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authorAdrian Bunk <bunk@kernel.org>2008-02-07 08:13:33 (GMT)
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@woody.linux-foundation.org>2008-02-07 16:42:17 (GMT)
commit4a6b88ca3d9a301b496d6bfc18bc40c78fbb3669 (patch)
tree25f076a3f419835d58940af59fb4fc25cfe9d39d /Documentation/edac.txt
parent41eaa2dcb98977b3824b8a4c12b5030af7bb0b29 (diff)
move edac.txt two levels up
There's no reason for edac.txt for being at this unusual place. Signed-off-by: Adrian Bunk <bunk@kernel.org> Acked-by: Alan Cox <alan@redhat.com> Cc: Doug Thompson <norsk5@yahoo.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
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+
+
+EDAC - Error Detection And Correction
+
+Written by Doug Thompson <dougthompson@xmission.com>
+7 Dec 2005
+17 Jul 2007 Updated
+
+
+EDAC is maintained and written by:
+
+ Doug Thompson, Dave Jiang, Dave Peterson et al,
+ original author: Thayne Harbaugh,
+
+Contact:
+ website: bluesmoke.sourceforge.net
+ mailing list: bluesmoke-devel@lists.sourceforge.net
+
+"bluesmoke" was the name for this device driver when it was "out-of-tree"
+and maintained at sourceforge.net. When it was pushed into 2.6.16 for the
+first time, it was renamed to 'EDAC'.
+
+The bluesmoke project at sourceforge.net is now utilized as a 'staging area'
+for EDAC development, before it is sent upstream to kernel.org
+
+At the bluesmoke/EDAC project site, is a series of quilt patches against
+recent kernels, stored in a SVN respository. For easier downloading, there
+is also a tarball snapshot available.
+
+============================================================================
+EDAC PURPOSE
+
+The 'edac' kernel module goal is to detect and report errors that occur
+within the computer system running under linux.
+
+MEMORY
+
+In the initial release, memory Correctable Errors (CE) and Uncorrectable
+Errors (UE) are the primary errors being harvested. These types of errors
+are harvested by the 'edac_mc' class of device.
+
+Detecting CE events, then harvesting those events and reporting them,
+CAN be a predictor of future UE events. With CE events, the system can
+continue to operate, but with less safety. Preventive maintenance and
+proactive part replacement of memory DIMMs exhibiting CEs can reduce
+the likelihood of the dreaded UE events and system 'panics'.
+
+NON-MEMORY
+
+A new feature for EDAC, the edac_device class of device, was added in
+the 2.6.23 version of the kernel.
+
+This new device type allows for non-memory type of ECC hardware detectors
+to have their states harvested and presented to userspace via the sysfs
+interface.
+
+Some architectures have ECC detectors for L1, L2 and L3 caches, along with DMA
+engines, fabric switches, main data path switches, interconnections,
+and various other hardware data paths. If the hardware reports it, then
+a edac_device device probably can be constructed to harvest and present
+that to userspace.
+
+
+PCI BUS SCANNING
+
+In addition, PCI Bus Parity and SERR Errors are scanned for on PCI devices
+in order to determine if errors are occurring on data transfers.
+
+The presence of PCI Parity errors must be examined with a grain of salt.
+There are several add-in adapters that do NOT follow the PCI specification
+with regards to Parity generation and reporting. The specification says
+the vendor should tie the parity status bits to 0 if they do not intend
+to generate parity. Some vendors do not do this, and thus the parity bit
+can "float" giving false positives.
+
+In the kernel there is a pci device attribute located in sysfs that is
+checked by the EDAC PCI scanning code. If that attribute is set,
+PCI parity/error scannining is skipped for that device. The attribute
+is:
+
+ broken_parity_status
+
+as is located in /sys/devices/pci<XXX>/0000:XX:YY.Z directorys for
+PCI devices.
+
+FUTURE HARDWARE SCANNING
+
+EDAC will have future error detectors that will be integrated with
+EDAC or added to it, in the following list:
+
+ MCE Machine Check Exception
+ MCA Machine Check Architecture
+ NMI NMI notification of ECC errors
+ MSRs Machine Specific Register error cases
+ and other mechanisms.
+
+These errors are usually bus errors, ECC errors, thermal throttling
+and the like.
+
+
+============================================================================
+EDAC VERSIONING
+
+EDAC is composed of a "core" module (edac_core.ko) and several Memory
+Controller (MC) driver modules. On a given system, the CORE
+is loaded and one MC driver will be loaded. Both the CORE and
+the MC driver (or edac_device driver) have individual versions that reflect
+current release level of their respective modules.
