aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
blob: bfcb1a62a7b48466f3cbe5a08d3e1a632eadc3d2 (plain)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850
3851
3852
3853
3854
3855
3856
3857
3858
3859
3860
3861
3862
3863
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868
3869
3870
3871
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886
3887
3888
3889
3890
3891
3892
3893
3894
3895
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901
3902
3903
3904
3905
3906
3907
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912
3913
3914
3915
3916
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922
3923
3924
3925
3926
3927
3928
3929
3930
3931
3932
3933
3934
3935
3936
3937
3938
3939
3940
3941
3942
3943
3944
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955
3956
3957
3958
3959
3960
3961
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
3993
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
4000
4001
4002
                          Kernel Parameters
                          ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The following is a consolidated list of the kernel parameters as
implemented by the __setup(), core_param() and module_param() macros
and sorted into English Dictionary order (defined as ignoring all
punctuation and sorting digits before letters in a case insensitive
manner), and with descriptions where known.

The kernel parses parameters from the kernel command line up to "--";
if it doesn't recognize a parameter and it doesn't contain a '.', the
parameter gets passed to init: parameters with '=' go into init's
environment, others are passed as command line arguments to init.
Everything after "--" is passed as an argument to init.

Module parameters can be specified in two ways: via the kernel command
line with a module name prefix, or via modprobe, e.g.:

	(kernel command line) usbcore.blinkenlights=1
	(modprobe command line) modprobe usbcore blinkenlights=1

Parameters for modules which are built into the kernel need to be
specified on the kernel command line.  modprobe looks through the
kernel command line (/proc/cmdline) and collects module parameters
when it loads a module, so the kernel command line can be used for
loadable modules too.

Hyphens (dashes) and underscores are equivalent in parameter names, so
	log_buf_len=1M print-fatal-signals=1
can also be entered as
	log-buf-len=1M print_fatal_signals=1

Double-quotes can be used to protect spaces in values, e.g.:
	param="spaces in here"

This document may not be entirely up to date and comprehensive. The command
"modinfo -p ${modulename}" shows a current list of all parameters of a loadable
module. Loadable modules, after being loaded into the running kernel, also
reveal their parameters in /sys/module/${modulename}/parameters/. Some of these
parameters may be changed at runtime by the command
"echo -n ${value} > /sys/module/${modulename}/parameters/${parm}".

The parameters listed below are only valid if certain kernel build options were
enabled and if respective hardware is present. The text in square brackets at
the beginning of each description states the restrictions within which a
parameter is applicable:

	ACPI	ACPI support is enabled.
	AGP	AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) is enabled.
	ALSA	ALSA sound support is enabled.
	APIC	APIC support is enabled.
	APM	Advanced Power Management support is enabled.
	ARM	ARM architecture is enabled.
	AVR32	AVR32 architecture is enabled.
	AX25	Appropriate AX.25 support is enabled.
	BLACKFIN Blackfin architecture is enabled.
	CLK	Common clock infrastructure is enabled.
	CMA	Contiguous Memory Area support is enabled.
	DRM	Direct Rendering Management support is enabled.
	DYNAMIC_DEBUG Build in debug messages and enable them at runtime
	EDD	BIOS Enhanced Disk Drive Services (EDD) is enabled
	EFI	EFI Partitioning (GPT) is enabled
	EIDE	EIDE/ATAPI support is enabled.
	EVM	Extended Verification Module
	FB	The frame buffer device is enabled.
	FTRACE	Function tracing enabled.
	GCOV	GCOV profiling is enabled.
	HW	Appropriate hardware is enabled.
	IA-64	IA-64 architecture is enabled.
	IMA     Integrity measurement architecture is enabled.
	IOSCHED	More than one I/O scheduler is enabled.
	IP_PNP	IP DHCP, BOOTP, or RARP is enabled.
	IPV6	IPv6 support is enabled.
	ISAPNP	ISA PnP code is enabled.
	ISDN	Appropriate ISDN support is enabled.
	JOY	Appropriate joystick support is enabled.
	KGDB	Kernel debugger support is enabled.
	KVM	Kernel Virtual Machine support is enabled.
	LIBATA  Libata driver is enabled
	LP	Printer support is enabled.
	LOOP	Loopback device support is enabled.
	M68k	M68k architecture is enabled.
			These options have more detailed description inside of
			Documentation/m68k/kernel-options.txt.
	MDA	MDA console support is enabled.
	MIPS	MIPS architecture is enabled.
	MOUSE	Appropriate mouse support is enabled.
	MSI	Message Signaled Interrupts (PCI).
	MTD	MTD (Memory Technology Device) support is enabled.
	NET	Appropriate network support is enabled.
	NUMA	NUMA support is enabled.
	NFS	Appropriate NFS support is enabled.
	OSS	OSS sound support is enabled.
	PV_OPS	A paravirtualized kernel is enabled.
	PARIDE	The ParIDE (parallel port IDE) subsystem is enabled.
	PARISC	The PA-RISC architecture is enabled.
	PCI	PCI bus support is enabled.
	PCIE	PCI Express support is enabled.
	PCMCIA	The PCMCIA subsystem is enabled.
	PNP	Plug & Play support is enabled.
	PPC	PowerPC architecture is enabled.
	PPT	Parallel port support is enabled.
	PS2	Appropriate PS/2 support is enabled.
	RAM	RAM disk support is enabled.
	S390	S390 architecture is enabled.
	SCSI	Appropriate SCSI support is enabled.
			A lot of drivers have their options described inside
			the Documentation/scsi/ sub-directory.
	SECURITY Different security models are enabled.
	SELINUX SELinux support is enabled.
	APPARMOR AppArmor support is enabled.
	SERIAL	Serial support is enabled.
	SH	SuperH architecture is enabled.
	SMP	The kernel is an SMP kernel.
	SPARC	Sparc architecture is enabled.
	SWSUSP	Software suspend (hibernation) is enabled.
	SUSPEND	System suspend states are enabled.
	TPM	TPM drivers are enabled.
	TS	Appropriate touchscreen support is enabled.
	UMS	USB Mass Storage support is enabled.
	USB	USB support is enabled.
	USBHID	USB Human Interface Device support is enabled.
	V4L	Video For Linux support is enabled.
	VMMIO   Driver for memory mapped virtio devices is enabled.
	VGA	The VGA console has been enabled.
	VT	Virtual terminal support is enabled.
	WDT	Watchdog support is enabled.
	XT	IBM PC/XT MFM hard disk support is enabled.
	X86-32	X86-32, aka i386 architecture is enabled.
	X86-64	X86-64 architecture is enabled.
			More X86-64 boot options can be found in
			Documentation/x86/x86_64/boot-options.txt .
	X86	Either 32-bit or 64-bit x86 (same as X86-32+X86-64)
	XEN	Xen support is enabled

In addition, the following text indicates that the option:

	BUGS=	Relates to possible processor bugs on the said processor.
	KNL	Is a kernel start-up parameter.
	BOOT	Is a boot loader parameter.

Parameters denoted with BOOT are actually interpreted by the boot
loader, and have no meaning to the kernel directly.
Do not modify the syntax of boot loader parameters without extreme
need or coordination with <Documentation/x86/boot.txt>.

There are also arch-specific kernel-parameters not documented here.
See for example <Documentation/x86/x86_64/boot-options.txt>.

Note that ALL kernel parameters listed below are CASE SENSITIVE, and that
a trailing = on the name of any parameter states that that parameter will
be entered as an environment variable, whereas its absence indicates that
it will appear as a kernel argument readable via /proc/cmdline by programs
running once the system is up.

The number of kernel parameters is not limited, but the length of the
complete command line (parameters including spaces etc.) is limited to
a fixed number of characters. This limit depends on the architecture
and is between 256 and 4096 characters. It is defined in the file
./include/asm/setup.h as COMMAND_LINE_SIZE.

Finally, the [KMG] suffix is commonly described after a number of kernel
parameter values. These 'K', 'M', and 'G' letters represent the _binary_
multipliers 'Kilo', 'Mega', and 'Giga', equalling 2^10, 2^20, and 2^30
bytes respectively. Such letter suffixes can also be entirely omitted.


	acpi=		[HW,ACPI,X86]
			Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
			Format: { force | off | strict | noirq | rsdt }
			force -- enable ACPI if default was off
			off -- disable ACPI if default was on
			noirq -- do not use ACPI for IRQ routing
			strict -- Be less tolerant of platforms that are not
				strictly ACPI specification compliant.
			rsdt -- prefer RSDT over (default) XSDT
			copy_dsdt -- copy DSDT to memory

			See also Documentation/power/runtime_pm.txt, pci=noacpi

	acpi_rsdp=	[ACPI,EFI,KEXEC]
			Pass the RSDP address to the kernel, mostly used
			on machines running EFI runtime service to boot the
			second kernel for kdump.

	acpi_apic_instance=	[ACPI, IOAPIC]
			Format: <int>
			2: use 2nd APIC table, if available
			1,0: use 1st APIC table
			default: 0

	acpi_backlight=	[HW,ACPI]
			acpi_backlight=vendor
			acpi_backlight=video
			If set to vendor, prefer vendor specific driver
			(e.g. thinkpad_acpi, sony_acpi, etc.) instead
			of the ACPI video.ko driver.

	acpi.debug_layer=	[HW,ACPI,ACPI_DEBUG]
	acpi.debug_level=	[HW,ACPI,ACPI_DEBUG]
			Format: <int>
			CONFIG_ACPI_DEBUG must be enabled to produce any ACPI
			debug output.  Bits in debug_layer correspond to a
			_COMPONENT in an ACPI source file, e.g.,
			    #define _COMPONENT ACPI_PCI_COMPONENT
			Bits in debug_level correspond to a level in
			ACPI_DEBUG_PRINT statements, e.g.,
			    ACPI_DEBUG_PRINT((ACPI_DB_INFO, ...
			The debug_level mask defaults to "info".  See
			Documentation/acpi/debug.txt for more information about
			debug layers and levels.

			Enable processor driver info messages:
			    acpi.debug_layer=0x20000000
			Enable PCI/PCI interrupt routing info messages:
			    acpi.debug_layer=0x400000
			Enable AML "Debug" output, i.e., stores to the Debug
			object while interpreting AML:
			    acpi.debug_layer=0xffffffff acpi.debug_level=0x2
			Enable all messages related to ACPI hardware:
			    acpi.debug_layer=0x2 acpi.debug_level=0xffffffff

			Some values produce so much output that the system is
			unusable.  The "log_buf_len" parameter may be useful
			if you need to capture more output.

	acpi_force_table_verification	[HW,ACPI]
			Enable table checksum verification during early stage.
			By default, this is disabled due to x86 early mapping
			size limitation.

	acpi_irq_balance [HW,ACPI]
			ACPI will balance active IRQs
			default in APIC mode

	acpi_irq_nobalance [HW,ACPI]
			ACPI will not move active IRQs (default)
			default in PIC mode

	acpi_irq_isa=	[HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, mark listed IRQs used by ISA
			Format: <irq>,<irq>...

	acpi_irq_pci=	[HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, clear listed IRQs for
			use by PCI
			Format: <irq>,<irq>...

	acpi_no_auto_serialize	[HW,ACPI]
			Disable auto-serialization of AML methods
			AML control methods that contain the opcodes to create
			named objects will be marked as "Serialized" by the
			auto-serialization feature.
			This feature is enabled by default.
			This option allows to turn off the feature.

	acpi_no_static_ssdt	[HW,ACPI]
			Disable installation of static SSDTs at early boot time
			By default, SSDTs contained in the RSDT/XSDT will be
			installed automatically and they will appear under
			/sys/firmware/acpi/tables.
			This option turns off this feature.
			Note that specifying this option does not affect
			dynamic table installation which will install SSDT
			tables to /sys/firmware/acpi/tables/dynamic.

	acpica_no_return_repair [HW, ACPI]
			Disable AML predefined validation mechanism
			This mechanism can repair the evaluation result to make
			the return objects more ACPI specification compliant.
			This option is useful for developers to identify the
			root cause of an AML interpreter issue when the issue
			has something to do with the repair mechanism.

	acpi_os_name=	[HW,ACPI] Tell ACPI BIOS the name of the OS
			Format: To spoof as Windows 98: ="Microsoft Windows"

	acpi_osi=	[HW,ACPI] Modify list of supported OS interface strings
			acpi_osi="string1"	# add string1
			acpi_osi="!string2"	# remove string2
			acpi_osi=!*		# remove all strings
			acpi_osi=!		# disable all built-in OS vendor
						  strings
			acpi_osi=		# disable all strings

			'acpi_osi=!' can be used in combination with single or
			multiple 'acpi_osi="string1"' to support specific OS
			vendor string(s).  Note that such command can only
			affect the default state of the OS vendor strings, thus
			it cannot affect the default state of the feature group
			strings and the current state of the OS vendor strings,
			specifying it multiple times through kernel command line
			is meaningless.  This command is useful when one do not
			care about the state of the feature group strings which
			should be controlled by the OSPM.
			Examples:
			  1. 'acpi_osi=! acpi_osi="Windows 2000"' is equivalent
			     to 'acpi_osi="Windows 2000" acpi_osi=!', they all
			     can make '_OSI("Windows 2000")' TRUE.

			'acpi_osi=' cannot be used in combination with other
			'acpi_osi=' command lines, the _OSI method will not
			exist in the ACPI namespace.  NOTE that such command can
			only affect the _OSI support state, thus specifying it
			multiple times through kernel command line is also
			meaningless.
			Examples:
			  1. 'acpi_osi=' can make 'CondRefOf(_OSI, Local1)'
			     FALSE.

