path: root/Documentation/parisc
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authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org>2005-04-16 15:20:36 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org>2005-04-16 15:20:36 -0700
commit1da177e4c3f41524e886b7f1b8a0c1fc7321cac2 (patch)
tree0bba044c4ce775e45a88a51686b5d9f90697ea9d /Documentation/parisc
Initial git repository build. I'm not bothering with the full history, even though we have it. We can create a separate "historical" git archive of that later if we want to, and in the meantime it's about 3.2GB when imported into git - space that would just make the early git days unnecessarily complicated, when we don't have a lot of good infrastructure for it. Let it rip!
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diff --git a/Documentation/parisc/00-INDEX b/Documentation/parisc/00-INDEX
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+ - this file.
+ - some debugging hints for real-mode code
+ - current/planned usage of registers
diff --git a/Documentation/parisc/debugging b/Documentation/parisc/debugging
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+okay, here are some hints for debugging the lower-level parts of
+1. Absolute addresses
+A lot of the assembly code currently runs in real mode, which means
+absolute addresses are used instead of virtual addresses as in the
+rest of the kernel. To translate an absolute address to a virtual
+address you can lookup in System.map, add __PAGE_OFFSET (0x10000000
+2. HPMCs
+When real-mode code tries to access non-existent memory, you'll get
+an HPMC instead of a kernel oops. To debug an HPMC, try to find
+the System Responder/Requestor addresses. The System Requestor
+address should match (one of the) processor HPAs (high addresses in
+the I/O range); the System Responder address is the address real-mode
+code tried to access.
+Typical values for the System Responder address are addresses larger
+than __PAGE_OFFSET (0x10000000) which mean a virtual address didn't
+get translated to a physical address before real-mode code tried to
+access it.
+3. Q bit fun
+Certain, very critical code has to clear the Q bit in the PSW. What
+happens when the Q bit is cleared is the CPU does not update the
+registers interruption handlers read to find out where the machine
+was interrupted - so if you get an interruption between the instruction
+that clears the Q bit and the RFI that sets it again you don't know
+where exactly it happened. If you're lucky the IAOQ will point to the
+instrucion that cleared the Q bit, if you're not it points anywhere
+at all. Usually Q bit problems will show themselves in unexplainable
+system hangs or running off the end of physical memory.
diff --git a/Documentation/parisc/registers b/Documentation/parisc/registers
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+Register Usage for Linux/PA-RISC
+[ an asterisk is used for planned usage which is currently unimplemented ]
+ General Registers as specified by ABI
+ Control Registers
+CR 0 (Recovery Counter) used for ptrace
+CR 1-CR 7(undefined) unused
+CR 8 (Protection ID) per-process value*
+CR 9, 12, 13 (PIDS) unused
+CR10 (CCR) lazy FPU saving*
+CR11 as specified by ABI (SAR)
+CR14 (interruption vector) initialized to fault_vector
+CR15 (EIEM) initialized to all ones*
+CR16 (Interval Timer) read for cycle count/write starts Interval Tmr
+CR17-CR22 interruption parameters
+CR19 Interrupt Instruction Register
+CR20 Interrupt Space Register
+CR21 Interrupt Offset Register
+CR22 Interrupt PSW
+CR23 (EIRR) read for pending interrupts/write clears bits
+CR24 (TR 0) Kernel Space Page Directory Pointer
+CR25 (TR 1) User Space Page Directory Pointer
+CR26 (TR 2) not used
+CR27 (TR 3) Thread descriptor pointer
+CR28 (TR 4) not used
+CR29 (TR 5) not used
+CR30 (TR 6) current / 0
+CR31 (TR 7) Temporary register, used in various places
+ Space Registers (kernel mode)
+SR0 temporary space register
+SR4-SR7 set to 0
+SR1 temporary space register
+SR2 kernel should not clobber this
+SR3 used for userspace accesses (current process)
+ Space Registers (user mode)
+SR0 temporary space register
+SR1 temporary space register
+SR2 holds space of linux gateway page
+SR3 holds user address space value while in kernel
+SR4-SR7 Defines short address space for user/kernel
+ Processor Status Word
+W (64-bit addresses) 0
+E (Little-endian) 0
+S (Secure Interval Timer) 0
+T (Taken Branch Trap) 0
+H (Higher-privilege trap) 0
+L (Lower-privilege trap) 0
+N (Nullify next instruction) used by C code
+X (Data memory break disable) 0
+B (Taken Branch) used by C code
+C (code address translation) 1, 0 while executing real-mode code
+V (divide step correction) used by C code
+M (HPMC mask) 0, 1 while executing HPMC handler*
+C/B (carry/borrow bits) used by C code
+O (ordered references) 1*
+F (performance monitor) 0
+R (Recovery Counter trap) 0
+Q (collect interruption state) 1 (0 in code directly preceding an rfi)
+P (Protection Identifiers) 1*
+D (Data address translation) 1, 0 while executing real-mode code
+I (external interrupt mask) used by cli()/sti() macros
+ "Invisible" Registers
+PSW default W value 0
+PSW default E value 0
+Shadow Registers used by interruption handler code
+TOC enable bit 1
+Register usage notes, originally from John Marvin, with some additional
+notes from Randolph Chung.
+For the general registers:
+r1,r2,r19-r26,r28,r29 & r31 can be used without saving them first. And of
+course, you need to save them if you care about them, before calling
+another procedure. Some of the above registers do have special meanings
+that you should be aware of:
+ r1: The addil instruction is hardwired to place its result in r1,
+ so if you use that instruction be aware of that.
+ r2: This is the return pointer. In general you don't want to
+ use this, since you need the pointer to get back to your
+ caller. However, it is grouped with this set of registers
+ since the caller can't rely on the value being the same
+ when you return, i.e. you can copy r2 to another register
+ and return through that register after trashing r2, and
+ that should not cause a problem for the calling routine.
+ r19-r22: these are generally regarded as temporary registers.
+ Note that in 64 bit they are arg7-arg4.
+ r23-r26: these are arg3-arg0, i.e. you can use them if you
+ don't care about the values that were passed in anymore.
+ r28,r29: are ret0 and ret1. They are what you pass return values
+ in. r28 is the primary return. When returning small structures
+ r29 may also be used to pass data back to the caller.
+ r30: stack pointer
+ r31: the ble instruction puts the return pointer in here.
+r3-r18,r27,r30 need to be saved and restored. r3-r18 are just
+ general purpose registers. r27 is the data pointer, and is
+ used to make references to global variables easier. r30 is
+ the stack pointer.

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