+
+Thus, to "report" on what version a system is running, one must report both
+the CORE's and the MC driver's versions.
+
+
+LOADING
+
+If 'edac' was statically linked with the kernel then no loading is
+necessary. If 'edac' was built as modules then simply modprobe the
+'edac' pieces that you need. You should be able to modprobe
+hardware-specific modules and have the dependencies load the necessary core
+modules.
+
+Example:
+
+$> modprobe amd76x_edac
+
+loads both the amd76x_edac.ko memory controller module and the edac_mc.ko
+core module.
+
+
+============================================================================
+EDAC sysfs INTERFACE
+
+EDAC presents a 'sysfs' interface for control, reporting and attribute
+reporting purposes.
+
+EDAC lives in the /sys/devices/system/edac directory.
+
+Within this directory there currently reside 2 'edac' components:
+
+ mc memory controller(s) system
+ pci PCI control and status system
+
+
+============================================================================
+Memory Controller (mc) Model
+
+First a background on the memory controller's model abstracted in EDAC.
+Each 'mc' device controls a set of DIMM memory modules. These modules are
+laid out in a Chip-Select Row (csrowX) and Channel table (chX). There can
+be multiple csrows and multiple channels.
+
+Memory controllers allow for several csrows, with 8 csrows being a typical value.
+Yet, the actual number of csrows depends on the electrical "loading"
+of a given motherboard, memory controller and DIMM characteristics.
+
+Dual channels allows for 128 bit data transfers to the CPU from memory.
+Some newer chipsets allow for more than 2 channels, like Fully Buffered DIMMs
+(FB-DIMMs). The following example will assume 2 channels:
+
+
+ Channel 0 Channel 1
+ ===================================
+ csrow0 | DIMM_A0 | DIMM_B0 |
+ csrow1 | DIMM_A0 | DIMM_B0 |
+ ===================================
+
+ ===================================
+ csrow2 | DIMM_A1 | DIMM_B1 |
+ csrow3 | DIMM_A1 | DIMM_B1 |
+ ===================================
+
+In the above example table there are 4 physical slots on the motherboard
+for memory DIMMs:
+
+ DIMM_A0
+ DIMM_B0
+ DIMM_A1
+ DIMM_B1
+
+Labels for these slots are usually silk screened on the motherboard. Slots
+labeled 'A' are channel 0 in this example. Slots labeled 'B'
+are channel 1. Notice that there are two csrows possible on a
+physical DIMM. These csrows are allocated their csrow assignment
+based on the slot into which the memory DIMM is placed. Thus, when 1 DIMM
+is placed in each Channel, the csrows cross both DIMMs.
+
+Memory DIMMs come single or dual "ranked". A rank is a populated csrow.
+Thus, 2 single ranked DIMMs, placed in slots DIMM_A0 and DIMM_B0 above
+will have 1 csrow, csrow0. csrow1 will be empty. On the other hand,
+when 2 dual ranked DIMMs are similarly placed, then both csrow0 and
+csrow1 will be populated. The pattern repeats itself for csrow2 and
+csrow3.
+
+The representation of the above is reflected in the directory tree
+in EDAC's sysfs interface. Starting in directory
+/sys/devices/system/edac/mc each memory controller will be represented
+by its own 'mcX' directory, where 'X" is the index of the MC.
+
+
+ ..../edac/mc/
+ |
+ |->mc0
+ |->mc1
+ |->mc2
+ ....
+
+Under each 'mcX' directory each 'csrowX' is again represented by a
+'csrowX', where 'X" is the csrow index:
+
+
+ .../mc/mc0/
+ |
+ |->csrow0
+ |->csrow2
+ |->csrow3
+ ....
+
+Notice that there is no csrow1, which indicates that csrow0 is
+composed of a single ranked DIMMs. This should also apply in both
+Channels, in order to have dual-channel mode be operational. Since
+both csrow2 and csrow3 are populated, this indicates a dual ranked
+set of DIMMs for channels 0 and 1.
+
+
+Within each of the 'mc','mcX' and 'csrowX' directories are several
+EDAC control and attribute files.
+
+
+============================================================================
+DIRECTORY 'mc'
+
+In directory 'mc' are EDAC system overall control and attribute files:
+
+
+Panic on UE control file:
+
+ 'edac_mc_panic_on_ue'
+
+ An uncorrectable error will cause a machine panic. This is usually
+ desirable. It is a bad idea to continue when an uncorrectable error
+ occurs - it is indeterminate what was uncorrected and the operating
+ system context might be so mangled that continuing will lead to further
+ corruption. If the kernel has MCE configured, then EDAC will never
+ notice the UE.
