount using a command like this (run as root):
+
+ mount -rt iso9660 /dev/cm206cd /cdrom
+
+4) For user-mounts, add a line in /etc/fstab
+
+ /dev/cm206cd /cdrom iso9660 ro,noauto,user
+
+ This will allow users to give the commands
+
+ mount /cdrom
+ umount /cdrom
+
+If things don't work
+--------------------
+
+- Try to do a `dmesg' to find out if the driver said anything about
+ what is going wrong during the initialization.
+
+- Try to do a `dd if=/dev/cm206cd | od -tc | less' to read from the
+ CD.
+
+- Look in the /proc directory to see if `cm206' shows up under one of
+ `interrupts', `ioports', `devices' or `modules' (if applicable).
+
+
+DISCLAIMER
+----------
+I cannot guarantee that this driver works, or that the hardware will
+not be harmed, although I consider it most unlikely.
+
+I hope that you'll find this driver in some way useful.
+
+ David van Leeuwen
+ david@tm.tno.nl
+
+Note for Linux CDROM vendors
+-----------------------------
+You are encouraged to include this driver on your Linux CDROM. If
+you do, you might consider sending me a free copy of that cd-rom.
+You can contact me through my e-mail address, david@tm.tno.nl.
+If this driver is compiled into a kernel to boot off a cdrom,
+you should actually send me a free copy of that cd-rom.
+
+Copyright
+---------
+The copyright of the cm206 driver for Linux is
+
+ (c) 1995 David A. van Leeuwen
+
+The driver is released under the conditions of the GNU general public
+license, which can be found in the file COPYING in the root of this
+source tree.
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/gscd b/Documentation/cdrom/gscd
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d01ca36b5c43
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/gscd
@@ -0,0 +1,60 @@
+ Goldstar R420 CD-Rom device driver README
+
+For all kind of other information about the GoldStar R420 CDROM
+and this Linux device driver see the WWW page:
+
+ http://linux.rz.fh-hannover.de/~raupach
+
+
+ If you are the editor of a Linux CD, you should
+ enable gscd.c within your boot floppy kernel. Please,
+ send me one of your CDs for free.
+
+
+This current driver version 0.4a only supports reading data from the disk.
+Currently we have no audio and no multisession or XA support.
+The polling interface is used, no DMA.
+
+
+Sometimes the GoldStar R420 is sold in a 'Reveal Multimedia Kit'. This kit's
+drive interface is compatible, too.
+
+
+Installation
+------------
+
+Change to '/usr/src/linux/drivers/cdrom' and edit the file 'gscd.h'. Insert
+the i/o address of your interface card.
+
+The default base address is 0x340. This will work for most applications.
+Address selection is accomplished by jumpers PN801-1 to PN801-4 on the
+GoldStar Interface Card.
+Appropriate settings are: 0x300, 0x310, 0x320, 0x330, 0x340, 0x350, 0x360
+0x370, 0x380, 0x390, 0x3A0, 0x3B0, 0x3C0, 0x3D0, 0x3E0, 0x3F0
+
+Then go back to '/usr/src/linux/' and 'make config' to build the new
+configuration for your kernel. If you want to use the GoldStar driver
+like a module, don't select 'GoldStar CDROM support'. By the way, you
+have to include the iso9660 filesystem.
+
+Now start compiling the kernel with 'make zImage'.
+If you want to use the driver as a module, you have to do 'make modules'
+and 'make modules_install', additionally.
+Install your new kernel as usual - maybe you do it with 'make zlilo'.
+
+Before you can use the driver, you have to
+ mknod /dev/gscd0 b 16 0
+to create the appropriate device file (you only need to do this once).
+
+If you use modules, you can try to insert the driver.
+Say: 'insmod /usr/src/linux/modules/gscd.o'
+or: 'insmod /usr/src/linux/modules/gscd.o gscd=<address>'
+The driver should report its results.
+
+That's it! Mount a disk, i.e. 'mount -rt iso9660 /dev/gscd0 /cdrom'
+
+Feel free to report errors and suggestions to the following address.
+Be sure, I'm very happy to receive your comments!
+
+ Oliver Raupach Hannover, Juni 1995
+(raupach@nwfs1.rz.fh-hannover.de)
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/ide-cd b/Documentation/cdrom/ide-cd
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..29721bfcde12
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/ide-cd
@@ -0,0 +1,574 @@
+IDE-CD driver documentation
+Originally by scott snyder <snyder@fnald0.fnal.gov> (19 May 1996)
+Carrying on the torch is: Erik Andersen <andersee@debian.org>
+New maintainers (19 Oct 1998): Jens Axboe <axboe@image.dk>
+
+1. Introduction
+---------------
+
+The ide-cd driver should work with all ATAPI ver 1.2 to ATAPI 2.6 compliant
+CDROM drives which attach to an IDE interface. Note that some CDROM vendors
+(including Mitsumi, Sony, Creative, Aztech, and Goldstar) have made
+both ATAPI-compliant drives and drives which use a proprietary
+interface. If your drive uses one of those proprietary interfaces,
+this driver will not work with it (but one of the other CDROM drivers
+probably will). This driver will not work with `ATAPI' drives which
+attach to the parallel port. In addition, there is at least one drive
+(CyCDROM CR520ie) which attaches to the IDE port but is not ATAPI;
+this driver will not work with drives like that either (but see the
+aztcd driver).
+
+This driver provides the following features:
+
+ - Reading from data tracks, and mounting ISO 9660 filesystems.
+
+ - Playing audio tracks. Most of the CDROM player programs floating
+ around should work; I usually use Workman.
+
+ - Multisession support.
+
+ - On drives which support it, reading digital audio data directly
+ from audio tracks. The program cdda2wav can be used for this.
+ Note, however, that only some drives actually support this.
+
+ - There is now support for CDROM changers which comply with the
+ ATAPI 2.6 draft standard (such as the NEC CDR-251). This additional
+ functionality includes a function call to query which slot is the
+ currently selected slot, a function call to query which slots contain
+ CDs, etc. A sample program which demonstrates this functionality is
+ appended to the end of this file. The Sanyo 3-disc changer
+ (which does not conform to the standard) is also now supported.
+ Please note the driver refers to the first CD as slot # 0.
+
+
+2. Installation
+---------------
+
+0. The ide-cd relies on the ide disk driver. See
+ Documentation/ide.txt for up-to-date information on the ide
+ driver.
+
+1. Make sure that the ide and ide-cd drivers are compiled into the
+ kernel you're using. When configuring the kernel, in the section
+ entitled "Floppy, IDE, and other block devices", say either `Y'
+ (which will compile the support directly into the kernel) or `M'
+ (to compile support as a module which can be loaded and unloaded)
+ to the options:
+
+ Enhanced IDE/MFM/RLL disk/cdrom/tape/floppy support
+ Include IDE/ATAPI CDROM support
+
+ and `no' to
+
+ Use old disk-only driver on primary interface
+
+ Depending on what type of IDE interface you have, you may need to
+ specify additional configuration options. See
+ Documentation/ide.txt.
+
+2. You should also ensure that the iso9660 filesystem is either
+ compiled into the kernel or available as a loadable module. You
+ can see if a filesystem is known to the kernel by catting
+ /proc/filesystems.
+
+3. The CDROM drive should be connected to the host on an IDE
+ interface. Each interface on a system is defined by an I/O port
+ address and an IRQ number, the standard assignments being
+ 0x1f0 and 14 for the primary interface and 0x170 and 15 for the
+ secondary interface. Each interface can control up to two devices,
+ where each device can be a hard drive, a CDROM drive, a floppy drive,
+ or a tape drive. The two devices on an interface are called `master'
+ and `slave'; this is usually selectable via a jumper on the drive.
+
+ Linux names these devices as follows. The master and slave devices
+ on the primary IDE interface are called `hda' and `hdb',
+ respectively. The drives on the secondary interface are called
+ `hdc' and `hdd'. (Interfaces at other locations get other letters
+ in the third position; see Documentation/ide.txt.)
+
+ If you want your CDROM drive to be found automatically by the
+ driver, you should make sure your IDE interface uses either the
+ primary or secondary addresses mentioned above. In addition, if
+ the CDROM drive is the only device on the IDE interface, it should
+ be jumpered as `master'. (If for some reason you cannot configure
+ your system in this manner, you can probably still use the driver.
+ You may have to pass extra configuration information to the kernel
+ when you boot, however. See Documentation/ide.txt for more
+ information.)
+
+4. Boot the system. If the drive is recognized, you should see a
+ message which looks like
+
+ hdb: NEC CD-ROM DRIVE:260, ATAPI CDROM drive
+
+ If you do not see this, see section 5 below.
+
+5. You may want to create a symbolic link /dev/cdrom pointing to the
+ actual device. You can do this with the command
+
+ ln -s /dev/hdX /dev/cdrom
+
+ where X should be replaced by the letter indicating where your
+ drive is installed.
+
+6. You should be able to see any error messages from the driver with
+ the `dmesg' command.
+
+
+3. Basic usage
+--------------
+
+An ISO 9660 CDROM can be mounted by putting the disc in the drive and
+typing (as root)
+
+ mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
+
+where it is assumed that /dev/cdrom is a link pointing to the actual
+device (as described in step 5 of the last section) and /mnt/cdrom is
+an empty directory. You should now be able to see the contents of the
+CDROM under the /mnt/cdrom directory. If you want to eject the CDROM,
+you must first dismount it with a command like
+
+ umount /mnt/cdrom
+
+Note that audio CDs cannot be mounted.
+
+Some distributions set up /etc/fstab to always try to mount a CDROM
+filesystem on bootup. It is not required to mount the CDROM in this
+manner, though, and it may be a nuisance if you change CDROMs often.
+You should feel free to remove the cdrom line from /etc/fstab and
+mount CDROMs manually if that suits you better.
+
+Multisession and photocd discs should work with no special handling.
+The hpcdtoppm package (ftp.gwdg.de:/pub/linux/hpcdtoppm/) may be
+useful for reading photocds.
+
+To play an audio CD, you should first unmount and remove any data
+CDROM. Any of the CDROM player programs should then work (workman,
+workbone, cdplayer, etc.). Lacking anything else, you could use the
+cdtester program in Documentation/cdrom/sbpcd.
+
+On a few drives, you can read digital audio directly using a program
+such as cdda2wav. The only types of drive which I've heard support
+this are Sony and Toshiba drives. You will get errors if you try to
+use this function on a drive which does not support it.
+
+For supported changers, you can use the `cdchange' program (appended to
+the end of this file) to switch between changer slots. Note that the
+drive should be unmounted before attempting this. The program takes
+two arguments: the CDROM device, and the slot number to which you wish
+to change. If the slot number is -1, the drive is unloaded.