			'acpi_osi=!*' can be used in combination with single or
			multiple 'acpi_osi="string1"' to support specific
			string(s).  Note that such command can affect the
			current state of both the OS vendor strings and the
			feature group strings, thus specifying it multiple times
			through kernel command line is meaningful.  But it may
			still not able to affect the final state of a string if
			there are quirks related to this string.  This command
			is useful when one want to control the state of the
			feature group strings to debug BIOS issues related to
			the OSPM features.
			Examples:
			  1. 'acpi_osi="Module Device" acpi_osi=!*' can make
			     '_OSI("Module Device")' FALSE.
			  2. 'acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi="Module Device"' can make
			     '_OSI("Module Device")' TRUE.
			  3. 'acpi_osi=! acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi="Windows 2000"' is
			     equivalent to
			     'acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi=! acpi_osi="Windows 2000"'
			     and
			     'acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi="Windows 2000" acpi_osi=!',
			     they all will make '_OSI("Windows 2000")' TRUE.

	acpi_pm_good	[X86]
			Override the pmtimer bug detection: force the kernel
			to assume that this machine's pmtimer latches its value
			and always returns good values.

	acpi_sci=	[HW,ACPI] ACPI System Control Interrupt trigger mode
			Format: { level | edge | high | low }

	acpi_skip_timer_override [HW,ACPI]
			Recognize and ignore IRQ0/pin2 Interrupt Override.
			For broken nForce2 BIOS resulting in XT-PIC timer.

	acpi_sleep=	[HW,ACPI] Sleep options
			Format: { s3_bios, s3_mode, s3_beep, s4_nohwsig,
				  old_ordering, nonvs, sci_force_enable }
			See Documentation/power/video.txt for information on
			s3_bios and s3_mode.
			s3_beep is for debugging; it makes the PC's speaker beep
			as soon as the kernel's real-mode entry point is called.
			s4_nohwsig prevents ACPI hardware signature from being
			used during resume from hibernation.
			old_ordering causes the ACPI 1.0 ordering of the _PTS
			control method, with respect to putting devices into
			low power states, to be enforced (the ACPI 2.0 ordering
			of _PTS is used by default).
			nonvs prevents the kernel from saving/restoring the
			ACPI NVS memory during suspend/hibernation and resume.
			sci_force_enable causes the kernel to set SCI_EN directly
			on resume from S1/S3 (which is against the ACPI spec,
			but some broken systems don't work without it).

	acpi_use_timer_override [HW,ACPI]
			Use timer override. For some broken Nvidia NF5 boards
			that require a timer override, but don't have HPET

	acpi_enforce_resources=	[ACPI]
			{ strict | lax | no }
			Check for resource conflicts between native drivers
			and ACPI OperationRegions (SystemIO and SystemMemory
			only). IO ports and memory declared in ACPI might be
			used by the ACPI subsystem in arbitrary AML code and
			can interfere with legacy drivers.
			strict (default): access to resources claimed by ACPI
			is denied; legacy drivers trying to access reserved
			resources will fail to bind to device using them.
			lax: access to resources claimed by ACPI is allowed;
			legacy drivers trying to access reserved resources
			will bind successfully but a warning message is logged.
			no: ACPI OperationRegions are not marked as reserved,
			no further checks are performed.

	acpi_no_memhotplug [ACPI] Disable memory hotplug.  Useful for kdump
			   kernels.

	add_efi_memmap	[EFI; X86] Include EFI memory map in
			kernel's map of available physical RAM.

	agp=		[AGP]
			{ off | try_unsupported }
			off: disable AGP support
			try_unsupported: try to drive unsupported chipsets
				(may crash computer or cause data corruption)

	ALSA		[HW,ALSA]
			See Documentation/sound/alsa/alsa-parameters.txt

	alignment=	[KNL,ARM]
			Allow the default userspace alignment fault handler
			behaviour to be specified.  Bit 0 enables warnings,
			bit 1 enables fixups, and bit 2 sends a segfault.

	align_va_addr=	[X86-64]
			Align virtual addresses by clearing slice [14:12] when
			allocating a VMA at process creation time. This option
			gives you up to 3% performance improvement on AMD F15h
			machines (where it is enabled by default) for a
			CPU-intensive style benchmark, and it can vary highly in
			a microbenchmark depending on workload and compiler.

			32: only for 32-bit processes
			64: only for 64-bit processes
			on: enable for both 32- and 64-bit processes
			off: disable for both 32- and 64-bit processes

	alloc_snapshot	[FTRACE]
			Allocate the ftrace snapshot buffer on boot up when the
			main buffer is allocated. This is handy if debugging
			and you need to use tracing_snapshot() on boot up, and
			do not want to use tracing_snapshot_alloc() as it needs
			to be done where GFP_KERNEL allocations are allowed.

	amd_iommu=	[HW,X86-64]
			Pass parameters to the AMD IOMMU driver in the system.
			Possible values are:
			fullflush - enable flushing of IO/TLB entries when
				    they are unmapped. Otherwise they are
				    flushed before they will be reused, which
				    is a lot of faster
			off	  - do not initialize any AMD IOMMU found in
				    the system
			force_isolation - Force device isolation for all
					  devices. The IOMMU driver is not
					  allowed anymore to lift isolation
					  requirements as needed. This option
					  does not override iommu=pt

	amd_iommu_dump=	[HW,X86-64]
			Enable AMD IOMMU driver option to dump the ACPI table
			for AMD IOMMU. With this option enabled, AMD IOMMU
			driver will print ACPI tables for AMD IOMMU during
			IOMMU initialization.

	amijoy.map=	[HW,JOY] Amiga joystick support
			Map of devices attached to JOY0DAT and JOY1DAT
			Format: <a>,<b>
			See also Documentation/input/joystick.txt

	analog.map=	[HW,JOY] Analog joystick and gamepad support
			Specifies type or capabilities of an analog joystick
			connected to one of 16 gameports
			Format: <type1>,<type2>,..<type16>

	apc=		[HW,SPARC]
			Power management functions (SPARCstation-4/5 + deriv.)
			Format: noidle
			Disable APC CPU standby support. SPARCstation-Fox does
			not play well with APC CPU idle - disable it if you have
			APC and your system crashes randomly.

	apic=		[APIC,X86-32] Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
			Change the output verbosity whilst booting
			Format: { quiet (default) | verbose | debug }
			Change the amount of debugging information output
			when initialising the APIC and IO-APIC components.

	autoconf=	[IPV6]
			See Documentation/networking/ipv6.txt.

	show_lapic=	[APIC,X86] Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
			Limit apic dumping. The parameter defines the maximal
			number of local apics being dumped. Also it is possible
			to set it to "all" by meaning -- no limit here.
			Format: { 1 (default) | 2 | ... | all }.
			The parameter valid if only apic=debug or
			apic=verbose is specified.
			Example: apic=debug show_lapic=all

	apm=		[APM] Advanced Power Management
			See header of arch/x86/kernel/apm_32.c.

	arcrimi=	[HW,NET] ARCnet - "RIM I" (entirely mem-mapped) cards
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<nodeID>

	ataflop=	[HW,M68k]

	atarimouse=	[HW,MOUSE] Atari Mouse

	atkbd.extra=	[HW] Enable extra LEDs and keys on IBM RapidAccess,
			EzKey and similar keyboards

	atkbd.reset=	[HW] Reset keyboard during initialization

	atkbd.set=	[HW] Select keyboard code set
			Format: <int> (2 = AT (default), 3 = PS/2)

	atkbd.scroll=	[HW] Enable scroll wheel on MS Office and similar
			keyboards

	atkbd.softraw=	[HW] Choose between synthetic and real raw mode
			Format: <bool> (0 = real, 1 = synthetic (default))

	atkbd.softrepeat= [HW]
			Use software keyboard repeat

	audit=		[KNL] Enable the audit sub-system
			Format: { "0" | "1" } (0 = disabled, 1 = enabled)
			0 - kernel audit is disabled and can not be enabled
			    until the next reboot
			unset - kernel audit is initialized but disabled and
			    will be fully enabled by the userspace auditd.
			1 - kernel audit is initialized and partially enabled,
			    storing at most audit_backlog_limit messages in
			    RAM until it is fully enabled by the userspace
			    auditd.
			Default: unset

	audit_backlog_limit= [KNL] Set the audit queue size limit.
			Format: <int> (must be >=0)
			Default: 64

	baycom_epp=	[HW,AX25]
			Format: <io>,<mode>

	baycom_par=	[HW,AX25] BayCom Parallel Port AX.25 Modem
			Format: <io>,<mode>
			See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_par.c.

	baycom_ser_fdx=	[HW,AX25]
			BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem (Full Duplex Mode)
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<mode>[,<baud>]
			See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_ser_fdx.c.

	baycom_ser_hdx=	[HW,AX25]
			BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem (Half Duplex Mode)
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<mode>
			See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_ser_hdx.c.

	blkdevparts=	Manual partition parsing of block device(s) for
			embedded devices based on command line input.
			See Documentation/block/cmdline-partition.txt

	boot_delay=	Milliseconds to delay each printk during boot.
			Values larger than 10 seconds (10000) are changed to
			no delay (0).
			Format: integer

	bootmem_debug	[KNL] Enable bootmem allocator debug messages.

	bttv.card=	[HW,V4L] bttv (bt848 + bt878 based grabber cards)
	bttv.radio=	Most important insmod options are available as
			kernel args too.
	bttv.pll=	See Documentation/video4linux/bttv/Insmod-options
	bttv.tuner=

	bulk_remove=off	[PPC]  This parameter disables the use of the pSeries
			firmware feature for flushing multiple hpte entries
			at a time.

	c101=		[NET] Moxa C101 synchronous serial card

	cachesize=	[BUGS=X86-32] Override level 2 CPU cache size detection.
			Sometimes CPU hardware bugs make them report the cache
			size incorrectly. The kernel will attempt work arounds
			to fix known problems, but for some CPUs it is not
			possible to determine what the correct size should be.
			This option provides an override for these situations.

	ca_keys=	[KEYS] This parameter identifies a specific key(s) on
			the system trusted keyring to be used for certificate
			trust validation.
			format: { id:<keyid> | builtin }

	cca=		[MIPS] Override the kernel pages' cache coherency
			algorithm.  Accepted values range from 0 to 7
			inclusive. See arch/mips/include/asm/pgtable-bits.h
			for platform specific values (SB1, Loongson3 and
			others).

	ccw_timeout_log [S390]
			See Documentation/s390/CommonIO for details.

	cgroup_disable= [KNL] Disable a particular controller
			Format: {name of the controller(s) to disable}
			The effects of cgroup_disable=foo are:
			- foo isn't auto-mounted if you mount all cgroups in
			  a single hierarchy
			- foo isn't visible as an individually mountable
			  subsystem
			{Currently only "memory" controller deal with this and
			cut the overhead, others just disable the usage. So
			only cgroup_disable=memory is actually worthy}

	checkreqprot	[SELINUX] Set initial checkreqprot flag value.
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
			0 -- check protection applied by kernel (includes
				any implied execute protection).
			1 -- check protection requested by application.
			Default value is set via a kernel config option.
			Value can be changed at runtime via
				/selinux/checkreqprot.

	cio_ignore=	[S390]
			See Documentation/s390/CommonIO for details.
	clk_ignore_unused
			[CLK]
			Prevents the clock framework from automatically gating
			clocks that have not been explicitly enabled by a Linux
			device driver but are enabled in hardware at reset or
			by the bootloader/firmware. Note that this does not
			force such clocks to be always-on nor does it reserve
			those clocks in any way. This parameter is useful for
			debug and development, but should not be needed on a
			platform with proper driver support.  For more
			information, see Documentation/clk.txt.

	clock=		[BUGS=X86-32, HW] gettimeofday clocksource override.
			[Deprecated]
			Forces specified clocksource (if available) to be used
			when calculating gettimeofday(). If specified
			clocksource is not available, it defaults to PIT.
			Format: { pit | tsc | cyclone | pmtmr }

	clocksource=	Override the default clocksource
			Format: <string>
			Override the default clocksource and use the clocksource
			with the name specified.
			Some clocksource names to choose from, depending on
			the platform:
			[all] jiffies (this is the base, fallback clocksource)
			[ACPI] acpi_pm
			[ARM] imx_timer1,OSTS,netx_timer,mpu_timer2,
				pxa_timer,timer3,32k_counter,timer0_1
			[AVR32] avr32
			[X86-32] pit,hpet,tsc;
				scx200_hrt on Geode; cyclone on IBM x440
			[MIPS] MIPS
			[PARISC] cr16
			[S390] tod
			[SH] SuperH
			[SPARC64] tick
			[X86-64] hpet,tsc

	clearcpuid=BITNUM [X86]
			Disable CPUID feature X for the kernel. See
			arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h for the valid bit
			numbers. Note the Linux specific bits are not necessarily
			stable over kernel options, but the vendor specific
			ones should be.
			Also note that user programs calling CPUID directly
			or using the feature without checking anything
			will still see it. This just prevents it from
			being used by the kernel or shown in /proc/cpuinfo.
			Also note the kernel might malfunction if you disable
			some critical bits.

	cma=nn[MG]@[start[MG][-end[MG]]]
			[ARM,X86,KNL]
			Sets the size of kernel global memory area for
			contiguous memory allocations and optionally the
			placement constraint by the physical address range of
			memory allocations. A value of 0 disables CMA
			altogether. For more information, see
			include/linux/dma-contiguous.h

	cmo_free_hint=	[PPC] Format: { yes | no }
			Specify whether pages are marked as being inactive
			when they are freed.  This is used in CMO environments
			to determine OS memory pressure for page stealing by
			a hypervisor.
			Default: yes

	coherent_pool=nn[KMG]	[ARM,KNL]
			Sets the size of memory pool for coherent, atomic dma
			allocations, by default set to 256K.

	code_bytes	[X86] How many bytes of object code to print
			in an oops report.
			Range: 0 - 8192
			Default: 64

	com20020=	[HW,NET] ARCnet - COM20020 chipset
			Format:
			<io>[,<irq>[,<nodeID>[,<backplane>[,<ckp>[,<timeout>]]]]]

	com90io=	[HW,NET] ARCnet - COM90xx chipset (IO-mapped buffers)
			Format: <io>[,<irq>]

	com90xx=	[HW,NET]
			ARCnet - COM90xx chipset (memory-mapped buffers)
			Format: <io>[,<irq>[,<memstart>]]

	condev=		[HW,S390] console device
	conmode=

	console=	[KNL] Output console device and options.

		tty<n>	Use the virtual console device <n>.

		ttyS<n>[,options]
		ttyUSB0[,options]
			Use the specified serial port.  The options are of
			the form "bbbbpnf", where "bbbb" is the baud rate,
			"p" is parity ("n", "o", or "e"), "n" is number of
			bits, and "f" is flow control ("r" for RTS or
			omit it).  Default is "9600n8".

			See Documentation/serial-console.txt for more
			information.  See
			Documentation/networking/netconsole.txt for an
			alternative.

		uart[8250],io,<addr>[,options]
		uart[8250],mmio,<addr>[,options]
			Start an early, polled-mode console on the 8250/16550
			UART at the specified I/O port or MMIO address,
			switching to the matching ttyS device later.  The
			options are the same as for ttyS, above.
		hvc<n>	Use the hypervisor console device <n>. This is for
			both Xen and PowerPC hypervisors.

