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-rw-r--r--Documentation/powerpc/bootwrapper.txt141
-rw-r--r--arch/powerpc/Makefile15
2 files changed, 155 insertions, 1 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/powerpc/bootwrapper.txt b/Documentation/powerpc/bootwrapper.txt
new file mode 100644
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+The PowerPC boot wrapper
+------------------------
+Copyright (C) Secret Lab Technologies Ltd.
+
+PowerPC image targets compresses and wraps the kernel image (vmlinux) with
+a boot wrapper to make it usable by the system firmware. There is no
+standard PowerPC firmware interface, so the boot wrapper is designed to
+be adaptable for each kind of image that needs to be built.
+
+The boot wrapper can be found in the arch/powerpc/boot/ directory. The
+Makefile in that directory has targets for all the available image types.
+The different image types are used to support all of the various firmware
+interfaces found on PowerPC platforms. OpenFirmware is the most commonly
+used firmware type on general purpose PowerPC systems from Apple, IBM and
+others. U-Boot is typically found on embedded PowerPC hardware, but there
+are a handful of other firmware implementations which are also popular. Each
+firmware interface requires a different image format.
+
+The boot wrapper is built from the makefile in arch/powerpc/boot/Makefile and
+it uses the wrapper script (arch/powerpc/boot/wrapper) to generate target
+image. The details of the build system is discussed in the next section.
+Currently, the following image format targets exist:
+
+ cuImage.%: Backwards compatible uImage for older version of
+ U-Boot (for versions that don't understand the device
+ tree). This image embeds a device tree blob inside
+ the image. The boot wrapper, kernel and device tree
+ are all embedded inside the U-Boot uImage file format
+ with boot wrapper code that extracts data from the old
+ bd_info structure and loads the data into the device
+ tree before jumping into the kernel.
+ Because of the series of #ifdefs found in the
+ bd_info structure used in the old U-Boot interfaces,
+ cuImages are platform specific. Each specific
+ U-Boot platform has a different platform init file
+ which populates the embedded device tree with data
+ from the platform specific bd_info file. The platform
+ specific cuImage platform init code can be found in
+ arch/powerpc/boot/cuboot.*.c. Selection of the correct
+ cuImage init code for a specific board can be found in
+ the wrapper structure.
+ dtbImage.%: Similar to zImage, except device tree blob is embedded
+ inside the image instead of provided by firmware. The
+ output image file can be either an elf file or a flat
+ binary depending on the platform.
+ dtbImages are used on systems which do not have an
+ interface for passing a device tree directly.
+ dtbImages are similar to simpleImages except that
+ dtbImages have platform specific code for extracting
+ data from the board firmware, but simpleImages do not
+ talk to the firmware at all.
+ PlayStation 3 support uses dtbImage. So do Embedded
+ Planet boards using the PlanetCore firmware. Board
+ specific initialization code is typically found in a
+ file named arch/powerpc/boot/<platform>.c; but this
+ can be overridden by the wrapper script.
+ simpleImage.%: Firmware independent compressed image that does not
+ depend on any particular firmware interface and embeds
+ a device tree blob. This image is a flat binary that
+ can be loaded to any location in RAM and jumped to.
+ Firmware cannot pass any configuration data to the
+ kernel with this image type and it depends entirely on
+ the embedded device tree for all information.
+ The simpleImage is useful for booting systems with
+ an unknown firmware interface or for booting from
+ a debugger when no firmware is present (such as on
+ the Xilinx Virtex platform). The only assumption that
+ simpleImage makes is that RAM is correctly initialized
+ and that the MMU is either off or has RAM mapped to
+ base address 0.
+ simpleImage also supports inserting special platform
+ specific initialization code to the start of the bootup
+ sequence. The virtex405 platform uses this feature to
+ ensure that the cache is invalidated before caching
+ is enabled. Platform specific initialization code is
+ added as part of the wrapper script and is keyed on
+ the image target name. For example, all
+ simpleImage.virtex405-* targets will add the
+ virtex405-head.S initialization code (This also means
+ that the dts file for virtex405 targets should be
+ named (virtex405-<board>.dts). Search the wrapper
+ script for 'virtex405' and see the file
+ arch/powerpc/boot/virtex405-head.S for details.
+ treeImage.%; Image format for used with OpenBIOS firmware found
+ on some ppc4xx hardware. This image embeds a device
+ tree blob inside the image.