+
+
+4. Compilation options
+----------------------
+
+There are a few additional options which can be set when compiling the
+driver. Most people should not need to mess with any of these; they
+are listed here simply for completeness. A compilation option can be
+enabled by adding a line of the form `#define <option> 1' to the top
+of ide-cd.c. All these options are disabled by default.
+
+VERBOSE_IDE_CD_ERRORS
+ If this is set, ATAPI error codes will be translated into textual
+ descriptions. In addition, a dump is made of the command which
+ provoked the error. This is off by default to save the memory used
+ by the (somewhat long) table of error descriptions.
+
+STANDARD_ATAPI
+ If this is set, the code needed to deal with certain drives which do
+ not properly implement the ATAPI spec will be disabled. If you know
+ your drive implements ATAPI properly, you can turn this on to get a
+ slightly smaller kernel.
+
+NO_DOOR_LOCKING
+ If this is set, the driver will never attempt to lock the door of
+ the drive.
+
+CDROM_NBLOCKS_BUFFER
+ This sets the size of the buffer to be used for a CDROMREADAUDIO
+ ioctl. The default is 8.
+
+TEST
+ This currently enables an additional ioctl which enables a user-mode
+ program to execute an arbitrary packet command. See the source for
+ details. This should be left off unless you know what you're doing.
+
+
+5. Common problems
+------------------
+
+This section discusses some common problems encountered when trying to
+use the driver, and some possible solutions. Note that if you are
+experiencing problems, you should probably also review
+Documentation/ide.txt for current information about the underlying
+IDE support code. Some of these items apply only to earlier versions
+of the driver, but are mentioned here for completeness.
+
+In most cases, you should probably check with `dmesg' for any errors
+from the driver.
+
+a. Drive is not detected during booting.
+
+ - Review the configuration instructions above and in
+ Documentation/ide.txt, and check how your hardware is
+ configured.
+
+ - If your drive is the only device on an IDE interface, it should
+ be jumpered as master, if at all possible.
+
+ - If your IDE interface is not at the standard addresses of 0x170
+ or 0x1f0, you'll need to explicitly inform the driver using a
+ lilo option. See Documentation/ide.txt. (This feature was
+ added around kernel version 1.3.30.)
+
+ - If the autoprobing is not finding your drive, you can tell the
+ driver to assume that one exists by using a lilo option of the
+ form `hdX=cdrom', where X is the drive letter corresponding to
+ where your drive is installed. Note that if you do this and you
+ see a boot message like
+
+ hdX: ATAPI cdrom (?)
+
+ this does _not_ mean that the driver has successfully detected
+ the drive; rather, it means that the driver has not detected a
+ drive, but is assuming there's one there anyway because you told
+ it so. If you actually try to do I/O to a drive defined at a
+ nonexistent or nonresponding I/O address, you'll probably get
+ errors with a status value of 0xff.
+
+ - Some IDE adapters require a nonstandard initialization sequence
+ before they'll function properly. (If this is the case, there
+ will often be a separate MS-DOS driver just for the controller.)
+ IDE interfaces on sound cards often fall into this category.
+
+ Support for some interfaces needing extra initialization is
+ provided in later 1.3.x kernels. You may need to turn on
+ additional kernel configuration options to get them to work;
+ see Documentation/ide.txt.
+
+ Even if support is not available for your interface, you may be
+ able to get it to work with the following procedure. First boot
+ MS-DOS and load the appropriate drivers. Then warm-boot linux
+ (i.e., without powering off). If this works, it can be automated
+ by running loadlin from the MS-DOS autoexec.
+
+
+b. Timeout/IRQ errors.
+
+ - If you always get timeout errors, interrupts from the drive are
+ probably not making it to the host.
+
+ - IRQ problems may also be indicated by the message
+ `IRQ probe failed (<n>)' while booting. If <n> is zero, that
+ means that the system did not see an interrupt from the drive when
+ it was expecting one (on any feasible IRQ). If <n> is negative,
+ that means the system saw interrupts on multiple IRQ lines, when
+ it was expecting to receive just one from the CDROM drive.
+
+ - Double-check your hardware configuration to make sure that the IRQ
+ number of your IDE interface matches what the driver expects.
+ (The usual assignments are 14 for the primary (0x1f0) interface
+ and 15 for the secondary (0x170) interface.) Also be sure that
+ you don't have some other hardware which might be conflicting with
+ the IRQ you're using. Also check the BIOS setup for your system;
+ some have the ability to disable individual IRQ levels, and I've
+ had one report of a system which was shipped with IRQ 15 disabled
+ by default.
+
+ - Note that many MS-DOS CDROM drivers will still function even if
+ there are hardware problems with the interrupt setup; they
+ apparently don't use interrupts.
+
+ - If you own a Pioneer DR-A24X, you _will_ get nasty error messages
+ on boot such as "irq timeout: status=0x50 { DriveReady SeekComplete }"
+ The Pioneer DR-A24X CDROM drives are fairly popular these days.
+ Unfortunately, these drives seem to become very confused when we perform
+ the standard Linux ATA disk drive probe. If you own one of these drives,
+ you can bypass the ATA probing which confuses these CDROM drives, by
+ adding `append="hdX=noprobe hdX=cdrom"' to your lilo.conf file and running
+ lilo (again where X is the drive letter corresponding to where your drive
+ is installed.)
+
+c. System hangups.
+
+ - If the system locks up when you try to access the CDROM, the most
+ likely cause is that you have a buggy IDE adapter which doesn't
+ properly handle simultaneous transactions on multiple interfaces.
+ The most notorious of these is the CMD640B chip. This problem can
+ be worked around by specifying the `serialize' option when
+ booting. Recent kernels should be able to detect the need for
+ this automatically in most cases, but the detection is not
+ foolproof. See Documentation/ide.txt for more information
+ about the `serialize' option and the CMD640B.
+
+ - Note that many MS-DOS CDROM drivers will work with such buggy
+ hardware, apparently because they never attempt to overlap CDROM
+ operations with other disk activity.
+
+
+d. Can't mount a CDROM.
+
+ - If you get errors from mount, it may help to check `dmesg' to see
+ if there are any more specific errors from the driver or from the
+ filesystem.
+
+ - Make sure there's a CDROM loaded in the drive, and that's it's an
+ ISO 9660 disc. You can't mount an audio CD.
+
+ - With the CDROM in the drive and unmounted, try something like
+
+ cat /dev/cdrom | od | more
+
+ If you see a dump, then the drive and driver are probably working
+ OK, and the problem is at the filesystem level (i.e., the CDROM is
+ not ISO 9660 or has errors in the filesystem structure).
+
+ - If you see `not a block device' errors, check that the definitions
+ of the device special files are correct. They should be as
+ follows:
+
+ brw-rw---- 1 root disk 3, 0 Nov 11 18:48 /dev/hda
+ brw-rw---- 1 root disk 3, 64 Nov 11 18:48 /dev/hdb
+ brw-rw---- 1 root disk 22, 0 Nov 11 18:48 /dev/hdc
+ brw-rw---- 1 root disk 22, 64 Nov 11 18:48 /dev/hdd
+
+ Some early Slackware releases had these defined incorrectly. If
+ these are wrong, you can remake them by running the script
+ scripts/MAKEDEV.ide. (You may have to make it executable
+ with chmod first.)
+
+ If you have a /dev/cdrom symbolic link, check that it is pointing
+ to the correct device file.
+
+ If you hear people talking of the devices `hd1a' and `hd1b', these
+ were old names for what are now called hdc and hdd. Those names
+ should be considered obsolete.
+
+ - If mount is complaining that the iso9660 filesystem is not
+ available, but you know it is (check /proc/filesystems), you
+ probably need a newer version of mount. Early versions would not
+ always give meaningful error messages.
+
+
+e. Directory listings are unpredictably truncated, and `dmesg' shows
+ `buffer botch' error messages from the driver.
+
+ - There was a bug in the version of the driver in 1.2.x kernels
+ which could cause this. It was fixed in 1.3.0. If you can't
+ upgrade, you can probably work around the problem by specifying a
+ blocksize of 2048 when mounting. (Note that you won't be able to
+ directly execute binaries off the CDROM in that case.)
+
+ If you see this in kernels later than 1.3.0, please report it as a
+ bug.
+
+
+f. Data corruption.
+
+ - Random data corruption was occasionally observed with the Hitachi
+ CDR-7730 CDROM. If you experience data corruption, using "hdx=slow"
+ as a command line parameter may work around the problem, at the
+ expense of low system performance.
+
+
+6. cdchange.c
+-------------
+
+/*
+ * cdchange.c [-v] <device> [<slot>]
+ *
+ * This loads a CDROM from a specified slot in a changer, and displays
+ * information about the changer status. The drive should be unmounted before
+ * using this program.
+ *
+ * Changer information is displayed if either the -v flag is specified
+ * or no slot was specified.
+ *
+ * Based on code originally from Gerhard Zuber <zuber@berlin.snafu.de>.
+ * Changer status information, and rewrite for the new Uniform CDROM driver
+ * interface by Erik Andersen <andersee@debian.org>.