                If the device connected to the port is not a TTY but a braille
                device, prepend "brl," before the device type, for instance
			console=brl,ttyS0
		For now, only VisioBraille is supported.

	consoleblank=	[KNL] The console blank (screen saver) timeout in
			seconds. Defaults to 10*60 = 10mins. A value of 0
			disables the blank timer.

	coredump_filter=
			[KNL] Change the default value for
			/proc/<pid>/coredump_filter.
			See also Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt.

	cpuidle.off=1	[CPU_IDLE]
			disable the cpuidle sub-system

	cpcihp_generic=	[HW,PCI] Generic port I/O CompactPCI driver
			Format:
			<first_slot>,<last_slot>,<port>,<enum_bit>[,<debug>]

	crashkernel=size[KMG][@offset[KMG]]
			[KNL] Using kexec, Linux can switch to a 'crash kernel'
			upon panic. This parameter reserves the physical
			memory region [offset, offset + size] for that kernel
			image. If '@offset' is omitted, then a suitable offset
			is selected automatically. Check
			Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt for further details.

	crashkernel=range1:size1[,range2:size2,...][@offset]
			[KNL] Same as above, but depends on the memory
			in the running system. The syntax of range is
			start-[end] where start and end are both
			a memory unit (amount[KMG]). See also
			Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt for an example.

	crashkernel=size[KMG],high
			[KNL, x86_64] range could be above 4G. Allow kernel
			to allocate physical memory region from top, so could
			be above 4G if system have more than 4G ram installed.
			Otherwise memory region will be allocated below 4G, if
			available.
			It will be ignored if crashkernel=X is specified.
	crashkernel=size[KMG],low
			[KNL, x86_64] range under 4G. When crashkernel=X,high
			is passed, kernel could allocate physical memory region
			above 4G, that cause second kernel crash on system
			that require some amount of low memory, e.g. swiotlb
			requires at least 64M+32K low memory.  Kernel would
			try to allocate 72M below 4G automatically.
			This one let user to specify own low range under 4G
			for second kernel instead.
			0: to disable low allocation.
			It will be ignored when crashkernel=X,high is not used
			or memory reserved is below 4G.

	cs89x0_dma=	[HW,NET]
			Format: <dma>

	cs89x0_media=	[HW,NET]
			Format: { rj45 | aui | bnc }

	dasd=		[HW,NET]
			See header of drivers/s390/block/dasd_devmap.c.

	db9.dev[2|3]=	[HW,JOY] Multisystem joystick support via parallel port
			(one device per port)
			Format: <port#>,<type>
			See also Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt

	ddebug_query=   [KNL,DYNAMIC_DEBUG] Enable debug messages at early boot
			time. See Documentation/dynamic-debug-howto.txt for
			details.  Deprecated, see dyndbg.

	debug		[KNL] Enable kernel debugging (events log level).

	debug_locks_verbose=
			[KNL] verbose self-tests
			Format=<0|1>
			Print debugging info while doing the locking API
			self-tests.
			We default to 0 (no extra messages), setting it to
			1 will print _a lot_ more information - normally
			only useful to kernel developers.

	debug_objects	[KNL] Enable object debugging

	no_debug_objects
			[KNL] Disable object debugging

	debug_guardpage_minorder=
			[KNL] When CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC is set, this
			parameter allows control of the order of pages that will
			be intentionally kept free (and hence protected) by the
			buddy allocator. Bigger value increase the probability
			of catching random memory corruption, but reduce the
			amount of memory for normal system use. The maximum
			possible value is MAX_ORDER/2.  Setting this parameter
			to 1 or 2 should be enough to identify most random
			memory corruption problems caused by bugs in kernel or
			driver code when a CPU writes to (or reads from) a
			random memory location. Note that there exists a class
			of memory corruptions problems caused by buggy H/W or
			F/W or by drivers badly programing DMA (basically when
			memory is written at bus level and the CPU MMU is
			bypassed) which are not detectable by
			CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC, hence this option will not help
			tracking down these problems.

	debug_pagealloc=
			[KNL] When CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC is set, this
			parameter enables the feature at boot time. In
			default, it is disabled. We can avoid allocating huge
			chunk of memory for debug pagealloc if we don't enable
			it at boot time and the system will work mostly same
			with the kernel built without CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC.
			on: enable the feature

	debugpat	[X86] Enable PAT debugging

	decnet.addr=	[HW,NET]
			Format: <area>[,<node>]
			See also Documentation/networking/decnet.txt.

	default_hugepagesz=
			[same as hugepagesz=] The size of the default
			HugeTLB page size. This is the size represented by
			the legacy /proc/ hugepages APIs, used for SHM, and
			default size when mounting hugetlbfs filesystems.
			Defaults to the default architecture's huge page size
			if not specified.

	dhash_entries=	[KNL]
			Set number of hash buckets for dentry cache.

	disable=	[IPV6]
			See Documentation/networking/ipv6.txt.

	disable_cpu_apicid= [X86,APIC,SMP]
			Format: <int>
			The number of initial APIC ID for the
			corresponding CPU to be disabled at boot,
			mostly used for the kdump 2nd kernel to
			disable BSP to wake up multiple CPUs without
			causing system reset or hang due to sending
			INIT from AP to BSP.

	disable_ddw     [PPC/PSERIES]
			Disable Dynamic DMA Window support. Use this if
			to workaround buggy firmware.

	disable_ipv6=	[IPV6]
			See Documentation/networking/ipv6.txt.

	disable_mtrr_cleanup [X86]
			The kernel tries to adjust MTRR layout from continuous
			to discrete, to make X server driver able to add WB
			entry later. This parameter disables that.

	disable_mtrr_trim [X86, Intel and AMD only]
			By default the kernel will trim any uncacheable
			memory out of your available memory pool based on
			MTRR settings.  This parameter disables that behavior,
			possibly causing your machine to run very slowly.

	disable_timer_pin_1 [X86]
			Disable PIN 1 of APIC timer
			Can be useful to work around chipset bugs.

	dma_debug=off	If the kernel is compiled with DMA_API_DEBUG support,
			this option disables the debugging code at boot.

	dma_debug_entries=<number>
			This option allows to tune the number of preallocated
			entries for DMA-API debugging code. One entry is
			required per DMA-API allocation. Use this if the
			DMA-API debugging code disables itself because the
			architectural default is too low.

	dma_debug_driver=<driver_name>
			With this option the DMA-API debugging driver
			filter feature can be enabled at boot time. Just
			pass the driver to filter for as the parameter.
			The filter can be disabled or changed to another
			driver later using sysfs.

	drm_kms_helper.edid_firmware=[<connector>:]<file>
			Broken monitors, graphic adapters and KVMs may
			send no or incorrect EDID data sets. This parameter
			allows to specify an EDID data set in the
			/lib/firmware directory that is used instead.
			Generic built-in EDID data sets are used, if one of
			edid/1024x768.bin, edid/1280x1024.bin,
			edid/1680x1050.bin, or edid/1920x1080.bin is given
			and no file with the same name exists. Details and
			instructions how to build your own EDID data are
			available in Documentation/EDID/HOWTO.txt. An EDID
			data set will only be used for a particular connector,
			if its name and a colon are prepended to the EDID
			name.

	dscc4.setup=	[NET]

	dyndbg[="val"]		[KNL,DYNAMIC_DEBUG]
	module.dyndbg[="val"]
			Enable debug messages at boot time.  See
			Documentation/dynamic-debug-howto.txt for details.

	early_ioremap_debug [KNL]
			Enable debug messages in early_ioremap support. This
			is useful for tracking down temporary early mappings
			which are not unmapped.

	earlycon=	[KNL] Output early console device and options.

		cdns,<addr>
			Start an early, polled-mode console on a cadence serial
			port at the specified address. The cadence serial port
			must already be setup and configured. Options are not
			yet supported.

		uart[8250],io,<addr>[,options]
		uart[8250],mmio,<addr>[,options]
		uart[8250],mmio32,<addr>[,options]
			Start an early, polled-mode console on the 8250/16550
			UART at the specified I/O port or MMIO address.
			MMIO inter-register address stride is either 8-bit
			(mmio) or 32-bit (mmio32).
			The options are the same as for ttyS, above.

		pl011,<addr>
			Start an early, polled-mode console on a pl011 serial
			port at the specified address. The pl011 serial port
			must already be setup and configured. Options are not
			yet supported.

		msm_serial,<addr>
			Start an early, polled-mode console on an msm serial
			port at the specified address. The serial port
			must already be setup and configured. Options are not
			yet supported.

		msm_serial_dm,<addr>
			Start an early, polled-mode console on an msm serial
			dm port at the specified address. The serial port
			must already be setup and configured. Options are not
			yet supported.

		smh	Use ARM semihosting calls for early console.

		s3c2410,<addr>
		s3c2412,<addr>
		s3c2440,<addr>
		s3c6400,<addr>
		s5pv210,<addr>
		exynos4210,<addr>
			Use early console provided by serial driver available
			on Samsung SoCs, requires selecting proper type and
			a correct base address of the selected UART port. The
			serial port must already be setup and configured.
			Options are not yet supported.

	earlyprintk=	[X86,SH,BLACKFIN,ARM,M68k]
			earlyprintk=vga
			earlyprintk=efi
			earlyprintk=xen
			earlyprintk=serial[,ttySn[,baudrate]]
			earlyprintk=serial[,0x...[,baudrate]]
			earlyprintk=ttySn[,baudrate]
			earlyprintk=dbgp[debugController#]

			earlyprintk is useful when the kernel crashes before
			the normal console is initialized. It is not enabled by
			default because it has some cosmetic problems.

			Append ",keep" to not disable it when the real console
			takes over.

			Only one of vga, efi, serial, or usb debug port can
			be used at a time.

			Currently only ttyS0 and ttyS1 may be specified by
			name.  Other I/O ports may be explicitly specified
			on some architectures (x86 and arm at least) by
			replacing ttySn with an I/O port address, like this:
				earlyprintk=serial,0x1008,115200
			You can find the port for a given device in
			/proc/tty/driver/serial:
				2: uart:ST16650V2 port:00001008 irq:18 ...

			Interaction with the standard serial driver is not
			very good.

			The VGA and EFI output is eventually overwritten by
			the real console.

			The xen output can only be used by Xen PV guests.

	edac_report=	[HW,EDAC] Control how to report EDAC event
			Format: {"on" | "off" | "force"}
			on: enable EDAC to report H/W event. May be overridden
			by other higher priority error reporting module.
			off: disable H/W event reporting through EDAC.
			force: enforce the use of EDAC to report H/W event.
			default: on.

	ekgdboc=	[X86,KGDB] Allow early kernel console debugging
			ekgdboc=kbd

			This is designed to be used in conjunction with
			the boot argument: earlyprintk=vga

	edd=		[EDD]
			Format: {"off" | "on" | "skip[mbr]"}

	efi=		[EFI]
			Format: { "old_map", "nochunk", "noruntime" }
			old_map [X86-64]: switch to the old ioremap-based EFI
			runtime services mapping. 32-bit still uses this one by
			default.
			nochunk: disable reading files in "chunks" in the EFI
			boot stub, as chunking can cause problems with some
			firmware implementations.
			noruntime : disable EFI runtime services support

	efi_no_storage_paranoia [EFI; X86]
			Using this parameter you can use more than 50% of
			your efi variable storage. Use this parameter only if
			you are really sure that your UEFI does sane gc and
			fulfills the spec otherwise your board may brick.

	eisa_irq_edge=	[PARISC,HW]
			See header of drivers/parisc/eisa.c.

	elanfreq=	[X86-32]
			See comment before function elanfreq_setup() in
			arch/x86/kernel/cpu/cpufreq/elanfreq.c.

	elevator=	[IOSCHED]
			Format: {"cfq" | "deadline" | "noop"}
			See Documentation/block/cfq-iosched.txt and
			Documentation/block/deadline-iosched.txt for details.

	elfcorehdr=[size[KMG]@]offset[KMG] [IA64,PPC,SH,X86,S390]
			Specifies physical address of start of kernel core
			image elf header and optionally the size. Generally
			kexec loader will pass this option to capture kernel.
			See Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt for details.

	enable_mtrr_cleanup [X86]
			The kernel tries to adjust MTRR layout from continuous
			to discrete, to make X server driver able to add WB
			entry later. This parameter enables that.

	enable_timer_pin_1 [X86]
			Enable PIN 1 of APIC timer
			Can be useful to work around chipset bugs
			(in particular on some ATI chipsets).
			The kernel tries to set a reasonable default.

	enforcing	[SELINUX] Set initial enforcing status.
			Format: {"0" | "1"}
			See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
			0 -- permissive (log only, no denials).
			1 -- enforcing (deny and log).
			Default value is 0.
			Value can be changed at runtime via /selinux/enforce.

	erst_disable	[ACPI]
			Disable Error Record Serialization Table (ERST)
			support.

	ether=		[HW,NET] Ethernet cards parameters
			This option is obsoleted by the "netdev=" option, which
			has equivalent usage. See its documentation for details.

	evm=		[EVM]
			Format: { "fix" }
			Permit 'security.evm' to be updated regardless of
			current integrity status.

	failslab=
	fail_page_alloc=
	fail_make_request=[KNL]
			General fault injection mechanism.
			Format: <interval>,<probability>,<space>,<times>
			See also Documentation/fault-injection/.

	floppy=		[HW]
			See Documentation/blockdev/floppy.txt.

	force_pal_cache_flush
			[IA-64] Avoid check_sal_cache_flush which may hang on
			buggy SAL_CACHE_FLUSH implementations. Using this
			parameter will force ia64_sal_cache_flush to call
			ia64_pal_cache_flush instead of SAL_CACHE_FLUSH.

	forcepae [X86-32]
			Forcefully enable Physical Address Extension (PAE).
			Many Pentium M systems disable PAE but may have a
			functionally usable PAE implementation.
			Warning: use of this parameter will taint the kernel
			and may cause unknown problems.

	ftrace=[tracer]
			[FTRACE] will set and start the specified tracer
			as early as possible in order to facilitate early
			boot debugging.

	ftrace_dump_on_oops[=orig_cpu]
			[FTRACE] will dump the trace buffers on oops.
			If no parameter is passed, ftrace will dump
			buffers of all CPUs, but if you pass orig_cpu, it will
			dump only the buffer of the CPU that triggered the
			oops.

	ftrace_filter=[function-list]
			[FTRACE] Limit the functions traced by the function
			tracer at boot up. function-list is a comma separated
			list of functions. This list can be changed at run
			time by the set_ftrace_filter file in the debugfs
			tracing directory.

	ftrace_notrace=[function-list]
			[FTRACE] Do not trace the functions specified in
			function-list. This list can be changed at run time
			by the set_ftrace_notrace file in the debugfs
			tracing directory.

	ftrace_graph_filter=[function-list]
			[FTRACE] Limit the top level callers functions traced
			by the function graph tracer at boot up.
			function-list is a comma separated list of functions
			that can be changed at run time by the
			set_graph_function file in the debugfs tracing directory.

	ftrace_graph_notrace=[function-list]
			[FTRACE] Do not trace from the functions specified in
			function-list.  This list is a comma separated list of
			functions that can be changed at run time by the
			set_graph_notrace file in the debugfs tracing directory.

	gamecon.map[2|3]=
			[HW,JOY] Multisystem joystick and NES/SNES/PSX pad
			support via parallel port (up to 5 devices per port)
			Format: <port#>,<pad1>,<pad2>,<pad3>,<pad4>,<pad5>
			See also Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt

	gamma=		[HW,DRM]

	gart_fix_e820=  [X86_64] disable the fix e820 for K8 GART
			Format: off | on
			default: on

	gcov_persist=	[GCOV] When non-zero (default), profiling data for
			kernel modules is saved and remains accessible via
			debugfs, even when the module is unloaded/reloaded.
			When zero, profiling data is discarded and associated
			debugfs files are removed at module unload time.

	gpt		[EFI] Forces disk with valid GPT signature but
			invalid Protective MBR to be treated as GPT. If the
			primary GPT is corrupted, it enables the backup/alternate
			GPT to be used instead.

	grcan.enable0=	[HW] Configuration of physical interface 0. Determines
			the "Enable 0" bit of the configuration register.
			Format: 0 | 1
			Default: 0
	grcan.enable1=	[HW] Configuration of physical interface 1. Determines
			the "Enable 0" bit of the configuration register.
			Format: 0 | 1
			Default: 0
	grcan.select=	[HW] Select which physical interface to use.
			Format: 0 | 1
			Default: 0
	grcan.txsize=	[HW] Sets the size of the tx buffer.
			Format: <unsigned int> such that (txsize & ~0x1fffc0) == 0.
			Default: 1024
	grcan.rxsize=	[HW] Sets the size of the rx buffer.
			Format: <unsigned int> such that (rxsize & ~0x1fffc0) == 0.
			Default: 1024

	hashdist=	[KNL,NUMA] Large hashes allocated during boot
			are distributed across NUMA nodes.  Defaults on
			for 64-bit NUMA, off otherwise.
			Format: 0 | 1 (for off | on)

	hcl=		[IA-64] SGI's Hardware Graph compatibility layer

	hd=		[EIDE] (E)IDE hard drive subsystem geometry
			Format: <cyl>,<head>,<sect>

	hest_disable	[ACPI]
			Disable Hardware Error Source Table (HEST) support;
			corresponding firmware-first mode error processing
			logic will be disabled.

