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authorBjorn Helgaas <bjorn.helgaas@hp.com>2007-03-30 10:39:42 -0600
committerTony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>2007-03-30 09:40:46 -0700
commitddd83eff58888928115b3e225a46d3c686e64594 (patch)
tree8344ec563eea65274d9d7354fbdc5cf188058bdb /Documentation/ia64
parent6d40fc514c9ea886dc18ddd20043a411816b63d1 (diff)
[IA64] update memory attribute aliasing documentation & test cases
Updates documentation and adds some test cases. Signed-off-by: Bjorn Helgaas <bjorn.helgaas@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/ia64')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/ia64/aliasing-test.c247
-rw-r--r--Documentation/ia64/aliasing.txt71
2 files changed, 284 insertions, 34 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/ia64/aliasing-test.c b/Documentation/ia64/aliasing-test.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..3153167b41c3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/ia64/aliasing-test.c
@@ -0,0 +1,247 @@
+/*
+ * Exercise /dev/mem mmap cases that have been troublesome in the past
+ *
+ * (c) Copyright 2007 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
+ * Bjorn Helgaas <bjorn.helgaas@hp.com>
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <dirent.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <fnmatch.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <sys/mman.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+
+int sum;
+
+int map_mem(char *path, off_t offset, size_t length, int touch)
+{
+ int fd, rc;
+ void *addr;
+ int *c;
+
+ fd = open(path, O_RDWR);
+ if (fd == -1) {
+ perror(path);
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+ addr = mmap(NULL, length, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED, fd, offset);
+ if (addr == MAP_FAILED)
+ return 1;
+
+ if (touch) {
+ c = (int *) addr;
+ while (c < (int *) (offset + length))
+ sum += *c++;
+ }
+
+ rc = munmap(addr, length);
+ if (rc == -1) {
+ perror("munmap");
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+ close(fd);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+int scan_sysfs(char *path, char *file, off_t offset, size_t length, int touch)
+{
+ struct dirent **namelist;
+ char *name, *path2;
+ int i, n, r, rc, result = 0;
+ struct stat buf;
+
+ n = scandir(path, &namelist, 0, alphasort);
+ if (n < 0) {
+ perror("scandir");
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+ for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
+ name = namelist[i]->d_name;
+
+ if (fnmatch(".", name, 0) == 0)
+ goto skip;
+ if (fnmatch("..", name, 0) == 0)
+ goto skip;
+
+ path2 = malloc(strlen(path) + strlen(name) + 3);
+ strcpy(path2, path);
+ strcat(path2, "/");
+ strcat(path2, name);
+
+ if (fnmatch(file, name, 0) == 0) {
+ rc = map_mem(path2, offset, length, touch);
+ if (rc == 0)
+ fprintf(stderr, "PASS: %s 0x%lx-0x%lx is %s\n", path2, offset, offset + length, touch ? "readable" : "mappable");
+ else if (rc > 0)
+ fprintf(stderr, "PASS: %s 0x%lx-0x%lx not mappable\n", path2, offset, offset + length);
+ else {
+ fprintf(stderr, "FAIL: %s 0x%lx-0x%lx not accessible\n", path2, offset, offset + length);
+ return rc;
+ }
+ } else {
+ r = lstat(path2, &buf);
+ if (r == 0 && S_ISDIR(buf.st_mode)) {
+ rc = scan_sysfs(path2, file, offset, length, touch);
+ if (rc < 0)
+ return rc;
+ }
+ }
+
+ result |= rc;
+ free(path2);
+
+skip:
+ free(namelist[i]);
+ }
+ free(namelist);
+ return rc;
+}
+
+char buf[1024];
+
+int read_rom(char *path)
+{
+ int fd, rc;
+ size_t size = 0;
+
+ fd = open(path, O_RDWR);
+ if (fd == -1) {
+ perror(path);
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+ rc = write(fd, "1", 2);
+ if (rc <= 0) {
+ perror("write");
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+ do {
+ rc = read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf));
+ if (rc > 0)
+ size += rc;
+ } while (rc > 0);
+
+ close(fd);
+ return size;
+}
+
+int scan_rom(char *path, char *file)
+{
+ struct dirent **namelist;
+ char *name, *path2;
+ int i, n, r, rc, result = 0;
+ struct stat buf;
+
+ n = scandir(path, &namelist, 0, alphasort);
+ if (n < 0) {
+ perror("scandir");
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+ for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
+ name = namelist[i]->d_name;
+
+ if (fnmatch(".", name, 0) == 0)
+ goto skip;
+ if (fnmatch("..", name, 0) == 0)
+ goto skip;
+
+ path2 = malloc(strlen(path) + strlen(name) + 3);
+ strcpy(path2, path);
+ strcat(path2, "/");
+ strcat(path2, name);
+
+ if (fnmatch(file, name, 0) == 0) {
+ rc = read_rom(path2);
+
+ /*
+ * It's OK if the ROM is unreadable. Maybe there
+ * is no ROM, or some other error ocurred. The
+ * important thing is that no MCA happened.