+ */
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <linux/cdrom.h>
+
+
+int
+main (int argc, char **argv)
+{
+ char *program;
+ char *device;
+ int fd; /* file descriptor for CD-ROM device */
+ int status; /* return status for system calls */
+ int verbose = 0;
+ int slot=-1, x_slot;
+ int total_slots_available;
+
+ program = argv[0];
+
+ ++argv;
+ --argc;
+
+ if (argc < 1 || argc > 3) {
+ fprintf (stderr, "usage: %s [-v] <device> [<slot>]\n",
+ program);
+ fprintf (stderr, " Slots are numbered 1 -- n.\n");
+ exit (1);
+ }
+
+ if (strcmp (argv[0], "-v") == 0) {
+ verbose = 1;
+ ++argv;
+ --argc;
+ }
+
+ device = argv[0];
+
+ if (argc == 2)
+ slot = atoi (argv[1]) - 1;
+
+ /* open device */
+ fd = open(device, O_RDONLY | O_NONBLOCK);
+ if (fd < 0) {
+ fprintf (stderr, "%s: open failed for `%s': %s\n",
+ program, device, strerror (errno));
+ exit (1);
+ }
+
+ /* Check CD player status */
+ total_slots_available = ioctl (fd, CDROM_CHANGER_NSLOTS);
+ if (total_slots_available <= 1 ) {
+ fprintf (stderr, "%s: Device `%s' is not an ATAPI "
+ "compliant CD changer.\n", program, device);
+ exit (1);
+ }
+
+ if (slot >= 0) {
+ if (slot >= total_slots_available) {
+ fprintf (stderr, "Bad slot number. "
+ "Should be 1 -- %d.\n",
+ total_slots_available);
+ exit (1);
+ }
+
+ /* load */
+ slot=ioctl (fd, CDROM_SELECT_DISC, slot);
+ if (slot<0) {
+ fflush(stdout);
+ perror ("CDROM_SELECT_DISC ");
+ exit(1);
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (slot < 0 || verbose) {
+
+ status=ioctl (fd, CDROM_SELECT_DISC, CDSL_CURRENT);
+ if (status<0) {
+ fflush(stdout);
+ perror (" CDROM_SELECT_DISC");
+ exit(1);
+ }
+ slot=status;
+
+ printf ("Current slot: %d\n", slot+1);
+ printf ("Total slots available: %d\n",
+ total_slots_available);
+
+ printf ("Drive status: ");
+ status = ioctl (fd, CDROM_DRIVE_STATUS, CDSL_CURRENT);
+ if (status<0) {
+ perror(" CDROM_DRIVE_STATUS");
+ } else switch(status) {
+ case CDS_DISC_OK:
+ printf ("Ready.\n");
+ break;
+ case CDS_TRAY_OPEN:
+ printf ("Tray Open.\n");
+ break;
+ case CDS_DRIVE_NOT_READY:
+ printf ("Drive Not Ready.\n");
+ break;
+ default:
+ printf ("This Should not happen!\n");
+ break;
+ }
+
+ for (x_slot=0; x_slot<total_slots_available; x_slot++) {
+ printf ("Slot %2d: ", x_slot+1);
+ status = ioctl (fd, CDROM_DRIVE_STATUS, x_slot);
+ if (status<0) {
+ perror(" CDROM_DRIVE_STATUS");
+ } else switch(status) {
+ case CDS_DISC_OK:
+ printf ("Disc present.");
+ break;
+ case CDS_NO_DISC:
+ printf ("Empty slot.");
+ break;
+ case CDS_TRAY_OPEN:
+ printf ("CD-ROM tray open.\n");
+ break;
+ case CDS_DRIVE_NOT_READY:
+ printf ("CD-ROM drive not ready.\n");
+ break;
+ case CDS_NO_INFO:
+ printf ("No Information available.");
+ break;
+ default:
+ printf ("This Should not happen!\n");
+ break;
+ }
+ if (slot == x_slot) {
+ status = ioctl (fd, CDROM_DISC_STATUS);
+ if (status<0) {
+ perror(" CDROM_DISC_STATUS");
+ }
+ switch (status) {
+ case CDS_AUDIO:
+ printf ("\tAudio disc.\t");
+ break;
+ case CDS_DATA_1:
+ case CDS_DATA_2:
+ printf ("\tData disc type %d.\t", status-CDS_DATA_1+1);
+ break;
+ case CDS_XA_2_1:
+ case CDS_XA_2_2:
+ printf ("\tXA data disc type %d.\t", status-CDS_XA_2_1+1);
+ break;
+ default:
+ printf ("\tUnknown disc type 0x%x!\t", status);
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ status = ioctl (fd, CDROM_MEDIA_CHANGED, x_slot);
+ if (status<0) {
+ perror(" CDROM_MEDIA_CHANGED");
+ }
+ switch (status) {
+ case 1:
+ printf ("Changed.\n");
+ break;
+ default:
+ printf ("\n");
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* close device */
+ status = close (fd);
+ if (status != 0) {
+ fprintf (stderr, "%s: close failed for `%s': %s\n",
+ program, device, strerror (errno));
+ exit (1);
+ }
+
+ exit (0);
+}
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/isp16 b/Documentation/cdrom/isp16
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..cc86533ac9f3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/isp16
@@ -0,0 +1,100 @@
+ -- Documentation/cdrom/isp16
+
+Docs by Eric van der Maarel <H.T.M.v.d.Maarel@marin.nl>
+
+This is the README for version 0.6 of the cdrom interface on an
+ISP16, MAD16 or Mozart sound card.
+
+The detection and configuration of this interface used to be included
+in both the sjcd and optcd cdrom driver. Drives supported by these
+drivers came packed with Media Magic's multi media kit, which also
+included the ISP16 card. The idea (thanks Leo Spiekman)
+to move it from these drivers into a separate module and moreover, not to
+rely on the MAD16 sound driver, are as follows:
+-duplication of code in the kernel is a waste of resources and should
+ be avoided;
+-however, kernels and notably those included with Linux distributions
+ (cf Slackware 3.0 included version 0.5 of the isp16 configuration
+ code included in the drivers) don't always come with sound support
+ included. Especially when they already include a bunch of cdrom drivers.
+ Hence, the cdrom interface should be configurable _independently_ of
+ sound support.
+
+The ISP16, MAD16 and Mozart sound cards have an OPTi 82C928 or an
+OPTi 82C929 chip. The interface on these cards should work with
+any cdrom attached to the card, which is 'electrically' compatible
+with Sanyo/Panasonic, Sony or Mitsumi non-ide drives. However, the
+command sets for any proprietary drives may differ
+(and hence may not be supported in the kernel) from these four types.
+For a fact I know the interface works and the way of configuration
+as described in this documentation works in combination with the
+sjcd (in Sanyo/Panasonic compatibility mode) cdrom drivers
+(probably with the optcd (in Sony compatibility mode) as well).
+If you have such an OPTi based sound card and you want to use the
+cdrom interface with a cdrom drive supported by any of the other cdrom
+drivers, it will probably work. Please let me know any experience you
+might have).
+I understand that cards based on the OPTi 82C929 chips may be configured
+(hardware jumpers that is) as an IDE interface. Initialisation of such a
+card in this mode is not supported (yet?).
+
+The suggestion to configure the ISP16 etc. sound card by booting DOS and
+do a warm reboot to boot Linux somehow doesn't work, at least not
+on my machine (IPC P90), with the OPTi 82C928 based card.
+
+Booting the kernel through the boot manager LILO allows the use
+of some command line options on the 'LILO boot:' prompt. At boot time
+press Alt or Shift while the LILO prompt is written on the screen and enter
+any kernel options. Alternatively these options may be used in
+the appropriate section in /etc/lilo.conf. Adding 'append="<cmd_line_options>"'
+will do the trick as well.
+The syntax of 'cmd_line_options' is
+
+ isp16=[<port>[,<irq>[,<dma>]]][[,]<drive_type>]
+
+If there is no ISP16 or compatibles detected, there's probably no harm done.
+These options indicate the values that your cdrom drive has been (or will be)
+configured to use.
+Valid values for the base i/o address are:
+ port=0x340,0x320,0x330,0x360
+for the interrupt request number
+ irq=0,3,5,7,9,10,11
+for the direct memory access line
+ dma=0,3,5,6,7
+and for the type of drive
+ drive_type=noisp16,Sanyo,Panasonic,Sony,Mitsumi.
+Note that these options are case sensitive.
+The values 0 for irq and dma indicate that they are not used, and
+the drive will be used in 'polling' mode. The values 5 and 7 for irq
+should be avoided in order to avoid any conflicts with optional
+sound card configuration.
+The syntax of the command line does not allow the specification of
+irq when there's nothing specified for the base address and no
+specification of dma when there is no specification of irq.
+The value 'noisp16' for drive_type, which may be used as the first
+non-integer option value (e.g. 'isp16=noisp16'), makes sure that probing
+for and subsequent configuration of an ISP16-compatible card is skipped
+all together. This can be useful to overcome possible conflicts which
+may arise while the kernel is probing your hardware.
+The default values are
+ port=0x340
+ irq=0
+ dma=0
+ drive_type=Sanyo
+reflecting my own configuration. The defaults can be changed in
+the file linux/drivers/cdrom/ips16.h.
+
+The cdrom interface can be configured at run time by loading the
+initialisation driver as a module. In that case, the interface
+parameters can be set by giving appropriate values on the command
+line. Configuring the driver can then be done by the following
+command (assuming you have iso16.o installed in a proper place):
+
+ insmod isp16.o isp16_cdrom_base=<port> isp16_cdrom_irq=<irq> \
+ isp16_cdrom_dma=<dma> isp16_cdrom_type=<drive_type>
+
+where port, irq, dma and drive_type can have any of the values mentioned
+above.
+
+
+Have fun!
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/mcdx b/Documentation/cdrom/mcdx
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..2bac4b7ff6da
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/mcdx
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+If you are using the driver as a module, you can specify your ports and IRQs
+like
+
+ # insmod mcdx.o mcdx=0x300,11,0x304,5
+
+and so on ("address,IRQ" pairs).
+This will override the configuration in mcdx.h.
+
+This driver:
+
+ o handles XA and (hopefully) multi session CDs as well as
+ ordinary CDs;
+ o supports up to 5 drives (of course, you'll need free
+ IRQs, i/o ports and slots);
+ o plays audio
+
+This version doesn't support yet:
+
+ o shared IRQs (but it seems to be possible - I've successfully
+ connected two drives to the same irq. So it's `only' a
+ problem of the driver.)
+
+This driver never will:
+
+ o Read digital audio (i.e. copy directly), due to missing
+ hardware features.
+
+
+heiko@lotte.sax.de
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/optcd b/Documentation/cdrom/optcd
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..6f46c7adb243
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/optcd
@@ -0,0 +1,57 @@
+This is the README file for the Optics Storage 8000 AT CDROM device driver.
+
+This is the driver for the so-called 'DOLPHIN' drive, with the 34-pin
+Sony-compatible interface. For the IDE-compatible Optics Storage 8001
+drive, you will want the ATAPI CDROM driver. The driver also seems to
+work with the Lasermate CR328A. If you have a drive that works with
+this driver, and that doesn't report itself as DOLPHIN, please drop me
+a mail.
+
+The support for multisession CDs is in ALPHA stage. If you use it,
+please mail me your experiences. Multisession support can be disabled
+at compile time.
+
+You can find some older versions of the driver at
+ dutette.et.tudelft.nl:/pub/linux/
+and at Eberhard's mirror
+ ftp.gwdg.de:/pub/linux/cdrom/drivers/optics/
+
+Before you can use the driver, you have to create the device file once:
+ # mknod /dev/optcd0 b 17 0
+
+To specify the base address if the driver is "compiled-in" to your kernel,
+you can use the kernel command line item (LILO option)
+ optcd=0x340
+with the right address.
+
+If you have compiled optcd as a module, you can load it with
+ # insmod /usr/src/linux/modules/optcd.o
+or
+ # insmod /usr/src/linux/modules/optcd.o optcd=0x340
+with the matching address value of your interface card.
