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2014-10-09zram: report maximum used memoryMinchan Kim1-0/+1
Normally, zram user could get maximum memory usage zram consumed via polling mem_used_total with sysfs in userspace. But it has a critical problem because user can miss peak memory usage during update inverval of polling. For avoiding that, user should poll it with shorter interval(ie, 0.0000000001s) with mlocking to avoid page fault delay when memory pressure is heavy. It would be troublesome. This patch adds new knob "mem_used_max" so user could see the maximum memory usage easily via reading the knob and reset it via "echo 0 > /sys/block/zram0/mem_used_max". Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Reviewed-by: Dan Streetman <ddstreet@ieee.org> Cc: Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@gmail.com> Cc: Jerome Marchand <jmarchan@redhat.com> Cc: <juno.choi@lge.com> Cc: <seungho1.park@lge.com> Cc: Luigi Semenzato <semenzato@google.com> Cc: Nitin Gupta <ngupta@vflare.org> Cc: Seth Jennings <sjennings@variantweb.net> Reviewed-by: David Horner <ds2horner@gmail.com> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-10-09zram: zram memory size limitationMinchan Kim1-4/+20
Since zram has no control feature to limit memory usage, it makes hard to manage system memrory. This patch adds new knob "mem_limit" via sysfs to set up the a limit so that zram could fail allocation once it reaches the limit. In addition, user could change the limit in runtime so that he could manage the memory more dynamically. Initial state is no limit so it doesn't break old behavior. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix typo, per Sergey] Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Dan Streetman <ddstreet@ieee.org> Cc: Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@gmail.com> Cc: Jerome Marchand <jmarchan@redhat.com> Cc: <juno.choi@lge.com> Cc: <seungho1.park@lge.com> Cc: Luigi Semenzato <semenzato@google.com> Cc: Nitin Gupta <ngupta@vflare.org> Cc: Seth Jennings <sjennings@variantweb.net> Cc: David Horner <ds2horner@gmail.com> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-04-07zram: propagate error to userMinchan Kim1-4/+5
When we initialized zcomp with single, we couldn't change max_comp_streams without zram reset but current interface doesn't show any error to user and even it changes max_comp_streams's value without any effect so it would make user very confusing. This patch prevents max_comp_streams's change when zcomp was initialized as single zcomp and emit the error to user(ex, echo). [akpm@linux-foundation.org: don't return with the lock held, per Sergey] [fengguang.wu@intel.com: fix coccinelle warnings] Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Nitin Gupta <ngupta@vflare.org> Cc: Jerome Marchand <jmarchan@redhat.com> Acked-by: Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Fengguang Wu <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-04-07zram: make compression algorithm selection possibleSergey Senozhatsky1-5/+19
Add and document `comp_algorithm' device attribute. This attribute allows to show supported compression and currently selected compression algorithms: cat /sys/block/zram0/comp_algorithm [lzo] lz4 and change selected compression algorithm: echo lzo > /sys/block/zram0/comp_algorithm Signed-off-by: Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@gmail.com> Acked-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Jerome Marchand <jmarchan@redhat.com> Cc: Nitin Gupta <ngupta@vflare.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-04-07zram: add multi stream functionalitySergey Senozhatsky1-5/+26
Existing zram (zcomp) implementation has only one compression stream (buffer and algorithm private part), so in order to prevent data corruption only one write (compress operation) can use this compression stream, forcing all concurrent write operations to wait for stream lock to be released. This patch changes zcomp to keep a compression streams list of user-defined size (via sysfs device attr). Each write operation still exclusively holds compression stream, the difference is that we can have N write operations (depending on size of streams list) executing in parallel. See TEST section later in commit message for performance data. Introduce struct zcomp_strm_multi and a set of functions to manage zcomp_strm stream access. zcomp_strm_multi has a list of idle zcomp_strm structs, spinlock to protect idle list and wait queue, making it possible to perform parallel compressions. The following set of functions added: - zcomp_strm_multi_find()/zcomp_strm_multi_release() find and release a compression stream, implement required locking - zcomp_strm_multi_create()/zcomp_strm_multi_destroy() create and destroy zcomp_strm_multi zcomp ->strm_find() and ->strm_release() callbacks are set during initialisation to zcomp_strm_multi_find()/zcomp_strm_multi_release() correspondingly. Each time zcomp issues a zcomp_strm_multi_find() call, the following set of operations performed: - spin lock strm_lock - if idle list is not empty, remove zcomp_strm from idle list, spin unlock and return