+ */
+ if (rc > 0)
+ fprintf(stderr, "PASS: %s read %ld bytes\n", path2, rc);
+ else {
+ fprintf(stderr, "PASS: %s not readable\n", path2);
+ return rc;
+ }
+ } else {
+ r = lstat(path2, &buf);
+ if (r == 0 && S_ISDIR(buf.st_mode)) {
+ rc = scan_rom(path2, file);
+ if (rc < 0)
+ return rc;
+ }
+ }
+
+ result |= rc;
+ free(path2);
+
+skip:
+ free(namelist[i]);
+ }
+ free(namelist);
+ return rc;
+}
+
+main()
+{
+ int rc;
+
+ if (map_mem("/dev/mem", 0, 0xA0000, 1) == 0)
+ fprintf(stderr, "PASS: /dev/mem 0x0-0xa0000 is readable\n");
+ else
+ fprintf(stderr, "FAIL: /dev/mem 0x0-0xa0000 not accessible\n");
+
+ /*
+ * It's not safe to blindly read the VGA frame buffer. If you know
+ * how to poke the card the right way, it should respond, but it's
+ * not safe in general. Many machines, e.g., Intel chipsets, cover
+ * up a non-responding card by just returning -1, but others will
+ * report the failure as a machine check.
+ */
+ if (map_mem("/dev/mem", 0xA0000, 0x20000, 0) == 0)
+ fprintf(stderr, "PASS: /dev/mem 0xa0000-0xc0000 is mappable\n");
+ else
+ fprintf(stderr, "FAIL: /dev/mem 0xa0000-0xc0000 not accessible\n");
+
+ if (map_mem("/dev/mem", 0xC0000, 0x40000, 1) == 0)
+ fprintf(stderr, "PASS: /dev/mem 0xc0000-0x100000 is readable\n");
+ else
+ fprintf(stderr, "FAIL: /dev/mem 0xc0000-0x100000 not accessible\n");
+
+ /*
+ * Often you can map all the individual pieces above (0-0xA0000,
+ * 0xA0000-0xC0000, and 0xC0000-0x100000), but can't map the whole
+ * thing at once. This is because the individual pieces use different
+ * attributes, and there's no single attribute supported over the
+ * whole region.
+ */
+ rc = map_mem("/dev/mem", 0, 1024*1024, 0);
+ if (rc == 0)
+ fprintf(stderr, "PASS: /dev/mem 0x0-0x100000 is mappable\n");
+ else if (rc > 0)
+ fprintf(stderr, "PASS: /dev/mem 0x0-0x100000 not mappable\n");
+ else
+ fprintf(stderr, "FAIL: /dev/mem 0x0-0x100000 not accessible\n");
+
+ scan_sysfs("/sys/class/pci_bus", "legacy_mem", 0, 0xA0000, 1);
+ scan_sysfs("/sys/class/pci_bus", "legacy_mem", 0xA0000, 0x20000, 0);
+ scan_sysfs("/sys/class/pci_bus", "legacy_mem", 0xC0000, 0x40000, 1);
+ scan_sysfs("/sys/class/pci_bus", "legacy_mem", 0, 1024*1024, 0);
+
+ scan_rom("/sys/devices", "rom");
+}
diff --git a/Documentation/ia64/aliasing.txt b/Documentation/ia64/aliasing.txt
index 38f9a52d1820..9a431a7d0f5d 100644
--- a/Documentation/ia64/aliasing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/ia64/aliasing.txt
@@ -112,16 +112,6 @@ POTENTIAL ATTRIBUTE ALIASING CASES
The /dev/mem mmap constraints apply.
- However, since this is for mapping legacy MMIO space, WB access
- does not make sense. This matters on machines without legacy
- VGA support: these machines may have WB memory for the entire
- first megabyte (or even the entire first granule).