+
+The driver employs a number of buffers to do read-ahead and block size
+conversion. The number of buffers is configurable in optcd.h, and has
+influence on the driver performance. For my machine (a P75), 6 buffers
+seems optimal, as can be seen from this table:
+
+#bufs kb/s %cpu
+1 97 0.1
+2 191 0.3
+3 188 0.2
+4 246 0.3
+5 189 19
+6 280 0.4
+7 281 7.0
+8 246 2.8
+16 281 3.4
+
+If you get a throughput significantly below 300 kb/s, try tweaking
+N_BUFS, and don't forget to mail me your results!
+
+I'd appreciate success/failure reports. If you find a bug, try
+recompiling the driver with some strategically chosen debug options
+(these can be found in optcd.h) and include the messages generated in
+your bug report. Good luck.
+
+Leo Spiekman (spiekman@dutette.et.tudelft.nl)
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/packet-writing.txt b/Documentation/cdrom/packet-writing.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..3d44c561fe6d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/packet-writing.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,97 @@
+Getting started quick
+---------------------
+
+- Select packet support in the block device section and UDF support in
+ the file system section.
+
+- Compile and install kernel and modules, reboot.
+
+- You need the udftools package (pktsetup, mkudffs, cdrwtool).
+ Download from http://sourceforge.net/projects/linux-udf/
+
+- Grab a new CD-RW disc and format it (assuming CD-RW is hdc, substitute
+ as appropriate):
+ # cdrwtool -d /dev/hdc -q
+
+- Setup your writer
+ # pktsetup dev_name /dev/hdc
+
+- Now you can mount /dev/pktcdvd/dev_name and copy files to it. Enjoy!
+ # mount /dev/pktcdvd/dev_name /cdrom -t udf -o rw,noatime
+
+
+Packet writing for DVD-RW media
+-------------------------------
+
+DVD-RW discs can be written to much like CD-RW discs if they are in
+the so called "restricted overwrite" mode. To put a disc in restricted
+overwrite mode, run:
+
+ # dvd+rw-format /dev/hdc
+
+You can then use the disc the same way you would use a CD-RW disc:
+
+ # pktsetup dev_name /dev/hdc
+ # mount /dev/pktcdvd/dev_name /cdrom -t udf -o rw,noatime
+
+
+Packet writing for DVD+RW media
+-------------------------------
+
+According to the DVD+RW specification, a drive supporting DVD+RW discs
+shall implement "true random writes with 2KB granularity", which means
+that it should be possible to put any filesystem with a block size >=
+2KB on such a disc. For example, it should be possible to do:
+
+ # dvd+rw-format /dev/hdc (only needed if the disc has never
+ been formatted)
+ # mkudffs /dev/hdc
+ # mount /dev/hdc /cdrom -t udf -o rw,noatime
+
+However, some drives don't follow the specification and expect the
+host to perform aligned writes at 32KB boundaries. Other drives do
+follow the specification, but suffer bad performance problems if the
+writes are not 32KB aligned.
+
+Both problems can be solved by using the pktcdvd driver, which always
+generates aligned writes.
+
+ # dvd+rw-format /dev/hdc
+ # pktsetup dev_name /dev/hdc
+ # mkudffs /dev/pktcdvd/dev_name
+ # mount /dev/pktcdvd/dev_name /cdrom -t udf -o rw,noatime
+
+
+Packet writing for DVD-RAM media
+--------------------------------
+
+DVD-RAM discs are random writable, so using the pktcdvd driver is not
+necessary. However, using the pktcdvd driver can improve performance
+in the same way it does for DVD+RW media.
+
+
+Notes
+-----
+
+- CD-RW media can usually not be overwritten more than about 1000
+ times, so to avoid unnecessary wear on the media, you should always
+ use the noatime mount option.
+
+- Defect management (ie automatic remapping of bad sectors) has not
+ been implemented yet, so you are likely to get at least some
+ filesystem corruption if the disc wears out.
+
+- Since the pktcdvd driver makes the disc appear as a regular block
+ device with a 2KB block size, you can put any filesystem you like on
+ the disc. For example, run:
+
+ # /sbin/mke2fs /dev/pktcdvd/dev_name
+
+ to create an ext2 filesystem on the disc.
+
+
+Links
+-----
+
+See http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/ for more information
+about DVD writing.
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/sbpcd b/Documentation/cdrom/sbpcd
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d1825dffca34
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/sbpcd
@@ -0,0 +1,1057 @@
+This README belongs to release 4.2 or newer of the SoundBlaster Pro
+(Matsushita, Kotobuki, Panasonic, CreativeLabs, Longshine and Teac)
+CD-ROM driver for Linux.
+
+sbpcd really, really is NOT for ANY IDE/ATAPI drive!
+Not even if you have an "original" SoundBlaster card with an IDE interface!
+So, you'd better have a look into README.ide if your port address is 0x1F0,
+0x170, 0x1E8, 0x168 or similar.
+I get tons of mails from IDE/ATAPI drive users - I really can't continue
+any more to answer them all. So, if your drive/interface information sheets
+mention "IDE" (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary) and the DOS driver
+invoking line within your CONFIG.SYS is using an address below 0x230:
+DON'T ROB MY LAST NERVE - jumper your interface to address 0x170 and IRQ 15
+(that is the "secondary IDE" configuration), set your drive to "master" and
+use ide-cd as your driver. If you do not have a second IDE hard disk, use the
+LILO commands
+ hdb=noprobe hdc=cdrom
+and get lucky.
+To make it fully clear to you: if you mail me about IDE/ATAPI drive problems,
+my answer is above, and I simply will discard your mail, hoping to stop the
+flood and to find time to lead my 12-year old son towards happy computing.
+
+The driver is able to drive the whole family of "traditional" AT-style (that
+is NOT the new "Enhanced IDE" or "ATAPI" drive standard) Matsushita,
+Kotobuki, Panasonic drives, sometimes labelled as "CreativeLabs". The
+well-known drives are CR-521, CR-522, CR-523, CR-562, CR-563.
+CR-574 is an IDE/ATAPI drive.
+
+The Longshine LCS-7260 is a double-speed drive which uses the "old"
+Matsushita command set. It is supported - with help by Serge Robyns.
+Vertos ("Elitegroup Computer Systems", ECS) has a similar drive - support
+has started; get in contact if you have such a "Vertos 100" or "ECS-AT"
+drive.
+
+There exists an "IBM External ISA CD-ROM Drive" which in fact is a CR-563
+with a special controller board. This drive is supported (the interface is
+of the "LaserMate" type), and it is possibly the best buy today (cheaper than
+an internal drive, and you can use it as an internal, too - e.g. plug it into
+a soundcard).
+
+CreativeLabs has a new drive "CD200" and a similar drive "CD200F". The latter
+is made by Funai and sometimes named "E2550UA", newer models may be named
+"MK4015". The CD200F drives should fully work.
+CD200 drives without "F" are still giving problems: drive detection and
+playing audio should work, data access will result in errors. I need qualified
+feedback about the bugs within the data functions or a drive (I never saw a
+CD200).
+
+The quad-speed Teac CD-55A drive is supported, but still does not reach "full
+speed". The data rate already reaches 500 kB/sec if you set SBP_BUFFER_FRAMES
+to 64 (it is not recommended to do that for normal "file access" usage, but it
+can speed up things a lot if you use something like "dd" to read from the
+drive; I use it for verifying self-written CDs this way).
+The drive itself is able to deliver 600 kB/sec, so this needs
+work; with the normal setup, the performance currently is not even as good as
+double-speed.
+
+This driver is NOT for Mitsumi or Sony or Aztech or Philips or XXX drives,
+and again: this driver is in no way usable for any IDE/ATAPI drive. If you
+think your drive should work and it doesn't: send me the DOS driver for your
+beast (gzipped + uuencoded) and your CONFIG.SYS if you want to ask me for help,
+and include an original log message excerpt, and try to give all information
+a complete idiot needs to understand your hassle already with your first
+mail. And if you want to say "as I have mailed you before", be sure that I
+don't remember your "case" by such remarks; at the moment, I have some
+hundreds of open correspondences about Linux CDROM questions (hope to reduce if
+the IDE/ATAPI user questions disappear).
+
+
+This driver will work with the soundcard interfaces (SB Pro, SB 16, Galaxy,
+SoundFX, Mozart, MAD16 ...) and with the "no-sound" cards (Panasonic CI-101P,
+LaserMate, WDH-7001C, Longshine LCS-6853, Teac ...).
+
+It works with the "configurable" interface "Sequoia S-1000", too, which is
+used on the Spea Media FX and Ensonic Soundscape sound cards. You have to
+specify the type "SBPRO 2" and the true CDROM port address with it, not the
+"configuration port" address.
+
+If you have a sound card which needs a "configuration driver" instead of
+jumpers for interface types and addresses (like Mozart cards) - those
+drivers get invoked before the DOS CDROM driver in your CONFIG.SYS, typical
+names are "cdsetup.sys" and "mztinit.sys" - let the sound driver do the
+CDROM port configuration (the leading comments in linux/drivers/sound/mad16.c
+are just for you!). Hannu Savolainen's mad16.c code is able to set up my
+Mozart card - I simply had to add
+ #define MAD16_CONF 0x06
+ #define MAD16_CDSEL 0x03
+to configure the CDROM interface for type "Panasonic" (LaserMate) and address
+0x340.
+
+The interface type has to get configured in linux/drivers/cdrom/sbpcd.h,
+because the register layout is different between the "SoundBlaster" and the
+"LaserMate" type.
+
+I got a report that the Teac interface card "I/F E117098" is of type
+"SoundBlaster" (i.e. you have to set SBPRO to 1) even with the addresses
+0x300 and above. This is unusual, and it can't get covered by the auto
+probing scheme.
+The Teac 16-bit interface cards (like P/N E950228-00A, default address 0x2C0)
+need the SBPRO 3 setup.
+
+If auto-probing found the drive, the address is correct. The reported type
+may be wrong. A "mount" will give success only if the interface type is set
+right. Playing audio should work with a wrong set interface type, too.
+
+With some Teac and some CD200 drives I have seen interface cards which seem
+to lack the "drive select" lines; always drive 0 gets addressed. To avoid
+"mirror drives" (four drives detected where you only have one) with such
+interface cards, set MAX_DRIVES to 1 and jumper your drive to ID 0 (if
+possible).
+
+
+Up to 4 drives per interface card, and up to 4 interface cards are supported.
+All supported drive families can be mixed, but the CR-521 drives are
+hard-wired to drive ID 0. The drives have to use different drive IDs, and each
+drive has to get a unique minor number (0...3), corresponding indirectly to
+its drive ID.