+ uImage: Native image format used by U-Boot. The uImage target
+ does not add any boot code. It just wraps a compressed
+ vmlinux in the uImage data structure. This image
+ requires a version of U-Boot that is able to pass
+ a device tree to the kernel at boot. If using an older
+ version of U-Boot, then you need to use a cuImage
+ instead.
+ zImage.%: Image format which does not embed a device tree.
+ Used by OpenFirmware and other firmware interfaces
+ which are able to supply a device tree. This image
+ expects firmware to provide the device tree at boot.
+ Typically, if you have general purpose PowerPC
+ hardware then you want this image format.
+
+Image types which embed a device tree blob (simpleImage, dtbImage, treeImage,
+and cuImage) all generate the device tree blob from a file in the
+arch/powerpc/boot/dts/ directory. The Makefile selects the correct device
+tree source based on the name of the target. Therefore, if the kernel is
+built with 'make treeImage.walnut simpleImage.virtex405-ml403', then the
+build system will use arch/powerpc/boot/dts/walnut.dts to build
+treeImage.walnut and arch/powerpc/boot/dts/virtex405-ml403.dts to build
+the simpleImage.virtex405-ml403.
+
+Two special targets called 'zImage' and 'zImage.initrd' also exist. These
+targets build all the default images as selected by the kernel configuration.
+Default images are selected by the boot wrapper Makefile
+(arch/powerpc/boot/Makefile) by adding targets to the $image-y variable. Look
+at the Makefile to see which default image targets are available.
+
+How it is built
+---------------
+arch/powerpc is designed to support multiplatform kernels, which means
+that a single vmlinux image can be booted on many different target boards.
+It also means that the boot wrapper must be able to wrap for many kinds of
+images on a single build. The design decision was made to not use any
+conditional compilation code (#ifdef, etc) in the boot wrapper source code.
+All of the boot wrapper pieces are buildable at any time regardless of the
+kernel configuration. Building all the wrapper bits on every kernel build
+also ensures that obscure parts of the wrapper are at the very least compile
+tested in a large variety of environments.
+
+The wrapper is adapted for different image types at link time by linking in
+just the wrapper bits that are appropriate for the image type. The 'wrapper
+script' (found in arch/powerpc/boot/wrapper) is called by the Makefile and
+is responsible for selecting the correct wrapper bits for the image type.
+The arguments are well documented in the script's comment block, so they
+are not repeated here. However, it is worth mentioning that the script
+uses the -p (platform) argument as the main method of deciding which wrapper
+bits to compile in. Look for the large 'case "$platform" in' block in the
+middle of the script. This is also the place where platform specific fixups
+can be selected by changing the link order.
+
+In particular, care should be taken when working with cuImages. cuImage
+wrapper bits are very board specific and care should be taken to make sure
+the target you are trying to build is supported by the wrapper bits.
diff --git a/arch/powerpc/Makefile b/arch/powerpc/Makefile
index 59ae7d9cdccf..9155c9312c1e 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/Makefile
+++ b/arch/powerpc/Makefile
@@ -163,12 +163,25 @@ bootwrapper_install %.dtb:
$(Q)$(MAKE) ARCH=ppc64 $(build)=$(boot) $(patsubst %,$(boot)/%,$@)
define archhelp
- @echo '* zImage - Compressed kernel image (arch/$(ARCH)/boot/zImage.*)'
+ @echo '* zImage - Build default images selected by kernel config'
+ @echo ' zImage.* - Compressed kernel image (arch/$(ARCH)/boot/zImage.*)'
+ @echo ' uImage - U-Boot native image format'
+ @echo ' cuImage.<dt> - Backwards compatible U-Boot image for older'
+ @echo ' versions which do not support device trees'
+ @echo ' dtbImage.<dt> - zImage with an embedded device tree blob'
+ @echo ' simpleImage.<dt> - Firmware independent image.'
+ @echo ' treeImage.<dt> - Support for older IBM 4xx firmware (not U-Boot)'
@echo ' install - Install kernel using'
@echo ' (your) ~/bin/installkernel or'
@echo ' (distribution) /sbin/installkernel or'
@echo ' install to $$(INSTALL_PATH) and run lilo'
@echo ' *_defconfig - Select default config from arch/$(ARCH)/configs'
+ @echo ''
+ @echo ' Targets with <dt> embed a device tree blob inside the image'
+ @echo ' These targets support board with firmware that does not'
+ @echo ' support passing a device tree directly. Replace <dt> with the'
+ @echo ' name of a dts file from the arch/$(ARCH)/boot/dts/ directory'
+ @echo ' (minus the .dts extension).'
endef
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