zcomp stream pointer to caller - if idle list is empty, current adds itself to wait queue. it will be awaken by zcomp_strm_multi_release() caller. zcomp_strm_multi_release(): - spin lock strm_lock - add zcomp stream to idle list - spin unlock, wake up sleeper Minchan Kim reported that spinlock-based locking scheme has demonstrated a severe perfomance regression for single compression stream case, comparing to mutex-based (see https://lkml.org/lkml/2014/2/18/16) base spinlock mutex ==Initial write ==Initial write ==Initial write records: 5 records: 5 records: 5 avg: 1642424.35 avg: 699610.40 avg: 1655583.71 std: 39890.95(2.43%) std: 232014.19(33.16%) std: 52293.96 max: 1690170.94 max: 1163473.45 max: 1697164.75 min: 1568669.52 min: 573429.88 min: 1553410.23 ==Rewrite ==Rewrite ==Rewrite records: 5 records: 5 records: 5 avg: 1611775.39 avg: 501406.64 avg: 1684419.11 std: 17144.58(1.06%) std: 15354.41(3.06%) std: 18367.42 max: 1641800.95 max: 531356.78 max: 1706445.84 min: 1593515.27 min: 488817.78 min: 1655335.73 When only one compression stream available, mutex with spin on owner tends to perform much better than frequent wait_event()/wake_up(). This is why single stream implemented as a special case with mutex locking. Introduce and document zram device attribute max_comp_streams. This attr shows and stores current zcomp's max number of zcomp streams (max_strm). Extend zcomp's zcomp_create() with `max_strm' parameter. `max_strm' limits the number of zcomp_strm structs in compression backend's idle list (max_comp_streams). max_comp_streams used during initialisation as follows: -- passing to zcomp_create() max_strm equals to 1 will initialise zcomp using single compression stream zcomp_strm_single (mutex-based locking). -- passing to zcomp_create() max_strm greater than 1 will initialise zcomp using multi compression stream zcomp_strm_multi (spinlock-based locking). default max_comp_streams value is 1, meaning that zram with single stream will be initialised. Later patch will introduce configuration knob to change max_comp_streams on already initialised and used zcomp. TEST iozone -t 3 -R -r 16K -s 60M -I +Z test base 1 strm (mutex) 3 strm (spinlock) ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Initial write 589286.78 583518.39 718011.05 Rewrite 604837.97 596776.38 1515125.72 Random write 584120.11 595714.58 1388850.25 Pwrite 535731.17 541117.38 739295.27 Fwrite 1418083.88 1478612.72 1484927.06 Usage example: set max_comp_streams to 4 echo 4 > /sys/block/zram0/max_comp_streams show current max_comp_streams (default value is 1). cat /sys/block/zram0/max_comp_streams Signed-off-by: Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@gmail.com> Acked-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Jerome Marchand <jmarchan@redhat.com> Cc: Nitin Gupta <ngupta@vflare.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-04-07zram: document failed_reads, failed_writes statsSergey Senozhatsky1-1/+2
Document `failed_reads' and `failed_writes' device attributes. Remove info about `discard' - there is no such zram attr. Signed-off-by: Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@gmail.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Jerome Marchand <jmarchan@redhat.com> Cc: Nitin Gupta <ngupta@vflare.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-04-07zram: move zram size warning to documentationSergey Senozhatsky1-0/+5
Move zram warning about disksize and size of memory correlation to zram documentation. Signed-off-by: Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@gmail.com> Acked-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Jerome Marchand <jmarchan@redhat.com> Cc: Nitin Gupta <ngupta@vflare.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-02-17drbd: Describe the future high-level structure of DRBDAndreas Gruenbacher1-0/+38
The following commits will successively transform DRBD into the structure described here. Signed-off-by: Andreas Gruenbacher <agruen@linbit.com> Signed-off-by: Philipp Reisner <philipp.reisner@linbit.com>
2014-01-30zram: remove old private project commentMinchan Kim1-6/+0
Remove the old private compcache project address so upcoming patches should be sent to LKML because we Linux kernel community will take care. Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Cc: Nitin Gupta <ngupta@vflare.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-01-30zram: promote zram from stagingMinchan Kim1-0/+77