+The drive IDs may be selected freely from 0 to 3 - they do not have to be in
+consecutive order.
+
+As Don Carroll, don@ds9.us.dell.com or FIDO 1:382/14, told me, it is possible
+to change old drives to any ID, too. He writes in this sense:
+ "In order to be able to use more than one single speed drive
+ (they do not have the ID jumpers) you must add a DIP switch
+ and two resistors. The pads are already on the board next to
+ the power connector. You will see the silkscreen for the
+ switch if you remove the top cover.
+ 1 2 3 4
+ ID 0 = x F F x O = "on"
+ ID 1 = x O F x F = "off"
+ ID 2 = x F O x x = "don't care"
+ ID 3 = x O O x
+ Next to the switch are the positions for R76 (7k) and R78
+ (12k). I had to play around with the resistor values - ID 3
+ did not work with other values. If the values are not good,
+ ID 3 behaves like ID 0."
+
+To use more than 4 drives, you simply need a second controller card at a
+different address and a second cable.
+
+The driver supports reading of data from the CD and playing of audio tracks.
+The audio part should run with WorkMan, xcdplayer, with the "non-X11" products
+CDplayer and WorkBone - tell me if it is not compatible with other software.
+The only accepted measure for correctness with the audio functions is the
+"cdtester" utility (appended) - most audio player programmers seem to be
+better musicians than programmers. ;-)
+
+With the CR-56x and the CD200 drives, the reading of audio frames is possible.
+This is implemented by an IOCTL function which reads READ_AUDIO frames of
+2352 bytes at once (configurable with the "READ_AUDIO" define, default is 0).
+Reading the same frame a second time gives different data; the frame data
+start at a different position, but all read bytes are valid, and we always
+read 98 consecutive chunks (of 24 Bytes) as a frame. Reading more than 1 frame
+at once possibly misses some chunks at each frame boundary. This lack has to
+get corrected by external, "higher level" software which reads the same frame
+again and tries to find and eliminate overlapping chunks (24-byte-pieces).
+
+The transfer rate with reading audio (1-frame-pieces) currently is very slow.
+This can be better reading bigger chunks, but the "missing" chunks possibly
+occur at the beginning of each single frame.
+The software interface possibly may change a bit the day the SCSI driver
+supports it too.
+
+With all but the CR-52x drives, MultiSession is supported.
+Photo CDs work (the "old" drives like CR-521 can access only the first
+session of a photoCD).
+At ftp.gwdg.de:/pub/linux/hpcdtoppm/ you will find Hadmut Danisch's package to
+convert photo CD image files and Gerd Knorr's viewing utility.
+
+The transfer rate will reach 150 kB/sec with CR-52x drives, 300 kB/sec with
+CR-56x drives, and currently not more than 500 kB/sec (usually less than
+250 kB/sec) with the Teac quad speed drives.
+XA (PhotoCD) disks with "old" drives give only 50 kB/sec.
+
+This release consists of
+- this README file
+- the driver file linux/drivers/cdrom/sbpcd.c
+- the stub files linux/drivers/cdrom/sbpcd[234].c
+- the header file linux/drivers/cdrom/sbpcd.h.
+
+
+To install:
+-----------
+
+1. Setup your hardware parameters. Though the driver does "auto-probing" at a
+ lot of (not all possible!) addresses, this step is recommended for
+ everyday use. You should let sbpcd auto-probe once and use the reported
+ address if a drive got found. The reported type may be incorrect; it is
+ correct if you can mount a data CD. There is no choice for you with the
+ type; only one is right, the others are deadly wrong.
+
+ a. Go into /usr/src/linux/drivers/cdrom/sbpcd.h and configure it for your
+ hardware (near the beginning):
+ a1. Set it up for the appropriate type of interface board.
+ "Original" CreativeLabs sound cards need "SBPRO 1".
+ Most "compatible" sound cards (almost all "non-CreativeLabs" cards)
+ need "SBPRO 0".
+ The "no-sound" board from OmniCd needs the "SBPRO 1" setup.
+ The Teac 8-bit "no-sound" boards need the "SBPRO 1" setup.
+ The Teac 16-bit "no-sound" boards need the "SBPRO 3" setup.
+ All other "no-sound" boards need the "SBPRO 0" setup.
+ The Spea Media FX and Ensoniq SoundScape cards need "SBPRO 2".
+ sbpcd.c holds some examples in its auto-probe list.
+ If you configure "SBPRO" wrong, the playing of audio CDs will work,
+ but you will not be able to mount a data CD.
+ a2. Tell the address of your CDROM_PORT (not of the sound port).
+ a3. If 4 drives get found, but you have only one, set MAX_DRIVES to 1.
+ a4. Set DISTRIBUTION to 0.
+ b. Additionally for 2.a1 and 2.a2, the setup may be done during
+ boot time (via the "kernel command line" or "LILO option"):
+ sbpcd=0x320,LaserMate
+ or
+ sbpcd=0x230,SoundBlaster
+ or
+ sbpcd=0x338,SoundScape
+ or
+ sbpcd=0x2C0,Teac16bit
+ This is especially useful if you install a fresh distribution.
+ If the second parameter is a number, it gets taken as the type
+ setting; 0 is "LaserMate", 1 is "SoundBlaster", 2 is "SoundScape",
+ 3 is "Teac16bit".
+ So, for example
+ sbpcd=0x230,1
+ is equivalent to
+ sbpcd=0x230,SoundBlaster
+
+2. "cd /usr/src/linux" and do a "make config" and select "y" for Matsushita
+ CD-ROM support and for ISO9660 FileSystem support. If you do not have a
+ second, third, or fourth controller installed, do not say "y" to the
+ secondary Matsushita CD-ROM questions.
+
+3. Then make the kernel image ("make zlilo" or similar).
+
+4. Make the device file(s). This step usually already has been done by the
+ MAKEDEV script.
+ The driver uses MAJOR 25, so, if necessary, do
+ mknod /dev/sbpcd b 25 0 (if you have only one drive)
+ and/or
+ mknod /dev/sbpcd0 b 25 0
+ mknod /dev/sbpcd1 b 25 1
+ mknod /dev/sbpcd2 b 25 2
+ mknod /dev/sbpcd3 b 25 3
+ to make the node(s).
+
+ The "first found" drive gets MINOR 0 (regardless of its jumpered ID), the
+ "next found" (at the same cable) gets MINOR 1, ...
+
+ For a second interface board, you have to make nodes like
+ mknod /dev/sbpcd4 b 26 0
+ mknod /dev/sbpcd5 b 26 1
+ and so on. Use the MAJORs 26, 27, 28.
+
+ If you further make a link like
+ ln -s sbpcd /dev/cdrom
+ you can use the name /dev/cdrom, too.
+
+5. Reboot with the new kernel.
+
+You should now be able to do
+ mkdir /CD
+and
+ mount -rt iso9660 /dev/sbpcd /CD
+or
+ mount -rt iso9660 -o block=2048 /dev/sbpcd /CD
+and see the contents of your CD in the /CD directory.
+To use audio CDs, a mounting is not recommended (and it would fail if the
+first track is not a data track).
+
+
+Using sbpcd as a "loadable module":
+-----------------------------------
+
+If you do NOT select "Matsushita/Panasonic CDROM driver support" during the
+"make config" of your kernel, you can build the "loadable module" sbpcd.o.
+
+If sbpcd gets used as a module, the support of more than one interface
+card (i.e. drives 4...15) is disabled.
+
+You can specify interface address and type with the "insmod" command like:
+ # insmod /usr/src/linux/modules/sbpcd.o sbpcd=0x340,0
+or
+ # insmod /usr/src/linux/modules/sbpcd.o sbpcd=0x230,1
+or
+ # insmod /usr/src/linux/modules/sbpcd.o sbpcd=0x338,2
+where the last number represents the SBPRO setting (no strings allowed here).
+
+
+Things of interest:
+-------------------
+
+The driver is configured to try the LaserMate type of interface at I/O port
+0x0340 first. If this is not appropriate, sbpcd.h should get changed
+(you will find the right place - just at the beginning).
+
+No DMA and no IRQ is used.
+
+To reduce or increase the amount of kernel messages, edit sbpcd.c and play
+with the "DBG_xxx" switches (initialization of the variable "sbpcd_debug").
+Don't forget to reflect on what you do; enabling all DBG_xxx switches at once
+may crash your system, and each message line is accompanied by a delay.
+
+The driver uses the "variable BLOCK_SIZE" feature. To use it, you have to
+specify "block=2048" as a mount option. Doing this will disable the direct
+execution of a binary from the CD; you have to copy it to a device with the
+standard BLOCK_SIZE (1024) first. So, do not use this if your system is
+directly "running from the CDROM" (like some of Yggdrasil's installation
+variants). There are CDs on the market (like the German "unifix" Linux
+distribution) which MUST get handled with a block_size of 1024. Generally,
+one can say all the CDs which hold files of the name YMTRANS.TBL are defective;
+do not use block=2048 with those.
+
+Within sbpcd.h, you will find some "#define"s (e.g. EJECT and JUKEBOX). With
+these, you can configure the driver for some special things.
+You can use the appended program "cdtester" to set the auto-eject feature
+during runtime. Jeff Tranter's "eject" utility can do this, too (and more)
+for you.
+
+There is an ioctl CDROMMULTISESSION to obtain with a user program if
+the CD is an XA disk and - if it is - where the last session starts. The
+"cdtester" program illustrates how to call it.
+
+
+Auto-probing at boot time:
+--------------------------
+
+The driver does auto-probing at many well-known interface card addresses,
+but not all:
+Some probings can cause a hang if an NE2000 ethernet card gets touched, because
+SBPCD's auto-probing happens before the initialization of the net drivers.
+Those "hazardous" addresses are excluded from auto-probing; the "kernel
+command line" feature has to be used during installation if you have your
+drive at those addresses. The "module" version is allowed to probe at those
+addresses, too.
+
+The auto-probing looks first at the configured address resp. the address
+submitted by the kernel command line. With this, it is possible to use this
+driver within installation boot floppies, and for any non-standard address,
+too.
+
+Auto-probing will make an assumption about the interface type ("SBPRO" or not),
+based upon the address. That assumption may be wrong (initialization will be
+o.k., but you will get I/O errors during mount). In that case, use the "kernel
+command line" feature and specify address & type at boot time to find out the
+right setup.
+
+For everyday use, address and type should get configured within sbpcd.h. That
+will stop the auto-probing due to success with the first try.
+
+The kernel command "sbpcd=0" suppresses each auto-probing and causes
+the driver not to find any drive; it is meant for people who love sbpcd
+so much that they do not want to miss it, even if they miss the drives. ;-)
+
+If you configure "#define CDROM_PORT 0" in sbpcd.h, the auto-probing is
+initially disabled and needs an explicit kernel command to get activated.