	highmem=nn[KMG]	[KNL,BOOT] forces the highmem zone to have an exact
			size of <nn>. This works even on boxes that have no
			highmem otherwise. This also works to reduce highmem
			size on bigger boxes.

	highres=	[KNL] Enable/disable high resolution timer mode.
			Valid parameters: "on", "off"
			Default: "on"

	hisax=		[HW,ISDN]
			See Documentation/isdn/README.HiSax.

	hlt		[BUGS=ARM,SH]

	hpet=		[X86-32,HPET] option to control HPET usage
			Format: { enable (default) | disable | force |
				verbose }
			disable: disable HPET and use PIT instead
			force: allow force enabled of undocumented chips (ICH4,
				VIA, nVidia)
			verbose: show contents of HPET registers during setup

	hpet_mmap=	[X86, HPET_MMAP] Allow userspace to mmap HPET
			registers.  Default set by CONFIG_HPET_MMAP_DEFAULT.

	hugepages=	[HW,X86-32,IA-64] HugeTLB pages to allocate at boot.
	hugepagesz=	[HW,IA-64,PPC,X86-64] The size of the HugeTLB pages.
			On x86-64 and powerpc, this option can be specified
			multiple times interleaved with hugepages= to reserve
			huge pages of different sizes. Valid pages sizes on
			x86-64 are 2M (when the CPU supports "pse") and 1G
			(when the CPU supports the "pdpe1gb" cpuinfo flag).

	hvc_iucv=	[S390] Number of z/VM IUCV hypervisor console (HVC)
			       terminal devices. Valid values: 0..8
	hvc_iucv_allow=	[S390] Comma-separated list of z/VM user IDs.
			       If specified, z/VM IUCV HVC accepts connections
			       from listed z/VM user IDs only.

	hwthread_map=	[METAG] Comma-separated list of Linux cpu id to
			        hardware thread id mappings.
				Format: <cpu>:<hwthread>

	keep_bootcon	[KNL]
			Do not unregister boot console at start. This is only
			useful for debugging when something happens in the window
			between unregistering the boot console and initializing
			the real console.

	i2c_bus=	[HW] Override the default board specific I2C bus speed
			     or register an additional I2C bus that is not
			     registered from board initialization code.
			     Format:
			     <bus_id>,<clkrate>

	i8042.debug	[HW] Toggle i8042 debug mode
	i8042.direct	[HW] Put keyboard port into non-translated mode
	i8042.dumbkbd	[HW] Pretend that controller can only read data from
			     keyboard and cannot control its state
			     (Don't attempt to blink the leds)
	i8042.noaux	[HW] Don't check for auxiliary (== mouse) port
	i8042.nokbd	[HW] Don't check/create keyboard port
	i8042.noloop	[HW] Disable the AUX Loopback command while probing
			     for the AUX port
	i8042.nomux	[HW] Don't check presence of an active multiplexing
			     controller
	i8042.nopnp	[HW] Don't use ACPIPnP / PnPBIOS to discover KBD/AUX
			     controllers
	i8042.notimeout	[HW] Ignore timeout condition signalled by controller
	i8042.reset	[HW] Reset the controller during init and cleanup
	i8042.unlock	[HW] Unlock (ignore) the keylock
	i8042.kbdreset  [HW] Reset device connected to KBD port

	i810=		[HW,DRM]

	i8k.ignore_dmi	[HW] Continue probing hardware even if DMI data
			indicates that the driver is running on unsupported
			hardware.
	i8k.force	[HW] Activate i8k driver even if SMM BIOS signature
			does not match list of supported models.
	i8k.power_status
			[HW] Report power status in /proc/i8k
			(disabled by default)
	i8k.restricted	[HW] Allow controlling fans only if SYS_ADMIN
			capability is set.

	i915.invert_brightness=
			[DRM] Invert the sense of the variable that is used to
			set the brightness of the panel backlight. Normally a
			brightness value of 0 indicates backlight switched off,
			and the maximum of the brightness value sets the backlight
			to maximum brightness. If this parameter is set to 0
			(default) and the machine requires it, or this parameter
			is set to 1, a brightness value of 0 sets the backlight
			to maximum brightness, and the maximum of the brightness
			value switches the backlight off.
			-1 -- never invert brightness
			 0 -- machine default
			 1 -- force brightness inversion

	icn=		[HW,ISDN]
			Format: <io>[,<membase>[,<icn_id>[,<icn_id2>]]]

	ide-core.nodma=	[HW] (E)IDE subsystem
			Format: =0.0 to prevent dma on hda, =0.1 hdb =1.0 hdc
			.vlb_clock .pci_clock .noflush .nohpa .noprobe .nowerr
			.cdrom .chs .ignore_cable are additional options
			See Documentation/ide/ide.txt.

	ide-generic.probe-mask= [HW] (E)IDE subsystem
			Format: <int>
			Probe mask for legacy ISA IDE ports.  Depending on
			platform up to 6 ports are supported, enabled by
			setting corresponding bits in the mask to 1.  The
			default value is 0x0, which has a special meaning.
			On systems that have PCI, it triggers scanning the
			PCI bus for the first and the second port, which
			are then probed.  On systems without PCI the value
			of 0x0 enables probing the two first ports as if it
			was 0x3.

	ide-pci-generic.all-generic-ide [HW] (E)IDE subsystem
			Claim all unknown PCI IDE storage controllers.

	idle=		[X86]
			Format: idle=poll, idle=halt, idle=nomwait
			Poll forces a polling idle loop that can slightly
			improve the performance of waking up a idle CPU, but
			will use a lot of power and make the system run hot.
			Not recommended.
			idle=halt: Halt is forced to be used for CPU idle.
			In such case C2/C3 won't be used again.
			idle=nomwait: Disable mwait for CPU C-states

	ignore_loglevel	[KNL]
			Ignore loglevel setting - this will print /all/
			kernel messages to the console. Useful for debugging.
			We also add it as printk module parameter, so users
			could change it dynamically, usually by
			/sys/module/printk/parameters/ignore_loglevel.

	ihash_entries=	[KNL]
			Set number of hash buckets for inode cache.

	ima_appraise=	[IMA] appraise integrity measurements
			Format: { "off" | "enforce" | "fix" | "log" }
			default: "enforce"

	ima_appraise_tcb [IMA]
			The builtin appraise policy appraises all files
			owned by uid=0.

	ima_hash=	[IMA]
			Format: { md5 | sha1 | rmd160 | sha256 | sha384
				   | sha512 | ... }
			default: "sha1"

			The list of supported hash algorithms is defined
			in crypto/hash_info.h.

	ima_tcb		[IMA]
			Load a policy which meets the needs of the Trusted
			Computing Base.  This means IMA will measure all
			programs exec'd, files mmap'd for exec, and all files
			opened for read by uid=0.

	ima_template=   [IMA]
			Select one of defined IMA measurements template formats.
			Formats: { "ima" | "ima-ng" }
			Default: "ima-ng"

	ima_template_fmt=
	                [IMA] Define a custom template format.
			Format: { "field1|...|fieldN" }

	ima.ahash_minsize= [IMA] Minimum file size for asynchronous hash usage
			Format: <min_file_size>
			Set the minimal file size for using asynchronous hash.
			If left unspecified, ahash usage is disabled.

			ahash performance varies for different data sizes on
			different crypto accelerators. This option can be used
			to achieve the best performance for a particular HW.

	ima.ahash_bufsize= [IMA] Asynchronous hash buffer size
			Format: <bufsize>
			Set hashing buffer size. Default: 4k.

			ahash performance varies for different chunk sizes on
			different crypto accelerators. This option can be used
			to achieve best performance for particular HW.

	init=		[KNL]
			Format: <full_path>
			Run specified binary instead of /sbin/init as init
			process.

	initcall_debug	[KNL] Trace initcalls as they are executed.  Useful
			for working out where the kernel is dying during
			startup.

	initcall_blacklist=  [KNL] Do not execute a comma-separated list of
			initcall functions.  Useful for debugging built-in
			modules and initcalls.

	initrd=		[BOOT] Specify the location of the initial ramdisk

	inport.irq=	[HW] Inport (ATI XL and Microsoft) busmouse driver
			Format: <irq>

	int_pln_enable  [x86] Enable power limit notification interrupt

	integrity_audit=[IMA]
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			0 -- basic integrity auditing messages. (Default)
			1 -- additional integrity auditing messages.

	intel_iommu=	[DMAR] Intel IOMMU driver (DMAR) option
		on
			Enable intel iommu driver.
		off
			Disable intel iommu driver.
		igfx_off [Default Off]
			By default, gfx is mapped as normal device. If a gfx
			device has a dedicated DMAR unit, the DMAR unit is
			bypassed by not enabling DMAR with this option. In
			this case, gfx device will use physical address for
			DMA.
		forcedac [x86_64]
			With this option iommu will not optimize to look
			for io virtual address below 32-bit forcing dual
			address cycle on pci bus for cards supporting greater
			than 32-bit addressing. The default is to look
			for translation below 32-bit and if not available
			then look in the higher range.
		strict [Default Off]
			With this option on every unmap_single operation will
			result in a hardware IOTLB flush operation as opposed
			to batching them for performance.
		sp_off [Default Off]
			By default, super page will be supported if Intel IOMMU
			has the capability. With this option, super page will
			not be supported.

	intel_idle.max_cstate=	[KNL,HW,ACPI,X86]
			0	disables intel_idle and fall back on acpi_idle.
			1 to 6	specify maximum depth of C-state.

	intel_pstate=  [X86]
		       disable
		         Do not enable intel_pstate as the default
		         scaling driver for the supported processors
		       force
			 Enable intel_pstate on systems that prohibit it by default
			 in favor of acpi-cpufreq. Forcing the intel_pstate driver
			 instead of acpi-cpufreq may disable platform features, such
			 as thermal controls and power capping, that rely on ACPI
			 P-States information being indicated to OSPM and therefore
			 should be used with caution. This option does not work with
			 processors that aren't supported by the intel_pstate driver
			 or on platforms that use pcc-cpufreq instead of acpi-cpufreq.
		       no_hwp
		         Do not enable hardware P state control (HWP)
			 if available.
		hwp_only
			Only load intel_pstate on systems which support
			hardware P state control (HWP) if available.

	intremap=	[X86-64, Intel-IOMMU]
			on	enable Interrupt Remapping (default)
			off	disable Interrupt Remapping
			nosid	disable Source ID checking
			no_x2apic_optout
				BIOS x2APIC opt-out request will be ignored

	iomem=		Disable strict checking of access to MMIO memory
		strict	regions from userspace.
		relaxed

	iommu=		[x86]
		off
		force
		noforce
		biomerge
		panic
		nopanic
		merge
		nomerge
		forcesac
		soft
		pt		[x86, IA-64]
		nobypass	[PPC/POWERNV]
			Disable IOMMU bypass, using IOMMU for PCI devices.


	io7=		[HW] IO7 for Marvel based alpha systems
			See comment before marvel_specify_io7 in
			arch/alpha/kernel/core_marvel.c.

	io_delay=	[X86] I/O delay method
		0x80
			Standard port 0x80 based delay
		0xed
			Alternate port 0xed based delay (needed on some systems)
		udelay
			Simple two microseconds delay
		none
			No delay

	ip=		[IP_PNP]
			See Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt.

	irqfixup	[HW]
			When an interrupt is not handled search all handlers
			for it. Intended to get systems with badly broken
			firmware running.

	irqpoll		[HW]
			When an interrupt is not handled search all handlers
			for it. Also check all handlers each timer
			interrupt. Intended to get systems with badly broken
			firmware running.

	isapnp=		[ISAPNP]
			Format: <RDP>,<reset>,<pci_scan>,<verbosity>

	isolcpus=	[KNL,SMP] Isolate CPUs from the general scheduler.
			Format:
			<cpu number>,...,<cpu number>
			or
			<cpu number>-<cpu number>
			(must be a positive range in ascending order)
			or a mixture
			<cpu number>,...,<cpu number>-<cpu number>

			This option can be used to specify one or more CPUs
			to isolate from the general SMP balancing and scheduling
			algorithms. You can move a process onto or off an
			"isolated" CPU via the CPU affinity syscalls or cpuset.
			<cpu number> begins at 0 and the maximum value is
			"number of CPUs in system - 1".

			This option is the preferred way to isolate CPUs. The
			alternative -- manually setting the CPU mask of all
			tasks in the system -- can cause problems and
			suboptimal load balancer performance.

	iucv=		[HW,NET]

	ivrs_ioapic	[HW,X86_64]
			Provide an override to the IOAPIC-ID<->DEVICE-ID
			mapping provided in the IVRS ACPI table. For
			example, to map IOAPIC-ID decimal 10 to
			PCI device 00:14.0 write the parameter as:
				ivrs_ioapic[10]=00:14.0

	ivrs_hpet	[HW,X86_64]
			Provide an override to the HPET-ID<->DEVICE-ID
			mapping provided in the IVRS ACPI table. For
			example, to map HPET-ID decimal 0 to
			PCI device 00:14.0 write the parameter as:
				ivrs_hpet[0]=00:14.0

	js=		[HW,JOY] Analog joystick
			See Documentation/input/joystick.txt.

	kaslr/nokaslr	[X86]
			Enable/disable kernel and module base offset ASLR
			(Address Space Layout Randomization) if built into
			the kernel. When CONFIG_HIBERNATION is selected,
			kASLR is disabled by default. When kASLR is enabled,
			hibernation will be disabled.

	keepinitrd	[HW,ARM]

	kernelcore=nn[KMG]	[KNL,X86,IA-64,PPC] This parameter
			specifies the amount of memory usable by the kernel
			for non-movable allocations.  The requested amount is
			spread evenly throughout all nodes in the system. The
			remaining memory in each node is used for Movable
			pages. In the event, a node is too small to have both
			kernelcore and Movable pages, kernelcore pages will
			take priority and other nodes will have a larger number
			of Movable pages.  The Movable zone is used for the
			allocation of pages that may be reclaimed or moved
			by the page migration subsystem.  This means that
			HugeTLB pages may not be allocated from this zone.
			Note that allocations like PTEs-from-HighMem still
			use the HighMem zone if it exists, and the Normal
			zone if it does not.

	kgdbdbgp=	[KGDB,HW] kgdb over EHCI usb debug port.
			Format: <Controller#>[,poll interval]
			The controller # is the number of the ehci usb debug
			port as it is probed via PCI.  The poll interval is
			optional and is the number seconds in between
			each poll cycle to the debug port in case you need
			the functionality for interrupting the kernel with
			gdb or control-c on the dbgp connection.  When
			not using this parameter you use sysrq-g to break into
			the kernel debugger.

	kgdboc=		[KGDB,HW] kgdb over consoles.
			Requires a tty driver that supports console polling,
			or a supported polling keyboard driver (non-usb).
			 Serial only format: <serial_device>[,baud]
			 keyboard only format: kbd
			 keyboard and serial format: kbd,<serial_device>[,baud]
			Optional Kernel mode setting:
			 kms, kbd format: kms,kbd
			 kms, kbd and serial format: kms,kbd,<ser_dev>[,baud]

	kgdbwait	[KGDB] Stop kernel execution and enter the
			kernel debugger at the earliest opportunity.