Zram has lived in staging for a LONG LONG time and have been fixed/improved by many contributors so code is clean and stable now. Of course, there are lots of product using zram in real practice. The major TV companys have used zram as swap since two years ago and recently our production team released android smart phone with zram which is used as swap, too and recently Android Kitkat start to use zram for small memory smart phone. And there was a report Google released their ChromeOS with zram, too and cyanogenmod have been used zram long time ago. And I heard some disto have used zram block device for tmpfs. In addition, I saw many report from many other peoples. For example, Lubuntu start to use it. The benefit of zram is very clear. With my experience, one of the benefit was to remove jitter of video application with backgroud memory pressure. It would be effect of efficient memory usage by compression but more issue is whether swap is there or not in the system. Recent mobile platforms have used JAVA so there are many anonymous pages. But embedded system normally are reluctant to use eMMC or SDCard as swap because there is wear-leveling and latency issues so if we do not use swap, it means we can't reclaim anoymous pages and at last, we could encounter OOM kill. :( Although we have real storage as swap, it was a problem, too. Because it sometime ends up making system very unresponsible caused by slow swap storage performance. Quote from Luigi on Google "Since Chrome OS was mentioned: the main reason why we don't use swap to a disk (rotating or SSD) is because it doesn't degrade gracefully and leads to a bad interactive experience. Generally we prefer to manage RAM at a higher level, by transparently killing and restarting processes. But we noticed that zram is fast enough to be competitive with the latter, and it lets us make more efficient use of the available RAM. " and he announced. http://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-mm/msg57717.html Other uses case is to use zram for block device. Zram is block device so anyone can format the block device and mount on it so some guys on the internet start zram as /var/tmp. http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-838198-start-0.html Let's promote zram and enhance/maintain it instead of removing. Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org> Reviewed-by: Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <konrad.wilk@oracle.com> Acked-by: Nitin Gupta <ngupta@vflare.org> Acked-by: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Cc: Bob Liu <bob.liu@oracle.com> Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Cc: Luigi Semenzato <semenzato@google.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Seth Jennings <sjenning@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-01-23Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt: updatesFabian Frederick1-6/+15
- ramdisk_blocksize doesn't exist anymore - Module parameters added to documentation Signed-off-by: Fabian Frederick <fabf@skynet.be> Acked-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-11-08floppy: Correct documentation of driver options when used as a module.Ben Harris1-3/+3
The options have to be passed space-separated and prefixed by "floppy=", rather than separately and unprefixed. This fixes <http://bugs.debian.org/726655>. Signed-off-by: Ben Harris <bjh21@cam.ac.uk> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <jkosina@suse.cz>
2013-02-27nbd: update documentation and link to mailinglistWouter Verhelst1-34/+4
Documentation/blockdev/nbd.txt contained some documentation which was horribly outdated and probably still dates from the original patch that added NBD support to the kernel. This patch removes the useless and outdated bits. The tools on nbd.sf.net are fully documented in manpages, which is where documentation for the non-kernel bits should live. Additionally, add a reference to the MAINTAINERS file for the nbd-general mailinglist that is used for discussion of the userland tools and the kernel module already. Signed-off-by: Wouter Verhelst <w@uter.be> Cc: Paul Clements <Paul.Clements@steeleye.com> Cc: Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-03-30Documentation: remove references to /etc/modprobe.confLucas De Marchi1-1/+1
Usage of /etc/modprobe.conf file was deprecated by module-init-tools and is no longer parsed by new kmod tool. References to this file are replaced in Documentation, comments and Kconfig according to the context. There are also some references to the old /etc/modules.conf from 2.4 kernels that are being removed. Signed-off-by: Lucas De Marchi <lucas.demarchi@profusion.mobi> Acked-by: Takashi Iwai <tiwai@suse.de> Acked-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2011-11-16cciss: auto engage SCSI mid layer at driver load timeStephen M. Cameron1-8/+6
A long time ago, probably in 2002, one of the distros, or maybe more than one, loaded block drivers prior to loading the SCSI mid layer. This meant that the cciss driver, being a block driver, could not engage the SCSI mid layer at init time without panicking, and relied on being poked by a userland program after the system was up (and the SCSI mid layer was therefore present) to engage the SCSI mid layer. This is no longer the case, and cciss can safely rely on the SCSI mid layer being present at init time and engage the SCSI mid layer straight away. This means that users will see their tape drives and medium changers at driver load time without need for a script in /etc/rc.d that does this: for x in /proc/driver/cciss/cciss* do echo "engage scsi" > $x done However, if no tape drives or medium changers are detected, the SCSI mid layer will not be engaged. If a tape drive or medium change is later hot-added to the system it will then be necessary to use the above script or similar for the device(s) to be acceesible. Signed-off-by: Stephen M. Cameron <scameron@beardog.cce.hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