+Once activated, it does not stop before success or end-of-list. This may be
+useful within "universal" CDROM installation boot floppies (but using the
+loadable module would be better because it allows an "extended" auto-probing
+without fearing NE2000 cards).
+
+To shorten the auto-probing list to a single entry, set DISTRIBUTION 0 within
+sbpcd.h.
+
+
+Setting up address and interface type:
+--------------------------------------
+
+If your I/O port address is not 0x340, you have to look for the #defines near
+the beginning of sbpcd.h and configure them: set SBPRO to 0 or 1 or 2, and
+change CDROM_PORT to the address of your CDROM I/O port.
+
+Almost all of the "SoundBlaster compatible" cards behave like the no-sound
+interfaces, i.e. need SBPRO 0!
+
+With "original" SB Pro cards, an initial setting of CD_volume through the
+sound card's MIXER register gets done.
+If you are using a "compatible" sound card of types "LaserMate" or "SPEA",
+you can set SOUND_BASE (in sbpcd.h) to get it done with your card, too...
+
+
+Using audio CDs:
+----------------
+
+Workman, WorkBone, xcdplayer, cdplayer and the nice little tool "cdplay" (see
+README.aztcd from the Aztech driver package) should work.
+
+The program CDplayer likes to talk to "/dev/mcd" only, xcdplayer wants
+"/dev/rsr0", workman loves "/dev/sr0" or "/dev/cdrom" - so, make the
+appropriate links to use them without the need to supply parameters.
+
+
+Copying audio tracks:
+---------------------
+
+The following program will copy track 1 (or a piece of it) from an audio CD
+into the file "track01":
+
+/*=================== begin program ========================================*/
+/*
+ * read an audio track from a CD
+ *
+ * (c) 1994 Eberhard Moenkeberg <emoenke@gwdg.de>
+ * may be used & enhanced freely
+ *
+ * Due to non-existent sync bytes at the beginning of each audio frame (or due
+ * to a firmware bug within all known drives?), it is currently a kind of
+ * fortune if two consecutive frames fit together.
+ * Usually, they overlap, or a little piece is missing. This happens in units
+ * of 24-byte chunks. It has to get fixed by higher-level software (reading
+ * until an overlap occurs, and then eliminate the overlapping chunks).
+ * ftp.gwdg.de:/pub/linux/misc/cdda2wav-sbpcd.*.tar.gz holds an example of
+ * such an algorithm.
+ * This example program further is missing to obtain the SubChannel data
+ * which belong to each frame.
+ *
+ * This is only an example of the low-level access routine. The read data are
+ * pure 16-bit CDDA values; they have to get converted to make sound out of
+ * them.
+ * It is no fun to listen to it without prior overlap/underlap correction!
+ */
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <linux/cdrom.h>
+
+static struct cdrom_tochdr hdr;
+static struct cdrom_tocentry entry[101];
+static struct cdrom_read_audio arg;
+static u_char buffer[CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW];
+static int datafile, drive;
+static int i, j, limit, track, err;
+static char filename[32];
+
+main(int argc, char *argv[])
+{
+/*
+ * open /dev/cdrom
+ */
+ drive=open("/dev/cdrom", 0);
+ if (drive<0)
+ {
+ fprintf(stderr, "can't open drive.\n");
+ exit (-1);
+ }
+/*
+ * get TocHeader
+ */
+ fprintf(stdout, "getting TocHeader...\n");
+ err=ioctl(drive, CDROMREADTOCHDR, &hdr);
+ if (err!=0)
+ {
+ fprintf(stderr, "can't get TocHeader (error %d).\n", err);
+ exit (-1);
+ }
+ else
+ fprintf(stdout, "TocHeader: %d %d\n", hdr.cdth_trk0, hdr.cdth_trk1);
+/*
+ * get and display all TocEntries
+ */
+ fprintf(stdout, "getting TocEntries...\n");
+ for (i=1;i<=hdr.cdth_trk1+1;i++)
+ {
+ if (i!=hdr.cdth_trk1+1) entry[i].cdte_track = i;
+ else entry[i].cdte_track = CDROM_LEADOUT;
+ entry[i].cdte_format = CDROM_LBA;
+ err=ioctl(drive, CDROMREADTOCENTRY, &entry[i]);
+ if (err!=0)
+ {
+ fprintf(stderr, "can't get TocEntry #%d (error %d).\n", i, err);
+ exit (-1);
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ fprintf(stdout, "TocEntry #%d: %1X %1X %06X %02X\n",
+ entry[i].cdte_track,
+ entry[i].cdte_adr,
+ entry[i].cdte_ctrl,
+ entry[i].cdte_addr.lba,
+ entry[i].cdte_datamode);
+ }
+ }
+ fprintf(stdout, "got all TocEntries.\n");
+/*
+ * ask for track number (not implemented here)
+ */
+track=1;
+#if 0 /* just read a little piece (4 seconds) */
+entry[track+1].cdte_addr.lba=entry[track].cdte_addr.lba+300;
+#endif
+/*
+ * read track into file
+ */
+ sprintf(filename, "track%02d\0", track);
+ datafile=creat(filename, 0755);
+ if (datafile<0)
+ {
+ fprintf(stderr, "can't open datafile %s.\n", filename);
+ exit (-1);
+ }
+ arg.addr.lba=entry[track].cdte_addr.lba;
+ arg.addr_format=CDROM_LBA; /* CDROM_MSF would be possible here, too. */
+ arg.nframes=1;
+ arg.buf=&buffer[0];
+ limit=entry[track+1].cdte_addr.lba;
+ for (;arg.addr.lba<limit;arg.addr.lba++)
+ {
+ err=ioctl(drive, CDROMREADAUDIO, &arg);
+ if (err!=0)
+ {
+ fprintf(stderr, "can't read abs. frame #%d (error %d).\n",
+ arg.addr.lba, err);
+ }
+ j=write(datafile, &buffer[0], CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW);
+ if (j!=CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW)
+ {
+ fprintf(stderr,"I/O error (datafile) at rel. frame %d\n",
+ arg.addr.lba-entry[track].cdte_addr.lba);
+ }
+ arg.addr.lba++;
+ }
+}
+/*===================== end program ========================================*/
+
+At ftp.gwdg.de:/pub/linux/misc/cdda2wav-sbpcd.*.tar.gz is an adapted version of
+Heiko Eissfeldt's digital-audio to .WAV converter (the original is there, too).
+This is preliminary, as Heiko himself will care about it.
+
+
+Known problems:
+---------------
+
+Currently, the detection of disk change or removal is actively disabled.
+
+Most attempts to read the UPC/EAN code result in a stream of zeroes. All my
+drives are mostly telling there is no UPC/EAN code on disk or there is, but it
+is an all-zero number. I guess now almost no CD holds such a number.
+
+Bug reports, comments, wishes, donations (technical information is a donation,
+too :-) etc. to emoenke@gwdg.de.
+
+SnailMail address, preferable for CD editors if they want to submit a free
+"cooperation" copy:
+ Eberhard Moenkeberg
+ Reinholdstr. 14
+ D-37083 Goettingen
+ Germany
+---
+
+
+Appendix -- the "cdtester" utility:
+
+/*
+ * cdtester.c -- test the audio functions of a CD driver
+ *
+ * (c) 1995 Eberhard Moenkeberg <emoenke@gwdg.de>
+ * published under the GPL
+ *
+ * made under heavy use of the "Tiny Audio CD Player"
+ * from Werner Zimmermann <zimmerma@rz.fht-esslingen.de>
+ * (see linux/drivers/block/README.aztcd)
+ */
+#undef AZT_PRIVATE_IOCTLS /* not supported by every CDROM driver */
+#define SBP_PRIVATE_IOCTLS /* not supported by every CDROM driver */
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <malloc.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <linux/cdrom.h>
+
+#ifdef AZT_PRIVATE_IOCTLS
+#include <linux/../../drivers/cdrom/aztcd.h>
+#endif AZT_PRIVATE_IOCTLS
+#ifdef SBP_PRIVATE_IOCTLS
+#include <linux/../../drivers/cdrom/sbpcd.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#endif SBP_PRIVATE_IOCTLS
+
+struct cdrom_tochdr hdr;
+struct cdrom_tochdr tocHdr;
+struct cdrom_tocentry TocEntry[101];
+struct cdrom_tocentry entry;
+struct cdrom_multisession ms_info;
+struct cdrom_read_audio read_audio;
+struct cdrom_ti ti;
+struct cdrom_subchnl subchnl;
+struct cdrom_msf msf;
+struct cdrom_volctrl volctrl;
+#ifdef AZT_PRIVATE_IOCTLS
+union
+{
+ struct cdrom_msf msf;
+ unsigned char buf[CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW];
+} azt;
+#endif AZT_PRIVATE_IOCTLS
+int i, i1, i2, i3, j, k;
+unsigned char sequence=0;
+unsigned char command[80];
+unsigned char first=1, last=1;
+char *default_device="/dev/cdrom";
+char dev[20];
+char filename[20];
+int drive;
+int datafile;
+int rc;
+
+void help(void)
+{
+ printf("Available Commands:\n");
+ printf("STOP s EJECT e QUIT q\n");
+ printf("PLAY TRACK t PAUSE p RESUME r\n");
+ printf("NEXT TRACK n REPEAT LAST l HELP h\n");
+ printf("SUBCHANNEL_Q c TRACK INFO i PLAY AT a\n");
+ printf("READ d READ RAW w READ AUDIO A\n");
+ printf("MS-INFO M TOC T START S\n");
+ printf("SET EJECTSW X DEVICE D DEBUG Y\n");
+ printf("AUDIO_BUFSIZ Z RESET R SET VOLUME v\n");
+ printf("GET VOLUME V\n");
+}
+
+/*
+ * convert MSF number (3 bytes only) to Logical_Block_Address
+ */
+int msf2lba(u_char *msf)
+{
+ int i;
+
+ i=(msf[0] * CD_SECS + msf[1]) * CD_FRAMES + msf[2] - CD_BLOCK_OFFSET;
+ if (i<0) return (0);
+ return (i);
+}
+/*
+ * convert logical_block_address to m-s-f_number (3 bytes only)
+ */
+void lba2msf(int lba, unsigned char *msf)
+{
+ lba += CD_BLOCK_OFFSET;
+ msf[0] = lba / (CD_SECS*CD_FRAMES);
+ lba %= CD_SECS*CD_FRAMES;
+ msf[1] = lba / CD_FRAMES;
+ msf[2] = lba % CD_FRAMES;
+}
+
+int init_drive(char *dev)
+{
+ unsigned char msf_ent[3];
+
+ /*
+ * open the device
+ */
+ drive=open(dev,0);
+ if (drive<0) return (-1);
+ /*
+ * get TocHeader
+ */
+ printf("getting TocHeader...\n");
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMREADTOCHDR,&hdr);
+ if (rc!=0)
+ {
+ printf("can't get TocHeader (error %d).\n",rc);
+ return (-2);
+ }
+ else
+ first=hdr.cdth_trk0;
+ last=hdr.cdth_trk1;
+ printf("TocHeader: %d %d\n",hdr.cdth_trk0,hdr.cdth_trk1);
+ /*
+ * get and display all TocEntries
+ */
+ printf("getting TocEntries...\n");
+ for (i=1;i<=hdr.cdth_trk1+1;i++)
+ {
+ if (i!=hdr.cdth_trk1+1) TocEntry[i].cdte_track = i;
+ else TocEntry[i].cdte_track = CDROM_LEADOUT;
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_format = CDROM_LBA;
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMREADTOCENTRY,&TocEntry[i]);
+ if (rc!=0)
+ {
+ printf("can't get TocEntry #%d (error %d).\n",i,rc);
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ lba2msf(TocEntry[i].cdte_addr.lba,&msf_ent[0]);
+ if (TocEntry[i].cdte_track==CDROM_LEADOUT)
+ {
+ printf("TocEntry #%02X: %1X %1X %02d:%02d:%02d (lba: 0x%06X) %02X\n",
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_track,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_adr,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_ctrl,
+ msf_ent[0],
+ msf_ent[1],
+ msf_ent[2],
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_addr.lba,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_datamode);
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ printf("TocEntry #%02d: %1X %1X %02d:%02d:%02d (lba: 0x%06X) %02X\n",
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_track,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_adr,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_ctrl,
+ msf_ent[0],
+ msf_ent[1],
+ msf_ent[2],
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_addr.lba,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_datamode);
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ return (hdr.cdth_trk1); /* number of tracks */
+}
+
+void display(int size,unsigned char *buffer)
+{
+ k=0;
+ getchar();
+ for (i=0;i<(size+1)/16;i++)
+ {
+ printf("%4d:",i*16);
+ for (j=0;j<16;j++)
+ {
+ printf(" %02X",buffer[i*16+j]);
+ }
+ printf(" ");
+ for (j=0;j<16;j++)
+ {
+ if (isalnum(buffer[i*16+j]))
+ printf("%c",buffer[i*16+j]);
+ else
+ printf(".");
+ }
+ printf("\n");
+ k++;
+ if (k>=20)
+ {
+ printf("press ENTER to continue\n");
+ getchar();
+ k=0;
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+main(int argc, char *argv[])
+{
+ printf("\nTesting tool for a CDROM driver's audio functions V0.1\n");
+ printf("(C) 1995 Eberhard Moenkeberg <emoenke@gwdg.de>\n");
+ printf("initializing...\n");
+
+ rc=init_drive(default_device);
+ if (rc<0) printf("could not open %s (rc=%d).\n",default_device,rc);