	kmac=		[MIPS] korina ethernet MAC address.
			Configure the RouterBoard 532 series on-chip
			Ethernet adapter MAC address.

	kmemleak=	[KNL] Boot-time kmemleak enable/disable
			Valid arguments: on, off
			Default: on
			Built with CONFIG_DEBUG_KMEMLEAK_DEFAULT_OFF=y,
			the default is off.

	kmemcheck=	[X86] Boot-time kmemcheck enable/disable/one-shot mode
			Valid arguments: 0, 1, 2
			kmemcheck=0 (disabled)
			kmemcheck=1 (enabled)
			kmemcheck=2 (one-shot mode)
			Default: 2 (one-shot mode)

	kstack=N	[X86] Print N words from the kernel stack
			in oops dumps.

	kvm.ignore_msrs=[KVM] Ignore guest accesses to unhandled MSRs.
			Default is 0 (don't ignore, but inject #GP)

	kvm.mmu_audit=	[KVM] This is a R/W parameter which allows audit
			KVM MMU at runtime.
			Default is 0 (off)

	kvm-amd.nested=	[KVM,AMD] Allow nested virtualization in KVM/SVM.
			Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-amd.npt=	[KVM,AMD] Disable nested paging (virtualized MMU)
			for all guests.
			Default is 1 (enabled) if in 64-bit or 32-bit PAE mode.

	kvm-intel.ept=	[KVM,Intel] Disable extended page tables
			(virtualized MMU) support on capable Intel chips.
			Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-intel.emulate_invalid_guest_state=
			[KVM,Intel] Enable emulation of invalid guest states
			Default is 0 (disabled)

	kvm-intel.flexpriority=
			[KVM,Intel] Disable FlexPriority feature (TPR shadow).
			Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-intel.nested=
			[KVM,Intel] Enable VMX nesting (nVMX).
			Default is 0 (disabled)

	kvm-intel.unrestricted_guest=
			[KVM,Intel] Disable unrestricted guest feature
			(virtualized real and unpaged mode) on capable
			Intel chips. Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-intel.vpid=	[KVM,Intel] Disable Virtual Processor Identification
			feature (tagged TLBs) on capable Intel chips.
			Default is 1 (enabled)

	l2cr=		[PPC]

	l3cr=		[PPC]

	lapic		[X86-32,APIC] Enable the local APIC even if BIOS
			disabled it.

	lapic=		[x86,APIC] "notscdeadline" Do not use TSC deadline
			value for LAPIC timer one-shot implementation. Default
			back to the programmable timer unit in the LAPIC.

	lapic_timer_c2_ok	[X86,APIC] trust the local apic timer
			in C2 power state.

	libata.dma=	[LIBATA] DMA control
			libata.dma=0	  Disable all PATA and SATA DMA
			libata.dma=1	  PATA and SATA Disk DMA only
			libata.dma=2	  ATAPI (CDROM) DMA only
			libata.dma=4	  Compact Flash DMA only
			Combinations also work, so libata.dma=3 enables DMA
			for disks and CDROMs, but not CFs.

	libata.ignore_hpa=	[LIBATA] Ignore HPA limit
			libata.ignore_hpa=0	  keep BIOS limits (default)
			libata.ignore_hpa=1	  ignore limits, using full disk

	libata.noacpi	[LIBATA] Disables use of ACPI in libata suspend/resume
			when set.
			Format: <int>

	libata.force=	[LIBATA] Force configurations.  The format is comma
			separated list of "[ID:]VAL" where ID is
			PORT[.DEVICE].  PORT and DEVICE are decimal numbers
			matching port, link or device.  Basically, it matches
			the ATA ID string printed on console by libata.  If
			the whole ID part is omitted, the last PORT and DEVICE
			values are used.  If ID hasn't been specified yet, the
			configuration applies to all ports, links and devices.

			If only DEVICE is omitted, the parameter applies to
			the port and all links and devices behind it.  DEVICE
			number of 0 either selects the first device or the
			first fan-out link behind PMP device.  It does not
			select the host link.  DEVICE number of 15 selects the
			host link and device attached to it.

			The VAL specifies the configuration to force.  As long
			as there's no ambiguity shortcut notation is allowed.
			For example, both 1.5 and 1.5G would work for 1.5Gbps.
			The following configurations can be forced.

			* Cable type: 40c, 80c, short40c, unk, ign or sata.
			  Any ID with matching PORT is used.

			* SATA link speed limit: 1.5Gbps or 3.0Gbps.

			* Transfer mode: pio[0-7], mwdma[0-4] and udma[0-7].
			  udma[/][16,25,33,44,66,100,133] notation is also
			  allowed.

			* [no]ncq: Turn on or off NCQ.

			* nohrst, nosrst, norst: suppress hard, soft
                          and both resets.

			* rstonce: only attempt one reset during
			  hot-unplug link recovery

			* dump_id: dump IDENTIFY data.

			* atapi_dmadir: Enable ATAPI DMADIR bridge support

			* disable: Disable this device.

			If there are multiple matching configurations changing
			the same attribute, the last one is used.

	memblock=debug	[KNL] Enable memblock debug messages.

	load_ramdisk=	[RAM] List of ramdisks to load from floppy
			See Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt.

	lockd.nlm_grace_period=P  [NFS] Assign grace period.
			Format: <integer>

	lockd.nlm_tcpport=N	[NFS] Assign TCP port.
			Format: <integer>

	lockd.nlm_timeout=T	[NFS] Assign timeout value.
			Format: <integer>

	lockd.nlm_udpport=M	[NFS] Assign UDP port.
			Format: <integer>

	locktorture.nreaders_stress= [KNL]
			Set the number of locking read-acquisition kthreads.
			Defaults to being automatically set based on the
			number of online CPUs.

	locktorture.nwriters_stress= [KNL]
			Set the number of locking write-acquisition kthreads.

	locktorture.onoff_holdoff= [KNL]
			Set time (s) after boot for CPU-hotplug testing.

	locktorture.onoff_interval= [KNL]
			Set time (s) between CPU-hotplug operations, or
			zero to disable CPU-hotplug testing.

	locktorture.shuffle_interval= [KNL]
			Set task-shuffle interval (jiffies).  Shuffling
			tasks allows some CPUs to go into dyntick-idle
			mode during the locktorture test.

	locktorture.shutdown_secs= [KNL]
			Set time (s) after boot system shutdown.  This
			is useful for hands-off automated testing.

	locktorture.stat_interval= [KNL]
			Time (s) between statistics printk()s.

	locktorture.stutter= [KNL]
			Time (s) to stutter testing, for example,
			specifying five seconds causes the test to run for
			five seconds, wait for five seconds, and so on.
			This tests the locking primitive's ability to
			transition abruptly to and from idle.

	locktorture.torture_runnable= [BOOT]
			Start locktorture running at boot time.

	locktorture.torture_type= [KNL]
			Specify the locking implementation to test.

	locktorture.verbose= [KNL]
			Enable additional printk() statements.

	logibm.irq=	[HW,MOUSE] Logitech Bus Mouse Driver
			Format: <irq>

	loglevel=	All Kernel Messages with a loglevel smaller than the
			console loglevel will be printed to the console. It can
			also be changed with klogd or other programs. The
			loglevels are defined as follows:

			0 (KERN_EMERG)		system is unusable
			1 (KERN_ALERT)		action must be taken immediately
			2 (KERN_CRIT)		critical conditions
			3 (KERN_ERR)		error conditions
			4 (KERN_WARNING)	warning conditions
			5 (KERN_NOTICE)		normal but significant condition
			6 (KERN_INFO)		informational
			7 (KERN_DEBUG)		debug-level messages

	log_buf_len=n[KMG]	Sets the size of the printk ring buffer,
			in bytes.  n must be a power of two and greater
			than the minimal size. The minimal size is defined
			by LOG_BUF_SHIFT kernel config parameter. There is
			also CONFIG_LOG_CPU_MAX_BUF_SHIFT config parameter
			that allows to increase the default size depending on
			the number of CPUs. See init/Kconfig for more details.

	logo.nologo	[FB] Disables display of the built-in Linux logo.
			This may be used to provide more screen space for
			kernel log messages and is useful when debugging
			kernel boot problems.

	lp=0		[LP]	Specify parallel ports to use, e.g,
	lp=port[,port...]	lp=none,parport0 (lp0 not configured, lp1 uses
	lp=reset		first parallel port). 'lp=0' disables the
	lp=auto			printer driver. 'lp=reset' (which can be
				specified in addition to the ports) causes
				attached printers to be reset. Using
				lp=port1,port2,... specifies the parallel ports
				to associate lp devices with, starting with
				lp0. A port specification may be 'none' to skip
				that lp device, or a parport name such as
				'parport0'. Specifying 'lp=auto' instead of a
				port specification list means that device IDs
				from each port should be examined, to see if
				an IEEE 1284-compliant printer is attached; if
				so, the driver will manage that printer.
				See also header of drivers/char/lp.c.

	lpj=n		[KNL]
			Sets loops_per_jiffy to given constant, thus avoiding
			time-consuming boot-time autodetection (up to 250 ms per
			CPU). 0 enables autodetection (default). To determine
			the correct value for your kernel, boot with normal
			autodetection and see what value is printed. Note that
			on SMP systems the preset will be applied to all CPUs,
			which is likely to cause problems if your CPUs need
			significantly divergent settings. An incorrect value
			will cause delays in the kernel to be wrong, leading to
			unpredictable I/O errors and other breakage. Although
			unlikely, in the extreme case this might damage your
			hardware.

	ltpc=		[NET]
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>

	machvec=	[IA-64] Force the use of a particular machine-vector
			(machvec) in a generic kernel.
			Example: machvec=hpzx1_swiotlb

	machtype=	[Loongson] Share the same kernel image file between different
			 yeeloong laptop.
			Example: machtype=lemote-yeeloong-2f-7inch

	max_addr=nn[KMG]	[KNL,BOOT,ia64] All physical memory greater
			than or equal to this physical address is ignored.

	maxcpus=	[SMP] Maximum number of processors that	an SMP kernel
			should make use of.  maxcpus=n : n >= 0 limits the
			kernel to using 'n' processors.  n=0 is a special case,
			it is equivalent to "nosmp", which also disables
			the IO APIC.

	max_loop=	[LOOP] The number of loop block devices that get
	(loop.max_loop)	unconditionally pre-created at init time. The default
			number is configured by BLK_DEV_LOOP_MIN_COUNT. Instead
			of statically allocating a predefined number, loop
			devices can be requested on-demand with the
			/dev/loop-control interface.

	mce		[X86-32] Machine Check Exception

	mce=option	[X86-64] See Documentation/x86/x86_64/boot-options.txt

	md=		[HW] RAID subsystems devices and level
			See Documentation/md.txt.

	mdacon=		[MDA]
			Format: <first>,<last>
			Specifies range of consoles to be captured by the MDA.

	mem=nn[KMG]	[KNL,BOOT] Force usage of a specific amount of memory
			Amount of memory to be used when the kernel is not able
			to see the whole system memory or for test.
			[X86] Work as limiting max address. Use together
			with memmap= to avoid physical address space collisions.
			Without memmap= PCI devices could be placed at addresses
			belonging to unused RAM.

	mem=nopentium	[BUGS=X86-32] Disable usage of 4MB pages for kernel
			memory.

	memchunk=nn[KMG]
			[KNL,SH] Allow user to override the default size for
			per-device physically contiguous DMA buffers.

	memmap=exactmap	[KNL,X86] Enable setting of an exact
			E820 memory map, as specified by the user.
			Such memmap=exactmap lines can be constructed based on
			BIOS output or other requirements. See the memmap=nn@ss
			option description.

	memmap=nn[KMG]@ss[KMG]
			[KNL] Force usage of a specific region of memory.
			Region of memory to be used is from ss to ss+nn.

	memmap=nn[KMG]#ss[KMG]
			[KNL,ACPI] Mark specific memory as ACPI data.
			Region of memory to be marked is from ss to ss+nn.

	memmap=nn[KMG]$ss[KMG]
			[KNL,ACPI] Mark specific memory as reserved.
			Region of memory to be reserved is from ss to ss+nn.
			Example: Exclude memory from 0x18690000-0x1869ffff
			         memmap=64K$0x18690000
			         or
			         memmap=0x10000$0x18690000

	memory_corruption_check=0/1 [X86]
			Some BIOSes seem to corrupt the first 64k of
			memory when doing things like suspend/resume.
			Setting this option will scan the memory
			looking for corruption.  Enabling this will
			both detect corruption and prevent the kernel
			from using the memory being corrupted.
			However, its intended as a diagnostic tool; if
			repeatable BIOS-originated corruption always
			affects the same memory, you can use memmap=
			to prevent the kernel from using that memory.

	memory_corruption_check_size=size [X86]
			By default it checks for corruption in the low
			64k, making this memory unavailable for normal
			use.  Use this parameter to scan for
			corruption in more or less memory.

	memory_corruption_check_period=seconds [X86]
			By default it checks for corruption every 60
			seconds.  Use this parameter to check at some
			other rate.  0 disables periodic checking.

	memtest=	[KNL,X86] Enable memtest
			Format: <integer>
			default : 0 <disable>
			Specifies the number of memtest passes to be
			performed. Each pass selects another test
			pattern from a given set of patterns. Memtest
			fills the memory with this pattern, validates
			memory contents and reserves bad memory
			regions that are detected.

	meye.*=		[HW] Set MotionEye Camera parameters
			See Documentation/video4linux/meye.txt.

	mfgpt_irq=	[IA-32] Specify the IRQ to use for the
			Multi-Function General Purpose Timers on AMD Geode
			platforms.

	mfgptfix	[X86-32] Fix MFGPT timers on AMD Geode platforms when
			the BIOS has incorrectly applied a workaround. TinyBIOS
			version 0.98 is known to be affected, 0.99 fixes the
			problem by letting the user disable the workaround.

	mga=		[HW,DRM]

	min_addr=nn[KMG]	[KNL,BOOT,ia64] All physical memory below this
			physical address is ignored.

	mini2440=	[ARM,HW,KNL]
			Format:[0..2][b][c][t]
			Default: "0tb"
			MINI2440 configuration specification:
			0 - The attached screen is the 3.5" TFT
			1 - The attached screen is the 7" TFT
			2 - The VGA Shield is attached (1024x768)
			Leaving out the screen size parameter will not load
			the TFT driver, and the framebuffer will be left
			unconfigured.
			b - Enable backlight. The TFT backlight pin will be
			linked to the kernel VESA blanking code and a GPIO
			LED. This parameter is not necessary when using the
			VGA shield.
			c - Enable the s3c camera interface.
			t - Reserved for enabling touchscreen support. The
			touchscreen support is not enabled in the mainstream
			kernel as of 2.6.30, a preliminary port can be found
			in the "bleeding edge" mini2440 support kernel at
			http://repo.or.cz/w/linux-2.6/mini2440.git

	mminit_loglevel=
			[KNL] When CONFIG_DEBUG_MEMORY_INIT is set, this
			parameter allows control of the logging verbosity for
			the additional memory initialisation checks. A value
			of 0 disables mminit logging and a level of 4 will
			log everything. Information is printed at KERN_DEBUG
			so loglevel=8 may also need to be specified.

	module.sig_enforce
			[KNL] When CONFIG_MODULE_SIG is set, this means that
			modules without (valid) signatures will fail to load.
			Note that if CONFIG_MODULE_SIG_FORCE is set, that
			is always true, so this option does nothing.

	mousedev.tap_time=
			[MOUSE] Maximum time between finger touching and
			leaving touchpad surface for touch to be considered
			a tap and be reported as a left button click (for
			touchpads working in absolute mode only).
			Format: <msecs>
	mousedev.xres=	[MOUSE] Horizontal screen resolution, used for devices
			reporting absolute coordinates, such as tablets
	mousedev.yres=	[MOUSE] Vertical screen resolution, used for devices
			reporting absolute coordinates, such as tablets

	movablecore=nn[KMG]	[KNL,X86,IA-64,PPC] This parameter
			is similar to kernelcore except it specifies the
			amount of memory used for migratable allocations.
			If both kernelcore and movablecore is specified,
			then kernelcore will be at *least* the specified
			value but may be more. If movablecore on its own
			is specified, the administrator must be careful
			that the amount of memory usable for all allocations
			is not too small.

	movable_node	[KNL,X86] Boot-time switch to enable the effects
			of CONFIG_MOVABLE_NODE=y. See mm/Kconfig for details.