+
+ LOAD TIME: module/kernel parameter: panic_on_ue=[0|1]
+
+ RUN TIME: echo "1" >/sys/devices/system/edac/mc/edac_mc_panic_on_ue
+
+
+Log UE control file:
+
+ 'edac_mc_log_ue'
+
+ Generate kernel messages describing uncorrectable errors. These errors
+ are reported through the system message log system. UE statistics
+ will be accumulated even when UE logging is disabled.
+
+ LOAD TIME: module/kernel parameter: log_ue=[0|1]
+
+ RUN TIME: echo "1" >/sys/devices/system/edac/mc/edac_mc_log_ue
+
+
+Log CE control file:
+
+ 'edac_mc_log_ce'
+
+ Generate kernel messages describing correctable errors. These
+ errors are reported through the system message log system.
+ CE statistics will be accumulated even when CE logging is disabled.
+
+ LOAD TIME: module/kernel parameter: log_ce=[0|1]
+
+ RUN TIME: echo "1" >/sys/devices/system/edac/mc/edac_mc_log_ce
+
+
+Polling period control file:
+
+ 'edac_mc_poll_msec'
+
+ The time period, in milliseconds, for polling for error information.
+ Too small a value wastes resources. Too large a value might delay
+ necessary handling of errors and might loose valuable information for
+ locating the error. 1000 milliseconds (once each second) is the current
+ default. Systems which require all the bandwidth they can get, may
+ increase this.
+
+ LOAD TIME: module/kernel parameter: poll_msec=[0|1]
+
+ RUN TIME: echo "1000" >/sys/devices/system/edac/mc/edac_mc_poll_msec
+
+
+============================================================================
+'mcX' DIRECTORIES
+
+
+In 'mcX' directories are EDAC control and attribute files for
+this 'X" instance of the memory controllers:
+
+
+Counter reset control file:
+
+ 'reset_counters'
+
+ This write-only control file will zero all the statistical counters
+ for UE and CE errors. Zeroing the counters will also reset the timer
+ indicating how long since the last counter zero. This is useful
+ for computing errors/time. Since the counters are always reset at
+ driver initialization time, no module/kernel parameter is available.
+
+ RUN TIME: echo "anything" >/sys/devices/system/edac/mc/mc0/counter_reset
+
+ This resets the counters on memory controller 0
+
+
+Seconds since last counter reset control file:
+
+ 'seconds_since_reset'
+
+ This attribute file displays how many seconds have elapsed since the
+ last counter reset. This can be used with the error counters to
+ measure error rates.
+
+
+
+Memory Controller name attribute file:
+
+ 'mc_name'
+
+ This attribute file displays the type of memory controller
+ that is being utilized.
+
+
+Total memory managed by this memory controller attribute file:
+
+ 'size_mb'
+
+ This attribute file displays, in count of megabytes, of memory
+ that this instance of memory controller manages.
+
+
+Total Uncorrectable Errors count attribute file:
+
+ 'ue_count'
+
+ This attribute file displays the total count of uncorrectable
+ errors that have occurred on this memory controller. If panic_on_ue
+ is set this counter will not have a chance to increment,
+ since EDAC will panic the system.
+
+
+Total UE count that had no information attribute fileY:
+
+ 'ue_noinfo_count'
+
+ This attribute file displays the number of UEs that
+ have occurred have occurred with no informations as to which DIMM
+ slot is having errors.
+
+
+Total Correctable Errors count attribute file:
+
+ 'ce_count'
+
+ This attribute file displays the total count of correctable
+ errors that have occurred on this memory controller. This
+ count is very important to examine. CEs provide early
+ indications that a DIMM is beginning to fail. This count
+ field should be monitored for non-zero values and report
+ such information to the system administrator.
+
+
+Total Correctable Errors count attribute file:
+
+ 'ce_noinfo_count'
+
+ This attribute file displays the number of CEs that
+ have occurred wherewith no informations as to which DIMM slot
+ is having errors. Memory is handicapped, but operational,
+ yet no information is available to indicate which slot
+ the failing memory is in. This count field should be also
+ be monitored for non-zero values.
+
+Device Symlink:
+
+ 'device'
+
+ Symlink to the memory controller device.
+
+Sdram memory scrubbing rate:
+
+ 'sdram_scrub_rate'
+
+ Read/Write attribute file that controls memory scrubbing. The scrubbing
+ rate is set by writing a minimum bandwith in bytes/sec to the attribute
+ file. The rate will be translated to an internal value that gives at
+ least the specified rate.