+ help();
+ while (1)
+ {
+ printf("Give a one-letter command (h = help): ");
+ scanf("%s",command);
+ command[1]=0;
+ switch (command[0])
+ {
+ case 'D':
+ printf("device name (f.e. /dev/sbpcd3): ? ");
+ scanf("%s",&dev);
+ close(drive);
+ rc=init_drive(dev);
+ if (rc<0) printf("could not open %s (rc %d).\n",dev,rc);
+ break;
+ case 'e':
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMEJECT);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMEJECT: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+ case 'p':
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMPAUSE);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMPAUSE: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+ case 'r':
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMRESUME);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMRESUME: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+ case 's':
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMSTOP);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMSTOP: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+ case 'S':
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMSTART);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMSTART: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+ case 't':
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMREADTOCHDR,&tocHdr);
+ if (rc<0)
+ {
+ printf("CDROMREADTOCHDR: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+ }
+ first=tocHdr.cdth_trk0;
+ last= tocHdr.cdth_trk1;
+ if ((first==0)||(first>last))
+ {
+ printf ("--got invalid TOC data.\n");
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ printf("--enter track number(first=%d, last=%d): ",first,last);
+ scanf("%d",&i1);
+ ti.cdti_trk0=i1;
+ if (ti.cdti_trk0<first) ti.cdti_trk0=first;
+ if (ti.cdti_trk0>last) ti.cdti_trk0=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind0=0;
+ ti.cdti_trk1=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind1=0;
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMSTOP);
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMPLAYTRKIND,&ti);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMPLAYTRKIND: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'n':
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMSTOP);
+ if (++ti.cdti_trk0>last) ti.cdti_trk0=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind0=0;
+ ti.cdti_trk1=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind1=0;
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMPLAYTRKIND,&ti);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMPLAYTRKIND: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+ case 'l':
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMSTOP);
+ if (--ti.cdti_trk0<first) ti.cdti_trk0=first;
+ ti.cdti_ind0=0;
+ ti.cdti_trk1=last;
+ ti.cdti_ind1=0;
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMPLAYTRKIND,&ti);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMPLAYTRKIND: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+ case 'c':
+ subchnl.cdsc_format=CDROM_MSF;
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMSUBCHNL,&subchnl);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMSUBCHNL: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ else
+ {
+ printf("AudioStatus:%s Track:%d Mode:%d MSF=%02d:%02d:%02d\n",
+ subchnl.cdsc_audiostatus==CDROM_AUDIO_PLAY ? "PLAYING":"NOT PLAYING",
+ subchnl.cdsc_trk,subchnl.cdsc_adr,
+ subchnl.cdsc_absaddr.msf.minute,
+ subchnl.cdsc_absaddr.msf.second,
+ subchnl.cdsc_absaddr.msf.frame);
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'i':
+ printf("Track No.: ");
+ scanf("%d",&i1);
+ entry.cdte_track=i1;
+ if (entry.cdte_track<first) entry.cdte_track=first;
+ if (entry.cdte_track>last) entry.cdte_track=last;
+ entry.cdte_format=CDROM_MSF;
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMREADTOCENTRY,&entry);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMREADTOCENTRY: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ else
+ {
+ printf("Mode %d Track, starts at %02d:%02d:%02d\n",
+ entry.cdte_adr,
+ entry.cdte_addr.msf.minute,
+ entry.cdte_addr.msf.second,
+ entry.cdte_addr.msf.frame);
+ }
+ break;
+ case 'a':
+ printf("Address (min:sec:frm) ");
+ scanf("%d:%d:%d",&i1,&i2,&i3);
+ msf.cdmsf_min0=i1;
+ msf.cdmsf_sec0=i2;
+ msf.cdmsf_frame0=i3;
+ if (msf.cdmsf_sec0>59) msf.cdmsf_sec0=59;
+ if (msf.cdmsf_frame0>74) msf.cdmsf_frame0=74;
+ lba2msf(TocEntry[last+1].cdte_addr.lba-1,&msf.cdmsf_min1);
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMSTOP);
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMPLAYMSF,&msf);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMPLAYMSF: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+ case 'V':
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMVOLREAD,&volctrl);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMVOLCTRL: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ printf("Volume: channel 0 (left) %d, channel 1 (right) %d\n",volctrl.channel0,volctrl.channel1);
+ break;
+ case 'R':
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMRESET);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMRESET: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+#ifdef AZT_PRIVATE_IOCTLS /*not supported by every CDROM driver*/
+ case 'd':
+ printf("Address (min:sec:frm) ");
+ scanf("%d:%d:%d",&i1,&i2,&i3);
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_min0=i1;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0=i2;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=i3;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0>59) azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0=59;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0>74) azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=74;
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMREADMODE1,&azt.msf);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMREADMODE1: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ else display(CD_FRAMESIZE,azt.buf);
+ break;
+ case 'w':
+ printf("Address (min:sec:frame) ");
+ scanf("%d:%d:%d",&i1,&i2,&i3);
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_min0=i1;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0=i2;
+ azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=i3;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0>59) azt.msf.cdmsf_sec0=59;
+ if (azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0>74) azt.msf.cdmsf_frame0=74;
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMREADMODE2,&azt.msf);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMREADMODE2: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ else display(CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW,azt.buf); /* currently only 2336 */
+ break;
+#endif
+ case 'v':
+ printf("--Channel 0 (Left) (0-255): ");
+ scanf("%d",&i1);
+ volctrl.channel0=i1;
+ printf("--Channel 1 (Right) (0-255): ");
+ scanf("%d",&i1);
+ volctrl.channel1=i1;
+ volctrl.channel2=0;
+ volctrl.channel3=0;
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMVOLCTRL,&volctrl);
+ if (rc<0) printf("CDROMVOLCTRL: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+ case 'q':
+ close(drive);
+ exit(0);
+ case 'h':
+ help();
+ break;
+ case 'T': /* display TOC entry - without involving the driver */
+ scanf("%d",&i);
+ if ((i<hdr.cdth_trk0)||(i>hdr.cdth_trk1))
+ printf("invalid track number.\n");
+ else
+ printf("TocEntry %02d: adr=%01X ctrl=%01X msf=%02d:%02d:%02d mode=%02X\n",
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_track,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_adr,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_ctrl,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_addr.msf.minute,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_addr.msf.second,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_addr.msf.frame,
+ TocEntry[i].cdte_datamode);
+ break;
+ case 'A': /* read audio data into file */
+ printf("Address (min:sec:frm) ? ");
+ scanf("%d:%d:%d",&i1,&i2,&i3);
+ read_audio.addr.msf.minute=i1;
+ read_audio.addr.msf.second=i2;
+ read_audio.addr.msf.frame=i3;
+ read_audio.addr_format=CDROM_MSF;
+ printf("# of frames ? ");
+ scanf("%d",&i1);
+ read_audio.nframes=i1;
+ k=read_audio.nframes*CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW;
+ read_audio.buf=malloc(k);
+ if (read_audio.buf==NULL)
+ {
+ printf("can't malloc %d bytes.\n",k);
+ break;
+ }
+ sprintf(filename,"audio_%02d%02d%02d_%02d.%02d\0",
+ read_audio.addr.msf.minute,
+ read_audio.addr.msf.second,
+ read_audio.addr.msf.frame,
+ read_audio.nframes,
+ ++sequence);
+ datafile=creat(filename, 0755);
+ if (datafile<0)
+ {
+ printf("can't open datafile %s.\n",filename);
+ break;
+ }
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMREADAUDIO,&read_audio);
+ if (rc!=0)
+ {
+ printf("CDROMREADAUDIO: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ rc=write(datafile,&read_audio.buf,k);
+ if (rc!=k) printf("datafile I/O error (%d).\n",rc);
+ }
+ close(datafile);
+ break;
+ case 'X': /* set EJECT_SW (0: disable, 1: enable auto-ejecting) */
+ scanf("%d",&i);
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMEJECT_SW,i);
+ if (rc!=0)
+ printf("CDROMEJECT_SW: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ else
+ printf("EJECT_SW set to %d\n",i);
+ break;
+ case 'M': /* get the multisession redirection info */
+ ms_info.addr_format=CDROM_LBA;
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMMULTISESSION,&ms_info);
+ if (rc!=0)
+ {
+ printf("CDROMMULTISESSION(lba): rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ if (ms_info.xa_flag) printf("MultiSession offset (lba): %d (0x%06X)\n",ms_info.addr.lba,ms_info.addr.lba);
+ else
+ {
+ printf("this CD is not an XA disk.\n");
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ ms_info.addr_format=CDROM_MSF;
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMMULTISESSION,&ms_info);
+ if (rc!=0)
+ {
+ printf("CDROMMULTISESSION(msf): rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ if (ms_info.xa_flag)
+ printf("MultiSession offset (msf): %02d:%02d:%02d (0x%02X%02X%02X)\n",
+ ms_info.addr.msf.minute,
+ ms_info.addr.msf.second,
+ ms_info.addr.msf.frame,
+ ms_info.addr.msf.minute,
+ ms_info.addr.msf.second,
+ ms_info.addr.msf.frame);
+ else printf("this CD is not an XA disk.\n");
+ }
+ break;
+#ifdef SBP_PRIVATE_IOCTLS
+ case 'Y': /* set the driver's message level */
+#if 0 /* not implemented yet */
+ printf("enter switch name (f.e. DBG_CMD): ");
+ scanf("%s",&dbg_switch);
+ j=get_dbg_num(dbg_switch);
+#else
+ printf("enter DDIOCSDBG switch number: ");
+ scanf("%d",&j);
+#endif
+ printf("enter 0 for \"off\", 1 for \"on\": ");
+ scanf("%d",&i);
+ if (i==0) j|=0x80;
+ printf("calling \"ioctl(drive,DDIOCSDBG,%d)\"\n",j);
+ rc=ioctl(drive,DDIOCSDBG,j);
+ printf("DDIOCSDBG: rc=%d.\n",rc);
+ break;
+ case 'Z': /* set the audio buffer size */
+ printf("# frames wanted: ? ");
+ scanf("%d",&j);
+ rc=ioctl(drive,CDROMAUDIOBUFSIZ,j);
+ printf("%d frames granted.\n",rc);
+ break;
+#endif SBP_PRIVATE_IOCTLS
+ default:
+ printf("unknown command: \"%s\".\n",command);
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+}
+/*==========================================================================*/
+
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/sjcd b/Documentation/cdrom/sjcd
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..74a14847b93a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/sjcd
@@ -0,0 +1,60 @@
+ -- Documentation/cdrom/sjcd
+ 80% of the work takes 20% of the time,
+ 20% of the work takes 80% of the time...