	MTD_Partition=	[MTD]
			Format: <name>,<region-number>,<size>,<offset>

	MTD_Region=	[MTD] Format:
			<name>,<region-number>[,<base>,<size>,<buswidth>,<altbuswidth>]

	mtdparts=	[MTD]
			See drivers/mtd/cmdlinepart.c.

	multitce=off	[PPC]  This parameter disables the use of the pSeries
			firmware feature for updating multiple TCE entries
			at a time.

	onenand.bdry=	[HW,MTD] Flex-OneNAND Boundary Configuration

			Format: [die0_boundary][,die0_lock][,die1_boundary][,die1_lock]

			boundary - index of last SLC block on Flex-OneNAND.
				   The remaining blocks are configured as MLC blocks.
			lock	 - Configure if Flex-OneNAND boundary should be locked.
				   Once locked, the boundary cannot be changed.
				   1 indicates lock status, 0 indicates unlock status.

	mtdset=		[ARM]
			ARM/S3C2412 JIVE boot control

			See arch/arm/mach-s3c2412/mach-jive.c

	mtouchusb.raw_coordinates=
			[HW] Make the MicroTouch USB driver use raw coordinates
			('y', default) or cooked coordinates ('n')

	mtrr_chunk_size=nn[KMG] [X86]
			used for mtrr cleanup. It is largest continuous chunk
			that could hold holes aka. UC entries.

	mtrr_gran_size=nn[KMG] [X86]
			Used for mtrr cleanup. It is granularity of mtrr block.
			Default is 1.
			Large value could prevent small alignment from
			using up MTRRs.

	mtrr_spare_reg_nr=n [X86]
			Format: <integer>
			Range: 0,7 : spare reg number
			Default : 1
			Used for mtrr cleanup. It is spare mtrr entries number.
			Set to 2 or more if your graphical card needs more.

	n2=		[NET] SDL Inc. RISCom/N2 synchronous serial card

	netdev=		[NET] Network devices parameters
			Format: <irq>,<io>,<mem_start>,<mem_end>,<name>
			Note that mem_start is often overloaded to mean
			something different and driver-specific.
			This usage is only documented in each driver source
			file if at all.

	nf_conntrack.acct=
			[NETFILTER] Enable connection tracking flow accounting
			0 to disable accounting
			1 to enable accounting
			Default value is 0.

	nfsaddrs=	[NFS] Deprecated.  Use ip= instead.
			See Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt.

	nfsroot=	[NFS] nfs root filesystem for disk-less boxes.
			See Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt.

	nfsrootdebug	[NFS] enable nfsroot debugging messages.
			See Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt.

	nfs.callback_tcpport=
			[NFS] set the TCP port on which the NFSv4 callback
			channel should listen.

	nfs.cache_getent=
			[NFS] sets the pathname to the program which is used
			to update the NFS client cache entries.

	nfs.cache_getent_timeout=
			[NFS] sets the timeout after which an attempt to
			update a cache entry is deemed to have failed.

	nfs.idmap_cache_timeout=
			[NFS] set the maximum lifetime for idmapper cache
			entries.

	nfs.enable_ino64=
			[NFS] enable 64-bit inode numbers.
			If zero, the NFS client will fake up a 32-bit inode
			number for the readdir() and stat() syscalls instead
			of returning the full 64-bit number.
			The default is to return 64-bit inode numbers.

	nfs.max_session_slots=
			[NFSv4.1] Sets the maximum number of session slots
			the client will attempt to negotiate with the server.
			This limits the number of simultaneous RPC requests
			that the client can send to the NFSv4.1 server.
			Note that there is little point in setting this
			value higher than the max_tcp_slot_table_limit.

	nfs.nfs4_disable_idmapping=
			[NFSv4] When set to the default of '1', this option
			ensures that both the RPC level authentication
			scheme and the NFS level operations agree to use
			numeric uids/gids if the mount is using the
			'sec=sys' security flavour. In effect it is
			disabling idmapping, which can make migration from
			legacy NFSv2/v3 systems to NFSv4 easier.
			Servers that do not support this mode of operation
			will be autodetected by the client, and it will fall
			back to using the idmapper.
			To turn off this behaviour, set the value to '0'.
	nfs.nfs4_unique_id=
			[NFS4] Specify an additional fixed unique ident-
			ification string that NFSv4 clients can insert into
			their nfs_client_id4 string.  This is typically a
			UUID that is generated at system install time.

	nfs.send_implementation_id =
			[NFSv4.1] Send client implementation identification
			information in exchange_id requests.
			If zero, no implementation identification information
			will be sent.
			The default is to send the implementation identification
			information.
	
	nfs.recover_lost_locks =
			[NFSv4] Attempt to recover locks that were lost due
			to a lease timeout on the server. Please note that
			doing this risks data corruption, since there are
			no guarantees that the file will remain unchanged
			after the locks are lost.
			If you want to enable the kernel legacy behaviour of
			attempting to recover these locks, then set this
			parameter to '1'.
			The default parameter value of '0' causes the kernel
			not to attempt recovery of lost locks.

	nfsd.nfs4_disable_idmapping=
			[NFSv4] When set to the default of '1', the NFSv4
			server will return only numeric uids and gids to
			clients using auth_sys, and will accept numeric uids
			and gids from such clients.  This is intended to ease
			migration from NFSv2/v3.

	objlayoutdriver.osd_login_prog=
			[NFS] [OBJLAYOUT] sets the pathname to the program which
			is used to automatically discover and login into new
			osd-targets. Please see:
			Documentation/filesystems/pnfs.txt for more explanations

	nmi_debug=	[KNL,AVR32,SH] Specify one or more actions to take
			when a NMI is triggered.
			Format: [state][,regs][,debounce][,die]

	nmi_watchdog=	[KNL,BUGS=X86] Debugging features for SMP kernels
			Format: [panic,][nopanic,][num]
			Valid num: 0
			0 - turn nmi_watchdog off
			When panic is specified, panic when an NMI watchdog
			timeout occurs (or 'nopanic' to override the opposite
			default).
			This is useful when you use a panic=... timeout and
			need the box quickly up again.

	netpoll.carrier_timeout=
			[NET] Specifies amount of time (in seconds) that
			netpoll should wait for a carrier. By default netpoll
			waits 4 seconds.

	no387		[BUGS=X86-32] Tells the kernel to use the 387 maths
			emulation library even if a 387 maths coprocessor
			is present.

	no_console_suspend
			[HW] Never suspend the console
			Disable suspending of consoles during suspend and
			hibernate operations.  Once disabled, debugging
			messages can reach various consoles while the rest
			of the system is being put to sleep (ie, while
			debugging driver suspend/resume hooks).  This may
			not work reliably with all consoles, but is known
			to work with serial and VGA consoles.
			To facilitate more flexible debugging, we also add
			console_suspend, a printk module parameter to control
			it. Users could use console_suspend (usually
			/sys/module/printk/parameters/console_suspend) to
			turn on/off it dynamically.

	noaliencache	[MM, NUMA, SLAB] Disables the allocation of alien
			caches in the slab allocator.  Saves per-node memory,
			but will impact performance.

	noalign		[KNL,ARM]

	noapic		[SMP,APIC] Tells the kernel to not make use of any
			IOAPICs that may be present in the system.

	noautogroup	Disable scheduler automatic task group creation.

	nobats		[PPC] Do not use BATs for mapping kernel lowmem
			on "Classic" PPC cores.

	nocache		[ARM]

	noclflush	[BUGS=X86] Don't use the CLFLUSH instruction

	nodelayacct	[KNL] Disable per-task delay accounting

	nodisconnect	[HW,SCSI,M68K] Disables SCSI disconnects.

	nodsp		[SH] Disable hardware DSP at boot time.

	noefi		Disable EFI runtime services support.

	noexec		[IA-64]

	noexec		[X86]
			On X86-32 available only on PAE configured kernels.
			noexec=on: enable non-executable mappings (default)
			noexec=off: disable non-executable mappings

	nosmap		[X86]
			Disable SMAP (Supervisor Mode Access Prevention)
			even if it is supported by processor.

	nosmep		[X86]
			Disable SMEP (Supervisor Mode Execution Prevention)
			even if it is supported by processor.

	noexec32	[X86-64]
			This affects only 32-bit executables.
			noexec32=on: enable non-executable mappings (default)
				read doesn't imply executable mappings
			noexec32=off: disable non-executable mappings
				read implies executable mappings

	nofpu		[SH] Disable hardware FPU at boot time.

	nofxsr		[BUGS=X86-32] Disables x86 floating point extended
			register save and restore. The kernel will only save
			legacy floating-point registers on task switch.

	noxsave		[BUGS=X86] Disables x86 extended register state save
			and restore using xsave. The kernel will fallback to
			enabling legacy floating-point and sse state.

	noxsaveopt	[X86] Disables xsaveopt used in saving x86 extended
			register states. The kernel will fall back to use
			xsave to save the states. By using this parameter,
			performance of saving the states is degraded because
			xsave doesn't support modified optimization while
			xsaveopt supports it on xsaveopt enabled systems.

	noxsaves	[X86] Disables xsaves and xrstors used in saving and
			restoring x86 extended register state in compacted
			form of xsave area. The kernel will fall back to use
			xsaveopt and xrstor to save and restore the states
			in standard form of xsave area. By using this
			parameter, xsave area per process might occupy more
			memory on xsaves enabled systems.

	eagerfpu=	[X86]
			on	enable eager fpu restore
			off	disable eager fpu restore
			auto	selects the default scheme, which automatically
				enables eagerfpu restore for xsaveopt.

	nohlt		[BUGS=ARM,SH] Tells the kernel that the sleep(SH) or
			wfi(ARM) instruction doesn't work correctly and not to
			use it. This is also useful when using JTAG debugger.

	no_file_caps	Tells the kernel not to honor file capabilities.  The
			only way then for a file to be executed with privilege
			is to be setuid root or executed by root.

	nohalt		[IA-64] Tells the kernel not to use the power saving
			function PAL_HALT_LIGHT when idle. This increases
			power-consumption. On the positive side, it reduces
			interrupt wake-up latency, which may improve performance
			in certain environments such as networked servers or
			real-time systems.

	nohibernate	[HIBERNATION] Disable hibernation and resume.

	nohz=		[KNL] Boottime enable/disable dynamic ticks
			Valid arguments: on, off
			Default: on

	nohz_full=	[KNL,BOOT]
			In kernels built with CONFIG_NO_HZ_FULL=y, set
			the specified list of CPUs whose tick will be stopped
			whenever possible. The boot CPU will be forced outside
			the range to maintain the timekeeping.
			The CPUs in this range must also be included in the
			rcu_nocbs= set.

	noiotrap	[SH] Disables trapped I/O port accesses.

	noirqdebug	[X86-32] Disables the code which attempts to detect and
			disable unhandled interrupt sources.

	no_timer_check	[X86,APIC] Disables the code which tests for
			broken timer IRQ sources.

	noisapnp	[ISAPNP] Disables ISA PnP code.

	noinitrd	[RAM] Tells the kernel not to load any configured
			initial RAM disk.

	nointremap	[X86-64, Intel-IOMMU] Do not enable interrupt
			remapping.
			[Deprecated - use intremap=off]

	nointroute	[IA-64]

	nojitter	[IA-64] Disables jitter checking for ITC timers.

	no-kvmclock	[X86,KVM] Disable paravirtualized KVM clock driver

	no-kvmapf	[X86,KVM] Disable paravirtualized asynchronous page
			fault handling.

	no-steal-acc    [X86,KVM] Disable paravirtualized steal time accounting.
			steal time is computed, but won't influence scheduler
			behaviour

	nolapic		[X86-32,APIC] Do not enable or use the local APIC.

	nolapic_timer	[X86-32,APIC] Do not use the local APIC timer.

	noltlbs		[PPC] Do not use large page/tlb entries for kernel
			lowmem mapping on PPC40x.

	nomca		[IA-64] Disable machine check abort handling

	nomce		[X86-32] Machine Check Exception

	nomfgpt		[X86-32] Disable Multi-Function General Purpose
			Timer usage (for AMD Geode machines).

	nonmi_ipi	[X86] Disable using NMI IPIs during panic/reboot to
			shutdown the other cpus.  Instead use the REBOOT_VECTOR
			irq.

	nomodule	Disable module load

	nopat		[X86] Disable PAT (page attribute table extension of
			pagetables) support.

	norandmaps	Don't use address space randomization.  Equivalent to
			echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/randomize_va_space

	noreplace-paravirt	[X86,IA-64,PV_OPS] Don't patch paravirt_ops

	noreplace-smp	[X86-32,SMP] Don't replace SMP instructions
			with UP alternatives

	nordrand	[X86] Disable kernel use of the RDRAND and
			RDSEED instructions even if they are supported
			by the processor.  RDRAND and RDSEED are still
			available to user space applications.

	noresume	[SWSUSP] Disables resume and restores original swap
			space.

	no-scroll	[VGA] Disables scrollback.
			This is required for the Braillex ib80-piezo Braille
			reader made by F.H. Papenmeier (Germany).

	nosbagart	[IA-64]

	nosep		[BUGS=X86-32] Disables x86 SYSENTER/SYSEXIT support.

	nosmp		[SMP] Tells an SMP kernel to act as a UP kernel,
			and disable the IO APIC.  legacy for "maxcpus=0".

	nosoftlockup	[KNL] Disable the soft-lockup detector.

	nosync		[HW,M68K] Disables sync negotiation for all devices.

	notsc		[BUGS=X86-32] Disable Time Stamp Counter

	nousb		[USB] Disable the USB subsystem

	nowatchdog	[KNL] Disable the lockup detector (NMI watchdog).

	nowb		[ARM]

	nox2apic	[X86-64,APIC] Do not enable x2APIC mode.

	cpu0_hotplug	[X86] Turn on CPU0 hotplug feature when
			CONFIG_BOOTPARAM_HOTPLUG_CPU0 is off.
			Some features depend on CPU0. Known dependencies are:
			1. Resume from suspend/hibernate depends on CPU0.
			Suspend/hibernate will fail if CPU0 is offline and you
			need to online CPU0 before suspend/hibernate.
			2. PIC interrupts also depend on CPU0. CPU0 can't be
			removed if a PIC interrupt is detected.
			It's said poweroff/reboot may depend on CPU0 on some
			machines although I haven't seen such issues so far
			after CPU0 is offline on a few tested machines.
			If the dependencies are under your control, you can
			turn on cpu0_hotplug.