2011-08-08cciss: Adds simple mode functionalityJoseph Handzik1-0/+10
Signed-off-by: Joseph Handzik <joseph.t.handzik@beardog.cce.hp.com> Acked-by: Stephen M. Cameron <scameron@beardog.cce.hp.com> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <jaxboe@fusionio.com>
2011-06-13doc: fix wrong arch/i386 referencesWanlong Gao2-5/+5
Change all "arch/i386" to "arch/x86" in Documentaion/, since the directory has changed. Also update the files which have changed their filename in the meantime accordingly. Signed-off-by: Wanlong Gao <wanlong.gao@gmail.com> [jkosina@suse.cz: reword changelog] Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <jkosina@suse.cz>
2011-05-06cciss: add cciss_tape_cmds module paramterStephen M. Cameron1-0/+15
This is to allow number of commands reserved for use by SCSI tape drives and medium changers to be adjusted at driver load time via the kernel parameter cciss_tape_cmds, with a default value of 6, and a range of 2 - 16 inclusive. Previously, the driver limited the number of commands which could be queued to the SCSI half of the the driver to only 2. This is to fix the problem that if you had more than two tape drives, you couldn't, for example, erase or rewind them all at the same time. Signed-off-by: Stephen M. Cameron <scameron@beardog.cce.hp.com> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <jaxboe@fusionio.com>
2010-08-04Documentation: update broken web addresses.Justin P. Mattock1-1/+1
Below you will find an updated version from the original series bunching all patches into one big patch updating broken web addresses that are located in Documentation/* Some of the addresses date as far far back as 1995 etc... so searching became a bit difficult, the best way to deal with these is to use web.archive.org to locate these addresses that are outdated. Now there are also some addresses pointing to .spec files some are located, but some(after searching on the companies site)where still no where to be found. In this case I just changed the address to the company site this way the users can contact the company and they can locate them for the users. Signed-off-by: Justin P. Mattock <justinmattock@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Thomas Weber <weber@corscience.de> Signed-off-by: Mike Frysinger <vapier.adi@gmail.com> Cc: Paulo Marques <pmarques@grupopie.com> Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@xenotime.net> Cc: Michael Neuling <mikey@neuling.org> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <jkosina@suse.cz>
2009-10-01The DRBD driverPhilipp Reisner7-0/+1196
Signed-off-by: Philipp Reisner <philipp.reisner@linbit.com> Signed-off-by: Lars Ellenberg <lars.ellenberg@linbit.com>
2009-04-07mflash: initial supportunsik Kim2-0/+86
This driver supports mflash IO mode for linux. Mflash is embedded flash drive and mainly targeted mobile and consumer electronic devices. Internally, mflash has nand flash and other hardware logics and supports 2 different operation (ATA, IO) modes. ATA mode doesn't need any new driver and currently works well under standard IDE subsystem. Actually it's one chip SSD. IO mode is ATA-like custom mode for the host that doesn't have IDE interface. Followings are brief descriptions about IO mode. A. IO mode based on ATA protocol and uses some custom command. (read confirm, write confirm) B. IO mode uses SRAM bus interface. C. IO mode supports 4kB boot area, so host can boot from mflash. This driver is quitely similar to a standard ATA driver, but because of following reasons it is currently seperated with ATA layer. 1. ATA layer deals standard ATA protocol. ATA layer have many low- level device specific interface, but data transfer keeps ATA rule. But, mflash IO mode doesn't. 2. Even though currently not used in mflash driver code, mflash has some custom command and modes. (nand fusing, firmware patch, etc) If this feature supported in linux kernel, ATA layer more altered. 3. Currently PATA platform device driver doesn't support interrupt. (I'm not sure) But, mflash uses interrupt (polling mode is just for debug). 4. mflash is somewhat under-develop product. Even though some company already using mflash their own product, I think more time is needed for standardization of custom command and mode. That time (maybe October) I will talk to with ATA people. If they accept integration, I will integrate. Signed-off-by: unsik Kim <donari75@gmail.com> Cc: Alan Cox <alan@lxorguk.ukuu.org.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
2008-11-14Create/use more directory structure in the Documentation/ tree.Randy Dunlap8-0/+1910
Create Documentation/blockdev/ sub-directory and populate it. Populate the Documentation/serial/ sub-directory. Move MSI-HOWTO.txt to Documentation/PCI/. Move ioctl-number.txt to Documentation/ioctl/. Update all relevant 00-INDEX files. Update all relevant Kconfig files and source files. Signed-off-by: Randy Dunlap <randy.dunlap@oracle.com>

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