+ (Murphy's law)
+
+ Once started, training can not be stopped...
+ (Star Wars)
+
+This is the README for the sjcd cdrom driver, version 1.6.
+
+This file is meant as a tips & tricks edge for the usage of the SANYO CDR-H94A
+cdrom drive. It will grow as the questions arise. ;-)
+For info on configuring the ISP16 sound card look at Documentation/cdrom/isp16.
+
+The driver should work with any of the Panasonic, Sony or Mitsumi style
+CDROM interfaces.
+The cdrom interface on Media Magic's soft configurable sound card ISP16,
+which used to be included in the driver, is now supported in a separate module.
+This initialisation module will probably also work with other interfaces
+based on an OPTi 82C928 or 82C929 chip (like MAD16 and Mozart): see the
+documentation Documentation/cdrom/isp16.
+
+The device major for sjcd is 18, and minor is 0. Create a block special
+file in your /dev directory (e.g., /dev/sjcd) with these numbers.
+(For those who don't know, being root and doing the following should do
+the trick:
+ mknod -m 644 /dev/sjcd b 18 0
+and mount the cdrom by /dev/sjcd).
+
+The default configuration parameters are:
+ base address 0x340
+ no irq
+ no dma
+(Actually the CDR-H94A doesn't know how to use irq and dma.)
+As of version 1.2, setting base address at boot time is supported
+through the use of command line options: type at the "boot:" prompt:
+ linux sjcd=<base_address>
+(where you would use the kernel labeled "linux" in lilo's configuration
+file /etc/lilo.conf). You could also use 'append="sjcd=<configuration_info>"'
+in the appropriate section of /etc/lilo.conf
+If you're building a kernel yourself you can set your default base
+i/o address with SJCD_BASE_ADDR in /usr/src/linux/drivers/cdrom/sjcd.h.
+
+The sjcd driver supports being loaded as a module. The following
+command will set the base i/o address on the fly (assuming you
+have installed the module in an appropriate place).
+ insmod sjcd.o sjcd_base=<base_address>
+
+
+Have fun!
+
+If something is wrong, please email to vadim@rbrf.ru
+ or vadim@ipsun.ras.ru
+ or model@cecmow.enet.dec.com
+ or H.T.M.v.d.Maarel@marin.nl
+
+It happens sometimes that Vadim is not reachable by mail. For these
+instances, Eric van der Maarel will help too.
+
+ Vadim V. Model, Eric van der Maarel, Eberhard Moenkeberg
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/sonycd535 b/Documentation/cdrom/sonycd535
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..59581a4b302a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/sonycd535
@@ -0,0 +1,121 @@
+ README FOR LINUX SONY CDU-535/531 DRIVER
+ ========================================
+
+This is the Sony CDU-535 (and 531) driver version 0.7 for Linux.
+I do not think I have the documentation to add features like DMA support
+so if anyone else wants to pursue it or help me with it, please do.
+(I need to see what was done for the CDU-31A driver -- perhaps I can
+steal some of that code.)
+
+This is a Linux device driver for the Sony CDU-535 CDROM drive. This is
+one of the older Sony drives with its own interface card (Sony bus).
+The DOS driver for this drive is named SONY_CDU.SYS - when you boot DOS
+your drive should be identified as a SONY CDU-535. The driver works
+with a CDU-531 also. One user reported that the driver worked on drives
+OEM'ed by Procomm, drive and interface board were labelled Procomm.
+
+The Linux driver is based on Corey Minyard's sonycd 0.3 driver for
+the CDU-31A. Ron Jeppesen just changed the commands that were sent
+to the drive to correspond to the CDU-535 commands and registers.
+There were enough changes to let bugs creep in but it seems to be stable.
+Ron was able to tar an entire CDROM (should read all blocks) and built
+ghostview and xfig off Walnut Creek's X11R5/GNU CDROM. xcdplayer and
+workman work with the driver. Others have used the driver without
+problems except those dealing with wait loops (fixed in third release).
+Like Minyard's original driver this one uses a polled interface (this
+is also the default setup for the DOS driver). It has not been tried
+with interrupts or DMA enabled on the board.
+
+REQUIREMENTS
+============
+
+ - Sony CDU-535 drive, preferably without interrupts and DMA
+ enabled on the card.
+
+ - Drive must be set up as unit 1. Only the first unit will be
+ recognized
+
+ - You must enter your interface address into
+ /usr/src/linux/drivers/cdrom/sonycd535.h and build the
+ appropriate kernel or use the "kernel command line" parameter
+ sonycd535=0x320
+ with the correct interface address.
+
+NOTES:
+======
+
+1) The drive MUST be turned on when booting or it will not be recognized!
+ (but see comments on modularized version below)
+
+2) when the cdrom device is opened the eject button is disabled to keep the
+ user from ejecting a mounted disk and replacing it with another.
+ Unfortunately xcdplayer and workman also open the cdrom device so you
+ have to use the eject button in the software. Keep this in mind if your
+ cdrom player refuses to give up its disk -- exit workman or xcdplayer, or
+ umount the drive if it has been mounted.
+
+THANKS
+======
+
+Many thanks to Ron Jeppesen (ronj.an@site007.saic.com) for getting
+this project off the ground. He wrote the initial release
+and the first two patches to this driver (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3).
+Thanks also to Eberhard Moenkeberg (emoenke@gwdg.de) for prodding
+me to place this code into the mainstream Linux source tree
+(as of Linux version 1.1.91), as well as some patches to make
+it a better device citizen. Further thanks to Joel Katz
+<joelkatz@webchat.org> for his MODULE patches (see details below),
+Porfiri Claudio <C.Porfiri@nisms.tei.ericsson.se> for patches
+to make the driver work with the older CDU-510/515 series, and
+Heiko Eissfeldt <heiko@colossus.escape.de> for pointing out that
+the verify_area() checks were ignoring the results of said checks.
+
+(Acknowledgments from Ron Jeppesen in the 0.3 release:)
+Thanks to Corey Minyard who wrote the original CDU-31A driver on which
+this driver is based. Thanks to Ken Pizzini and Bob Blair who provided
+patches and feedback on the first release of this driver.
+
+Ken Pizzini
+ken@halcyon.com
+
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+(The following is from Joel Katz <joelkatz@webchat.org>.)
+
+ To build a version of sony535.o that can be installed as a module,
+use the following command:
+
+gcc -c -D__KERNEL__ -DMODULE -O2 sonycd535.c -o sonycd535.o
+
+ To install the module, simply type:
+
+insmod sony535.o
+ or
+insmod sony535.o sonycd535=<address>
+
+ And to remove it:
+
+rmmod sony535
+
+ The code checks to see if MODULE is defined and behaves as it used
+to if MODULE is not defined. That means your patched file should behave
+exactly as it used to if compiled into the kernel.
+
+ I have an external drive, and I usually leave it powered off. I used
+to have to reboot if I needed to use the CDROM drive. Now I don't.
+
+ Even if you have an internal drive, why waste the 96K of memory
+(unswappable) that the driver uses if you use your CD-ROM drive infrequently?
+
+ This driver will not install (whether compiled in or loaded as a
+module) if the CDROM drive is not available during its initialization. This
+means that you can have the driver compiled into the kernel and still load
+the module later (assuming the driver doesn't install itself during
+power-on). This only wastes 12K when you boot with the CDROM drive off.
+
+ This is what I usually do; I leave the driver compiled into the
+kernel, but load it as a module if I powered the system up with the drive
+off and then later decided to use the CDROM drive.
+
+ Since the driver only uses a single page to point to the chunks,
+attempting to set the buffer cache to more than 2 Megabytes would be very
+bad; don't do that.

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