-
- On these machines, we could mmap legacy_mem as WB, which would
- be safe in terms of attribute aliasing, but X has no way of
- knowing that it is accessing regular memory, not a frame buffer,
- so the kernel should fail the mmap rather than doing it with WB.
-
read/write of /dev/mem
This uses copy_from_user(), which implicitly uses a kernel
@@ -138,14 +128,20 @@ POTENTIAL ATTRIBUTE ALIASING CASES
ioremap()
- This returns a kernel identity mapping for use inside the
- kernel.
+ This returns a mapping for use inside the kernel.
If the region is in kern_memmap, we should use the attribute
- specified there. Otherwise, if the EFI memory map reports that
- the entire granule supports WB, we should use that (granules
- that are partially reserved or occupied by firmware do not appear
- in kern_memmap). Otherwise, we should use a UC mapping.
+ specified there.
+
+ If the EFI memory map reports that the entire granule supports
+ WB, we should use that (granules that are partially reserved
+ or occupied by firmware do not appear in kern_memmap).
+
+ If the granule contains non-WB memory, but we can cover the
+ region safely with kernel page table mappings, we can use
+ ioremap_page_range() as most other architectures do.
+
+ Failing all of the above, we have to fall back to a UC mapping.
PAST PROBLEM CASES
@@ -158,7 +154,7 @@ PAST PROBLEM CASES
succeed. It may create either WB or UC user mappings, depending
on whether the region is in kern_memmap or the EFI memory map.
- mmap of 0x0-0xA0000 /dev/mem by "hwinfo" on HP sx1000 with VGA enabled
+ mmap of 0x0-0x9FFFF /dev/mem by "hwinfo" on HP sx1000 with VGA enabled
See https://bugzilla.novell.com/show_bug.cgi?id=140858.
@@ -171,28 +167,25 @@ PAST PROBLEM CASES
so it is safe to use WB mappings.
The kernel VGA driver may ioremap the VGA frame buffer at 0xA0000,
- which will use a granule-sized UC mapping covering 0-0xFFFFF. This
- granule covers some WB-only memory, but since UC is non-speculative,
- the processor will never generate an uncacheable reference to the
- WB-only areas unless the driver explicitly touches them.
+ which uses a granule-sized UC mapping. This granule will cover some
+ WB-only memory, but since UC is non-speculative, the processor will
+ never generate an uncacheable reference to the WB-only areas unless
+ the driver explicitly touches them.
mmap of 0x0-0xFFFFF legacy_mem by "X"
- If the EFI memory map reports this entire range as WB, there
- is no VGA MMIO hole, and the mmap should fail or be done with
- a WB mapping.
+ If the EFI memory map reports that the entire range supports the
+ same attributes, we can allow the mmap (and we will prefer WB if
+ supported, as is the case with HP sx[12]000 machines with VGA
+ disabled).
- There's no easy way for X to determine whether the 0xA0000-0xBFFFF
- region is a frame buffer or just memory, so I think it's best to
- just fail this mmap request rather than using a WB mapping. As
- far as I know, there's no need to map legacy_mem with WB
- mappings.
+ If EFI reports the range as partly WB and partly UC (as on sx[12]000
+ machines with VGA enabled), we must fail the mmap because there's no
+ safe attribute to use.
- Otherwise, a UC mapping of the entire region is probably safe.
- The VGA hole means the region will not be in kern_memmap. The
- HP sx1000 chipset doesn't support UC access to the memory surrounding
- the VGA hole, but X doesn't need that area anyway and should not
- reference it.
+ If EFI reports some of the range but not all (as on Intel firmware
+ that doesn't report the VGA frame buffer at all), we should fail the
+ mmap and force the user to map just the specific region of interest.
mmap of 0xA0000-0xBFFFF legacy_mem by "X" on HP sx1000 with VGA disabled
@@ -202,6 +195,16 @@ PAST PROBLEM CASES
This is a special case of the previous case, and the mmap should
fail for the same reason as above.
+ read of /sys/devices/.../rom
+
+ For VGA devices, this may cause an ioremap() of 0xC0000. This
+ used to be done with a UC mapping, because the VGA frame buffer
+ at 0xA0000 prevents use of a WB granule. The UC mapping causes
+ an MCA on HP sx[12]000 chipsets.
+
+ We should use WB page table mappings to avoid covering the VGA
+ frame buffer.
+
NOTES
[1] SDM rev 2.2, vol 2, sec 4.4.1.

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