+
+ Reading the file will return the actual scrubbing rate employed.
+
+ If configuration fails or memory scrubbing is not implemented, the value
+ of the attribute file will be -1.
+
+
+
+============================================================================
+'csrowX' DIRECTORIES
+
+In the 'csrowX' directories are EDAC control and attribute files for
+this 'X" instance of csrow:
+
+
+Total Uncorrectable Errors count attribute file:
+
+ 'ue_count'
+
+ This attribute file displays the total count of uncorrectable
+ errors that have occurred on this csrow. If panic_on_ue is set
+ this counter will not have a chance to increment, since EDAC
+ will panic the system.
+
+
+Total Correctable Errors count attribute file:
+
+ 'ce_count'
+
+ This attribute file displays the total count of correctable
+ errors that have occurred on this csrow. This
+ count is very important to examine. CEs provide early
+ indications that a DIMM is beginning to fail. This count
+ field should be monitored for non-zero values and report
+ such information to the system administrator.
+
+
+Total memory managed by this csrow attribute file:
+
+ 'size_mb'
+
+ This attribute file displays, in count of megabytes, of memory
+ that this csrow contains.
+
+
+Memory Type attribute file:
+
+ 'mem_type'
+
+ This attribute file will display what type of memory is currently
+ on this csrow. Normally, either buffered or unbuffered memory.
+ Examples:
+ Registered-DDR
+ Unbuffered-DDR
+
+
+EDAC Mode of operation attribute file:
+
+ 'edac_mode'
+
+ This attribute file will display what type of Error detection
+ and correction is being utilized.
+
+
+Device type attribute file:
+
+ 'dev_type'
+
+ This attribute file will display what type of DRAM device is
+ being utilized on this DIMM.
+ Examples:
+ x1
+ x2
+ x4
+ x8
+
+
+Channel 0 CE Count attribute file:
+
+ 'ch0_ce_count'
+
+ This attribute file will display the count of CEs on this
+ DIMM located in channel 0.
+
+
+Channel 0 UE Count attribute file:
+
+ 'ch0_ue_count'
+
+ This attribute file will display the count of UEs on this
+ DIMM located in channel 0.
+
+
+Channel 0 DIMM Label control file:
+
+ 'ch0_dimm_label'
+
+ This control file allows this DIMM to have a label assigned
+ to it. With this label in the module, when errors occur
+ the output can provide the DIMM label in the system log.
+ This becomes vital for panic events to isolate the
+ cause of the UE event.
+
+ DIMM Labels must be assigned after booting, with information
+ that correctly identifies the physical slot with its
+ silk screen label. This information is currently very
+ motherboard specific and determination of this information
+ must occur in userland at this time.
+
+
+Channel 1 CE Count attribute file:
+
+ 'ch1_ce_count'
+
+ This attribute file will display the count of CEs on this
+ DIMM located in channel 1.
+
+
+Channel 1 UE Count attribute file:
+
+ 'ch1_ue_count'
+
+ This attribute file will display the count of UEs on this
+ DIMM located in channel 0.
+
+
+Channel 1 DIMM Label control file:
+
+ 'ch1_dimm_label'
+
+ This control file allows this DIMM to have a label assigned
+ to it. With this label in the module, when errors occur
+ the output can provide the DIMM label in the system log.
+ This becomes vital for panic events to isolate the
+ cause of the UE event.
+
+ DIMM Labels must be assigned after booting, with information
+ that correctly identifies the physical slot with its
+ silk screen label. This information is currently very
+ motherboard specific and determination of this information
+ must occur in userland at this time.
+
+
+============================================================================
+SYSTEM LOGGING
+
+If logging for UEs and CEs are enabled then system logs will have
+error notices indicating errors that have been detected:
+
+EDAC MC0: CE page 0x283, offset 0xce0, grain 8, syndrome 0x6ec3, row 0,
+channel 1 "DIMM_B1": amd76x_edac
+
+EDAC MC0: CE page 0x1e5, offset 0xfb0, grain 8, syndrome 0xb741, row 0,
+channel 1 "DIMM_B1": amd76x_edac
+
+
+The structure of the message is:
+ the memory controller (MC0)
+ Error type (CE)
+ memory page (0x283)
+ offset in the page (0xce0)
+ the byte granularity (grain 8)
+ or resolution of the error
+ the error syndrome (0xb741)
+ memory row (row 0)
+ memory channel (channel 1)
+ DIMM label, if set prior (DIMM B1
+ and then an optional, driver-specific message that may
+ have additional information.