	nptcg=		[IA-64] Override max number of concurrent global TLB
			purges which is reported from either PAL_VM_SUMMARY or
			SAL PALO.

	nr_cpus=	[SMP] Maximum number of processors that	an SMP kernel
			could support.  nr_cpus=n : n >= 1 limits the kernel to
			supporting 'n' processors. Later in runtime you can not
			use hotplug cpu feature to put more cpu back to online.
			just like you compile the kernel NR_CPUS=n

	nr_uarts=	[SERIAL] maximum number of UARTs to be registered.

	numa_balancing=	[KNL,X86] Enable or disable automatic NUMA balancing.
			Allowed values are enable and disable

	numa_zonelist_order= [KNL, BOOT] Select zonelist order for NUMA.
			one of ['zone', 'node', 'default'] can be specified
			This can be set from sysctl after boot.
			See Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt for details.

	ohci1394_dma=early	[HW] enable debugging via the ohci1394 driver.
			See Documentation/debugging-via-ohci1394.txt for more
			info.

	olpc_ec_timeout= [OLPC] ms delay when issuing EC commands
			Rather than timing out after 20 ms if an EC
			command is not properly ACKed, override the length
			of the timeout.  We have interrupts disabled while
			waiting for the ACK, so if this is set too high
			interrupts *may* be lost!

	omap_mux=	[OMAP] Override bootloader pin multiplexing.
			Format: <mux_mode0.mode_name=value>...
			For example, to override I2C bus2:
			omap_mux=i2c2_scl.i2c2_scl=0x100,i2c2_sda.i2c2_sda=0x100

	oprofile.timer=	[HW]
			Use timer interrupt instead of performance counters

	oprofile.cpu_type=	Force an oprofile cpu type
			This might be useful if you have an older oprofile
			userland or if you want common events.
			Format: { arch_perfmon }
			arch_perfmon: [X86] Force use of architectural
				perfmon on Intel CPUs instead of the
				CPU specific event set.
			timer: [X86] Force use of architectural NMI
				timer mode (see also oprofile.timer
				for generic hr timer mode)
				[s390] Force legacy basic mode sampling
                                (report cpu_type "timer")

	oops=panic	Always panic on oopses. Default is to just kill the
			process, but there is a small probability of
			deadlocking the machine.
			This will also cause panics on machine check exceptions.
			Useful together with panic=30 to trigger a reboot.

	OSS		[HW,OSS]
			See Documentation/sound/oss/oss-parameters.txt

	page_owner=	[KNL] Boot-time page_owner enabling option.
			Storage of the information about who allocated
			each page is disabled in default. With this switch,
			we can turn it on.
			on: enable the feature

	panic=		[KNL] Kernel behaviour on panic: delay <timeout>
			timeout > 0: seconds before rebooting
			timeout = 0: wait forever
			timeout < 0: reboot immediately
			Format: <timeout>

	panic_on_warn	panic() instead of WARN().  Useful to cause kdump
			on a WARN().

	crash_kexec_post_notifiers
			Run kdump after running panic-notifiers and dumping
			kmsg. This only for the users who doubt kdump always
			succeeds in any situation.
			Note that this also increases risks of kdump failure,
			because some panic notifiers can make the crashed
			kernel more unstable.

	parkbd.port=	[HW] Parallel port number the keyboard adapter is
			connected to, default is 0.
			Format: <parport#>
	parkbd.mode=	[HW] Parallel port keyboard adapter mode of operation,
			0 for XT, 1 for AT (default is AT).
			Format: <mode>

	parport=	[HW,PPT] Specify parallel ports. 0 disables.
			Format: { 0 | auto | 0xBBB[,IRQ[,DMA]] }
			Use 'auto' to force the driver to use any
			IRQ/DMA settings detected (the default is to
			ignore detected IRQ/DMA settings because of
			possible conflicts). You can specify the base
			address, IRQ, and DMA settings; IRQ and DMA
			should be numbers, or 'auto' (for using detected
			settings on that particular port), or 'nofifo'
			(to avoid using a FIFO even if it is detected).
			Parallel ports are assigned in the order they
			are specified on the command line, starting
			with parport0.

	parport_init_mode=	[HW,PPT]
			Configure VIA parallel port to operate in
			a specific mode. This is necessary on Pegasos
			computer where firmware has no options for setting
			up parallel port mode and sets it to spp.
			Currently this function knows 686a and 8231 chips.
			Format: [spp|ps2|epp|ecp|ecpepp]

	pause_on_oops=
			Halt all CPUs after the first oops has been printed for
			the specified number of seconds.  This is to be used if
			your oopses keep scrolling off the screen.

	pcbit=		[HW,ISDN]

	pcd.		[PARIDE]
			See header of drivers/block/paride/pcd.c.
			See also Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt.

	pci=option[,option...]	[PCI] various PCI subsystem options:
		earlydump	[X86] dump PCI config space before the kernel
			        changes anything
		off		[X86] don't probe for the PCI bus
		bios		[X86-32] force use of PCI BIOS, don't access
				the hardware directly. Use this if your machine
				has a non-standard PCI host bridge.
		nobios		[X86-32] disallow use of PCI BIOS, only direct
				hardware access methods are allowed. Use this
				if you experience crashes upon bootup and you
				suspect they are caused by the BIOS.
		conf1		[X86] Force use of PCI Configuration
				Mechanism 1.
		conf2		[X86] Force use of PCI Configuration
				Mechanism 2.
		noaer		[PCIE] If the PCIEAER kernel config parameter is
				enabled, this kernel boot option can be used to
				disable the use of PCIE advanced error reporting.
		nodomains	[PCI] Disable support for multiple PCI
				root domains (aka PCI segments, in ACPI-speak).
		nommconf	[X86] Disable use of MMCONFIG for PCI
				Configuration
		check_enable_amd_mmconf [X86] check for and enable
				properly configured MMIO access to PCI
				config space on AMD family 10h CPU
		nomsi		[MSI] If the PCI_MSI kernel config parameter is
				enabled, this kernel boot option can be used to
				disable the use of MSI interrupts system-wide.
		noioapicquirk	[APIC] Disable all boot interrupt quirks.
				Safety option to keep boot IRQs enabled. This
				should never be necessary.
		ioapicreroute	[APIC] Enable rerouting of boot IRQs to the
				primary IO-APIC for bridges that cannot disable
				boot IRQs. This fixes a source of spurious IRQs
				when the system masks IRQs.
		noioapicreroute	[APIC] Disable workaround that uses the
				boot IRQ equivalent of an IRQ that connects to
				a chipset where boot IRQs cannot be disabled.
				The opposite of ioapicreroute.
		biosirq		[X86-32] Use PCI BIOS calls to get the interrupt
				routing table. These calls are known to be buggy
				on several machines and they hang the machine
				when used, but on other computers it's the only
				way to get the interrupt routing table. Try
				this option if the kernel is unable to allocate
				IRQs or discover secondary PCI buses on your
				motherboard.
		rom		[X86] Assign address space to expansion ROMs.
				Use with caution as certain devices share
				address decoders between ROMs and other
				resources.
		norom		[X86] Do not assign address space to
				expansion ROMs that do not already have
				BIOS assigned address ranges.
		nobar		[X86] Do not assign address space to the
				BARs that weren't assigned by the BIOS.
		irqmask=0xMMMM	[X86] Set a bit mask of IRQs allowed to be
				assigned automatically to PCI devices. You can
				make the kernel exclude IRQs of your ISA cards
				this way.
		pirqaddr=0xAAAAA	[X86] Specify the physical address
				of the PIRQ table (normally generated
				by the BIOS) if it is outside the
				F0000h-100000h range.
		lastbus=N	[X86] Scan all buses thru bus #N. Can be
				useful if the kernel is unable to find your
				secondary buses and you want to tell it
				explicitly which ones they are.
		assign-busses	[X86] Always assign all PCI bus
				numbers ourselves, overriding
				whatever the firmware may have done.
		usepirqmask	[X86] Honor the possible IRQ mask stored
				in the BIOS $PIR table. This is needed on
				some systems with broken BIOSes, notably
				some HP Pavilion N5400 and Omnibook XE3
				notebooks. This will have no effect if ACPI
				IRQ routing is enabled.
		noacpi		[X86] Do not use ACPI for IRQ routing
				or for PCI scanning.
		use_crs		[X86] Use PCI host bridge window information
				from ACPI.  On BIOSes from 2008 or later, this
				is enabled by default.  If you need to use this,
				please report a bug.
		nocrs		[X86] Ignore PCI host bridge windows from ACPI.
			        If you need to use this, please report a bug.
		routeirq	Do IRQ routing for all PCI devices.
				This is normally done in pci_enable_device(),
				so this option is a temporary workaround
				for broken drivers that don't call it.
		skip_isa_align	[X86] do not align io start addr, so can
				handle more pci cards
		firmware	[ARM] Do not re-enumerate the bus but instead
				just use the configuration from the
				bootloader. This is currently used on
				IXP2000 systems where the bus has to be
				configured a certain way for adjunct CPUs.
		noearly		[X86] Don't do any early type 1 scanning.
				This might help on some broken boards which
				machine check when some devices' config space
				is read. But various workarounds are disabled
				and some IOMMU drivers will not work.
		bfsort		Sort PCI devices into breadth-first order.
				This sorting is done to get a device
				order compatible with older (<= 2.4) kernels.
		nobfsort	Don't sort PCI devices into breadth-first order.
		pcie_bus_tune_off	Disable PCIe MPS (Max Payload Size)
				tuning and use the BIOS-configured MPS defaults.
		pcie_bus_safe	Set every device's MPS to the largest value
				supported by all devices below the root complex.
		pcie_bus_perf	Set device MPS to the largest allowable MPS
				based on its parent bus. Also set MRRS (Max
				Read Request Size) to the largest supported
				value (no larger than the MPS that the device
				or bus can support) for best performance.
		pcie_bus_peer2peer	Set every device's MPS to 128B, which
				every device is guaranteed to support. This
				configuration allows peer-to-peer DMA between
				any pair of devices, possibly at the cost of
				reduced performance.  This also guarantees
				that hot-added devices will work.
		cbiosize=nn[KMG]	The fixed amount of bus space which is
				reserved for the CardBus bridge's IO window.
				The default value is 256 bytes.
		cbmemsize=nn[KMG]	The fixed amount of bus space which is
				reserved for the CardBus bridge's memory
				window. The default value is 64 megabytes.
		resource_alignment=
				Format:
				[<order of align>@][<domain>:]<bus>:<slot>.<func>[; ...]
				Specifies alignment and device to reassign
				aligned memory resources.
				If <order of align> is not specified,
				PAGE_SIZE is used as alignment.
				PCI-PCI bridge can be specified, if resource
				windows need to be expanded.
		ecrc=		Enable/disable PCIe ECRC (transaction layer
				end-to-end CRC checking).
				bios: Use BIOS/firmware settings. This is the
				the default.
				off: Turn ECRC off
				on: Turn ECRC on.
		hpiosize=nn[KMG]	The fixed amount of bus space which is
				reserved for hotplug bridge's IO window.
				Default size is 256 bytes.
		hpmemsize=nn[KMG]	The fixed amount of bus space which is
				reserved for hotplug bridge's memory window.
				Default size is 2 megabytes.
		realloc=	Enable/disable reallocating PCI bridge resources
				if allocations done by BIOS are too small to
				accommodate resources required by all child
				devices.
				off: Turn realloc off
				on: Turn realloc on
		realloc		same as realloc=on
		noari		do not use PCIe ARI.
		pcie_scan_all	Scan all possible PCIe devices.  Otherwise we
				only look for one device below a PCIe downstream
				port.

	pcie_aspm=	[PCIE] Forcibly enable or disable PCIe Active State Power
			Management.
		off	Disable ASPM.
		force	Enable ASPM even on devices that claim not to support it.
			WARNING: Forcing ASPM on may cause system lockups.

	pcie_hp=	[PCIE] PCI Express Hotplug driver options:
		nomsi	Do not use MSI for PCI Express Native Hotplug (this
			makes all PCIe ports use INTx for hotplug services).

	pcie_ports=	[PCIE] PCIe ports handling:
		auto	Ask the BIOS whether or not to use native PCIe services
			associated with PCIe ports (PME, hot-plug, AER).  Use
			them only if that is allowed by the BIOS.
		native	Use native PCIe services associated with PCIe ports
			unconditionally.
		compat	Treat PCIe ports as PCI-to-PCI bridges, disable the PCIe
			ports driver.

	pcie_pme=	[PCIE,PM] Native PCIe PME signaling options:
		nomsi	Do not use MSI for native PCIe PME signaling (this makes
			all PCIe root ports use INTx for all services).

	pcmv=		[HW,PCMCIA] BadgePAD 4

	pd_ignore_unused
			[PM]
			Keep all power-domains already enabled by bootloader on,
			even if no driver has claimed them. This is useful
			for debug and development, but should not be
			needed on a platform with proper driver support.

	pd.		[PARIDE]
			See Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt.

	pdcchassis=	[PARISC,HW] Disable/Enable PDC Chassis Status codes at
			boot time.
			Format: { 0 | 1 }
			See arch/parisc/kernel/pdc_chassis.c

	percpu_alloc=	Select which percpu first chunk allocator to use.
			Currently supported values are "embed" and "page".
			Archs may support subset or none of the	selections.
			See comments in mm/percpu.c for details on each
			allocator.  This parameter is primarily	for debugging
			and performance comparison.

	pf.		[PARIDE]
			See Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt.

	pg.		[PARIDE]
			See Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt.

	pirq=		[SMP,APIC] Manual mp-table setup
			See Documentation/x86/i386/IO-APIC.txt.

	plip=		[PPT,NET] Parallel port network link
			Format: { parport<nr> | timid | 0 }
			See also Documentation/parport.txt.

	pmtmr=		[X86] Manual setup of pmtmr I/O Port.
			Override pmtimer IOPort with a hex value.
			e.g. pmtmr=0x508

	pnp.debug=1	[PNP]
			Enable PNP debug messages (depends on the
			CONFIG_PNP_DEBUG_MESSAGES option).  Change at run-time
			via /sys/module/pnp/parameters/debug.  We always show
			current resource usage; turning this on also shows
			possible settings and some assignment information.

	pnpacpi=	[ACPI]
			{ off }

	pnpbios=	[ISAPNP]
			{ on | off | curr | res | no-curr | no-res }

	pnp_reserve_irq=
			[ISAPNP] Exclude IRQs for the autoconfiguration

	pnp_reserve_dma=
			[ISAPNP] Exclude DMAs for the autoconfiguration

	pnp_reserve_io=	[ISAPNP] Exclude I/O ports for the autoconfiguration
			Ranges are in pairs (I/O port base and size).

	pnp_reserve_mem=
			[ISAPNP] Exclude memory regions for the
			autoconfiguration.
			Ranges are in pairs (memory base and size).

	ports=		[IP_VS_FTP] IPVS ftp helper module
			Default is 21.
			Up to 8 (IP_VS_APP_MAX_PORTS) ports
			may be specified.
			Format: <port>,<port>....

	print-fatal-signals=
			[KNL] debug: print fatal signals

			If enabled, warn about various signal handling
			related application anomalies: too many signals,
			too many POSIX.1 timers, fatal signals causing a
			coredump - etc.