+
+Both UEs and CEs with no info will lack all but memory controller,
+error type, a notice of "no info" and then an optional,
+driver-specific error message.
+
+
+
+============================================================================
+PCI Bus Parity Detection
+
+
+On Header Type 00 devices the primary status is looked at
+for any parity error regardless of whether Parity is enabled on the
+device. (The spec indicates parity is generated in some cases).
+On Header Type 01 bridges, the secondary status register is also
+looked at to see if parity occurred on the bus on the other side of
+the bridge.
+
+
+SYSFS CONFIGURATION
+
+Under /sys/devices/system/edac/pci are control and attribute files as follows:
+
+
+Enable/Disable PCI Parity checking control file:
+
+ 'check_pci_parity'
+
+
+ This control file enables or disables the PCI Bus Parity scanning
+ operation. Writing a 1 to this file enables the scanning. Writing
+ a 0 to this file disables the scanning.
+
+ Enable:
+ echo "1" >/sys/devices/system/edac/pci/check_pci_parity
+
+ Disable:
+ echo "0" >/sys/devices/system/edac/pci/check_pci_parity
+
+
+
+Panic on PCI PARITY Error:
+
+ 'panic_on_pci_parity'
+
+
+ This control files enables or disables panicking when a parity
+ error has been detected.
+
+
+ module/kernel parameter: panic_on_pci_parity=[0|1]
+
+ Enable:
+ echo "1" >/sys/devices/system/edac/pci/panic_on_pci_parity
+
+ Disable:
+ echo "0" >/sys/devices/system/edac/pci/panic_on_pci_parity
+
+
+Parity Count:
+
+ 'pci_parity_count'
+
+ This attribute file will display the number of parity errors that
+ have been detected.
+
+
+
+=======================================================================
+
+
+EDAC_DEVICE type of device
+
+In the header file, edac_core.h, there is a series of edac_device structures
+and APIs for the EDAC_DEVICE.
+
+User space access to an edac_device is through the sysfs interface.
+
+At the location /sys/devices/system/edac (sysfs) new edac_device devices will
+appear.
+
+There is a three level tree beneath the above 'edac' directory. For example,
+the 'test_device_edac' device (found at the bluesmoke.sourceforget.net website)
+installs itself as:
+
+ /sys/devices/systm/edac/test-instance
+
+in this directory are various controls, a symlink and one or more 'instance'
+directorys.
+
+The standard default controls are:
+
+ log_ce boolean to log CE events
+ log_ue boolean to log UE events
+ panic_on_ue boolean to 'panic' the system if an UE is encountered
+ (default off, can be set true via startup script)
+ poll_msec time period between POLL cycles for events
+
+The test_device_edac device adds at least one of its own custom control:
+
+ test_bits which in the current test driver does nothing but
+ show how it is installed. A ported driver can
+ add one or more such controls and/or attributes
+ for specific uses.
+ One out-of-tree driver uses controls here to allow
+ for ERROR INJECTION operations to hardware
+ injection registers
+
+The symlink points to the 'struct dev' that is registered for this edac_device.
+
+INSTANCES
+
+One or more instance directories are present. For the 'test_device_edac' case:
+
+ test-instance0
+
+
+In this directory there are two default counter attributes, which are totals of
+counter in deeper subdirectories.
+
+ ce_count total of CE events of subdirectories
+ ue_count total of UE events of subdirectories
+
+BLOCKS
+
+At the lowest directory level is the 'block' directory. There can be 0, 1
+or more blocks specified in each instance.
+
+ test-block0
+
+
+In this directory the default attributes are:
+
+ ce_count which is counter of CE events for this 'block'
+ of hardware being monitored
+ ue_count which is counter of UE events for this 'block'
+ of hardware being monitored
+
+
+The 'test_device_edac' device adds 4 attributes and 1 control:
+
+ test-block-bits-0 for every POLL cycle this counter
+ is incremented
+ test-block-bits-1 every 10 cycles, this counter is bumped once,
+ and test-block-bits-0 is set to 0
+ test-block-bits-2 every 100 cycles, this counter is bumped once,
+ and test-block-bits-1 is set to 0
+ test-block-bits-3 every 1000 cycles, this counter is bumped once,
+ and test-block-bits-2 is set to 0
+
+
+ reset-counters writing ANY thing to this control will
+ reset all the above counters.
+
+
+Use of the 'test_device_edac' driver should any others to create their own
+unique drivers for their hardware systems.
+
+The 'test_device_edac' sample driver is located at the
+bluesmoke.sourceforge.net project site for EDAC.
+

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