			If you hit the warning due to signal overflow,
			you might want to try "ulimit -i unlimited".

			default: off.

	printk.always_kmsg_dump=
			Trigger kmsg_dump for cases other than kernel oops or
			panics
			Format: <bool>  (1/Y/y=enable, 0/N/n=disable)
			default: disabled

	printk.time=	Show timing data prefixed to each printk message line
			Format: <bool>  (1/Y/y=enable, 0/N/n=disable)

	processor.max_cstate=	[HW,ACPI]
			Limit processor to maximum C-state
			max_cstate=9 overrides any DMI blacklist limit.

	processor.nocst	[HW,ACPI]
			Ignore the _CST method to determine C-states,
			instead using the legacy FADT method

	profile=	[KNL] Enable kernel profiling via /proc/profile
			Format: [schedule,]<number>
			Param: "schedule" - profile schedule points.
			Param: <number> - step/bucket size as a power of 2 for
				statistical time based profiling.
			Param: "sleep" - profile D-state sleeping (millisecs).
				Requires CONFIG_SCHEDSTATS
			Param: "kvm" - profile VM exits.

	prompt_ramdisk=	[RAM] List of RAM disks to prompt for floppy disk
			before loading.
			See Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt.

	psmouse.proto=	[HW,MOUSE] Highest PS2 mouse protocol extension to
			probe for; one of (bare|imps|exps|lifebook|any).
	psmouse.rate=	[HW,MOUSE] Set desired mouse report rate, in reports
			per second.
	psmouse.resetafter=	[HW,MOUSE]
			Try to reset the device after so many bad packets
			(0 = never).
	psmouse.resolution=
			[HW,MOUSE] Set desired mouse resolution, in dpi.
	psmouse.smartscroll=
			[HW,MOUSE] Controls Logitech smartscroll autorepeat.
			0 = disabled, 1 = enabled (default).

	pstore.backend=	Specify the name of the pstore backend to use

	pt.		[PARIDE]
			See Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt.

	pty.legacy_count=
			[KNL] Number of legacy pty's. Overwrites compiled-in
			default number.

	quiet		[KNL] Disable most log messages

	r128=		[HW,DRM]

	raid=		[HW,RAID]
			See Documentation/md.txt.

	ramdisk_blocksize=	[RAM]
			See Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt.

	ramdisk_size=	[RAM] Sizes of RAM disks in kilobytes
			See Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt.

	rcu_nocbs=	[KNL]
			In kernels built with CONFIG_RCU_NOCB_CPU=y, set
			the specified list of CPUs to be no-callback CPUs.
			Invocation of these CPUs' RCU callbacks will
			be offloaded to "rcuox/N" kthreads created for
			that purpose, where "x" is "b" for RCU-bh, "p"
			for RCU-preempt, and "s" for RCU-sched, and "N"
			is the CPU number.  This reduces OS jitter on the
			offloaded CPUs, which can be useful for HPC and
			real-time workloads.  It can also improve energy
			efficiency for asymmetric multiprocessors.

	rcu_nocb_poll	[KNL]
			Rather than requiring that offloaded CPUs
			(specified by rcu_nocbs= above) explicitly
			awaken the corresponding "rcuoN" kthreads,
			make these kthreads poll for callbacks.
			This improves the real-time response for the
			offloaded CPUs by relieving them of the need to
			wake up the corresponding kthread, but degrades
			energy efficiency by requiring that the kthreads
			periodically wake up to do the polling.

	rcutree.blimit=	[KNL]
			Set maximum number of finished RCU callbacks to
			process in one batch.

	rcutree.rcu_fanout_leaf= [KNL]
			Increase the number of CPUs assigned to each
			leaf rcu_node structure.  Useful for very large
			systems.

	rcutree.jiffies_till_sched_qs= [KNL]
			Set required age in jiffies for a
			given grace period before RCU starts
			soliciting quiescent-state help from
			rcu_note_context_switch().

	rcutree.jiffies_till_first_fqs= [KNL]
			Set delay from grace-period initialization to
			first attempt to force quiescent states.
			Units are jiffies, minimum value is zero,
			and maximum value is HZ.

	rcutree.jiffies_till_next_fqs= [KNL]
			Set delay between subsequent attempts to force
			quiescent states.  Units are jiffies, minimum
			value is one, and maximum value is HZ.

	rcutree.kthread_prio= 	 [KNL,BOOT]
			Set the SCHED_FIFO priority of the RCU
			per-CPU kthreads (rcuc/N). This value is also
			used for the priority of the RCU boost threads
			(rcub/N). Valid values are 1-99 and the default
			is 1 (the least-favored priority).

	rcutree.rcu_nocb_leader_stride= [KNL]
			Set the number of NOCB kthread groups, which
			defaults to the square root of the number of
			CPUs.  Larger numbers reduces the wakeup overhead
			on the per-CPU grace-period kthreads, but increases
			that same overhead on each group's leader.

	rcutree.qhimark= [KNL]
			Set threshold of queued RCU callbacks beyond which
			batch limiting is disabled.

	rcutree.qlowmark= [KNL]
			Set threshold of queued RCU callbacks below which
			batch limiting is re-enabled.

	rcutree.rcu_idle_gp_delay= [KNL]
			Set wakeup interval for idle CPUs that have
			RCU callbacks (RCU_FAST_NO_HZ=y).

	rcutree.rcu_idle_lazy_gp_delay= [KNL]
			Set wakeup interval for idle CPUs that have
			only "lazy" RCU callbacks (RCU_FAST_NO_HZ=y).
			Lazy RCU callbacks are those which RCU can
			prove do nothing more than free memory.

	rcutorture.cbflood_inter_holdoff= [KNL]
			Set holdoff time (jiffies) between successive
			callback-flood tests.

	rcutorture.cbflood_intra_holdoff= [KNL]
			Set holdoff time (jiffies) between successive
			bursts of callbacks within a given callback-flood
			test.

	rcutorture.cbflood_n_burst= [KNL]
			Set the number of bursts making up a given
			callback-flood test.  Set this to zero to
			disable callback-flood testing.

	rcutorture.cbflood_n_per_burst= [KNL]
			Set the number of callbacks to be registered
			in a given burst of a callback-flood test.

	rcutorture.fqs_duration= [KNL]
			Set duration of force_quiescent_state bursts.

	rcutorture.fqs_holdoff= [KNL]
			Set holdoff time within force_quiescent_state bursts.

	rcutorture.fqs_stutter= [KNL]
			Set wait time between force_quiescent_state bursts.

	rcutorture.gp_exp= [KNL]
			Use expedited update-side primitives.

	rcutorture.gp_normal= [KNL]
			Use normal (non-expedited) update-side primitives.
			If both gp_exp and gp_normal are set, do both.
			If neither gp_exp nor gp_normal are set, still
			do both.

	rcutorture.n_barrier_cbs= [KNL]
			Set callbacks/threads for rcu_barrier() testing.

	rcutorture.nfakewriters= [KNL]
			Set number of concurrent RCU writers.  These just
			stress RCU, they don't participate in the actual
			test, hence the "fake".

	rcutorture.nreaders= [KNL]
			Set number of RCU readers.

	rcutorture.object_debug= [KNL]
			Enable debug-object double-call_rcu() testing.

	rcutorture.onoff_holdoff= [KNL]
			Set time (s) after boot for CPU-hotplug testing.

	rcutorture.onoff_interval= [KNL]
			Set time (s) between CPU-hotplug operations, or
			zero to disable CPU-hotplug testing.

	rcutorture.torture_runnable= [BOOT]
			Start rcutorture running at boot time.

	rcutorture.shuffle_interval= [KNL]
			Set task-shuffle interval (s).  Shuffling tasks
			allows some CPUs to go into dyntick-idle mode
			during the rcutorture test.

	rcutorture.shutdown_secs= [KNL]
			Set time (s) after boot system shutdown.  This
			is useful for hands-off automated testing.

	rcutorture.stall_cpu= [KNL]
			Duration of CPU stall (s) to test RCU CPU stall
			warnings, zero to disable.

	rcutorture.stall_cpu_holdoff= [KNL]
			Time to wait (s) after boot before inducing stall.

	rcutorture.stat_interval= [KNL]
			Time (s) between statistics printk()s.

	rcutorture.stutter= [KNL]
			Time (s) to stutter testing, for example, specifying
			five seconds causes the test to run for five seconds,
			wait for five seconds, and so on.  This tests RCU's
			ability to transition abruptly to and from idle.

	rcutorture.test_boost= [KNL]
			Test RCU priority boosting?  0=no, 1=maybe, 2=yes.
			"Maybe" means test if the RCU implementation
			under test support RCU priority boosting.

	rcutorture.test_boost_duration= [KNL]
			Duration (s) of each individual boost test.

	rcutorture.test_boost_interval= [KNL]
			Interval (s) between each boost test.

	rcutorture.test_no_idle_hz= [KNL]
			Test RCU's dyntick-idle handling.  See also the
			rcutorture.shuffle_interval parameter.

	rcutorture.torture_type= [KNL]
			Specify the RCU implementation to test.

	rcutorture.verbose= [KNL]
			Enable additional printk() statements.

	rcupdate.rcu_expedited= [KNL]
			Use expedited grace-period primitives, for
			example, synchronize_rcu_expedited() instead
			of synchronize_rcu().  This reduces latency,
			but can increase CPU utilization, degrade
			real-time latency, and degrade energy efficiency.

	rcupdate.rcu_cpu_stall_suppress= [KNL]
			Suppress RCU CPU stall warning messages.

	rcupdate.rcu_cpu_stall_timeout= [KNL]
			Set timeout for RCU CPU stall warning messages.

	rcupdate.rcu_task_stall_timeout= [KNL]
			Set timeout in jiffies for RCU task stall warning
			messages.  Disable with a value less than or equal
			to zero.

	rcupdate.rcu_self_test= [KNL]
			Run the RCU early boot self tests

	rcupdate.rcu_self_test_bh= [KNL]
			Run the RCU bh early boot self tests

	rcupdate.rcu_self_test_sched= [KNL]
			Run the RCU sched early boot self tests

	rdinit=		[KNL]
			Format: <full_path>
			Run specified binary instead of /init from the ramdisk,
			used for early userspace startup. See initrd.

	reboot=		[KNL]
			Format (x86 or x86_64):
				[w[arm] | c[old] | h[ard] | s[oft] | g[pio]] \
				[[,]s[mp]#### \
				[[,]b[ios] | a[cpi] | k[bd] | t[riple] | e[fi] | p[ci]] \
				[[,]f[orce]
			Where reboot_mode is one of warm (soft) or cold (hard) or gpio,
			      reboot_type is one of bios, acpi, kbd, triple, efi, or pci,
			      reboot_force is either force or not specified,
			      reboot_cpu is s[mp]#### with #### being the processor
					to be used for rebooting.

	relax_domain_level=
			[KNL, SMP] Set scheduler's default relax_domain_level.
			See Documentation/cgroups/cpusets.txt.

	relative_sleep_states=
			[SUSPEND] Use sleep state labeling where the deepest
			state available other than hibernation is always "mem".
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			0 -- Traditional sleep state labels.
			1 -- Relative sleep state labels.

	reserve=	[KNL,BUGS] Force the kernel to ignore some iomem area

	reservetop=	[X86-32]
			Format: nn[KMG]
			Reserves a hole at the top of the kernel virtual
			address space.

	reservelow=	[X86]
			Format: nn[K]
			Set the amount of memory to reserve for BIOS at
			the bottom of the address space.

	reset_devices	[KNL] Force drivers to reset the underlying device
			during initialization.

	resume=		[SWSUSP]
			Specify the partition device for software suspend
			Format:
			{/dev/<dev> | PARTUUID=<uuid> | <int>:<int> | <hex>}

	resume_offset=	[SWSUSP]
			Specify the offset from the beginning of the partition
			given by "resume=" at which the swap header is located,
			in <PAGE_SIZE> units (needed only for swap files).
			See  Documentation/power/swsusp-and-swap-files.txt

	resumedelay=	[HIBERNATION] Delay (in seconds) to pause before attempting to
			read the resume files

	resumewait	[HIBERNATION] Wait (indefinitely) for resume device to show up.
			Useful for devices that are detected asynchronously
			(e.g. USB and MMC devices).

	hibernate=	[HIBERNATION]
		noresume	Don't check if there's a hibernation image
				present during boot.
		nocompress	Don't compress/decompress hibernation images.
		no		Disable hibernation and resume.

	retain_initrd	[RAM] Keep initrd memory after extraction

	rfkill.default_state=
		0	"airplane mode".  All wifi, bluetooth, wimax, gps, fm,
			etc. communication is blocked by default.
		1	Unblocked.

	rfkill.master_switch_mode=
		0	The "airplane mode" button does nothing.
		1	The "airplane mode" button toggles between everything
			blocked and the previous configuration.
		2	The "airplane mode" button toggles between everything
			blocked and everything unblocked.

	rhash_entries=	[KNL,NET]
			Set number of hash buckets for route cache

	ro		[KNL] Mount root device read-only on boot

	root=		[KNL] Root filesystem
			See name_to_dev_t comment in init/do_mounts.c.

	rootdelay=	[KNL] Delay (in seconds) to pause before attempting to
			mount the root filesystem

	rootflags=	[KNL] Set root filesystem mount option string

	rootfstype=	[KNL] Set root filesystem type

	rootwait	[KNL] Wait (indefinitely) for root device to show up.
			Useful for devices that are detected asynchronously
			(e.g. USB and MMC devices).

	rproc_mem=nn[KMG][@address]
			[KNL,ARM,CMA] Remoteproc physical memory block.
			Memory area to be used by remote processor image,
			managed by CMA.

	rw		[KNL] Mount root device read-write on boot

	S		[KNL] Run init in single mode

	s390_iommu=	[HW,S390]
			Set s390 IOTLB flushing mode
		strict
			With strict flushing every unmap operation will result in
			an IOTLB flush. Default is lazy flushing before reuse,
			which is faster.

	sa1100ir	[NET]
			See drivers/net/irda/sa1100_ir.c.

	sbni=		[NET] Granch SBNI12 leased line adapter

	sched_debug	[KNL] Enables verbose scheduler debug messages.

	skew_tick=	[KNL] Offset the periodic timer tick per cpu to mitigate
			xtime_lock contention on larger systems, and/or RCU lock
			contention on all systems with CONFIG_MAXSMP set.
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			0 -- disable. (may be 1 via CONFIG_CMDLINE="skew_tick=1"
			1 -- enable.
			Note: increases power consumption, thus should only be
			enabled if running jitter sensitive (HPC/RT) workloads.

	security=	[SECURITY] Choose a security module to enable at boot.
			If this boot parameter is not specified, only the first
			security module asking for security registration will be
			loaded. An invalid security module name will be treated
			as if no module has been chosen.

	selinux=	[SELINUX] Disable or enable SELinux at boot time.
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
			0 -- disable.
			1 -- enable.
			Default value is set via kernel config option.
			If enabled at boot time, /selinux/disable can be used
			later to disable prior to initial policy load.

	apparmor=	[APPARMOR] Disable or enable AppArmor at boot time
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			See security/apparmor/Kconfig help text
			0 -- disable.
			1 -- enable.
			Default value is set via kernel config option.

	serialnumber	[BUGS=X86-32]

	shapers=	[NET]
			Maximal number of shapers.

	show_msr=	[x86] show boot-time MSR settings
			Format: { <integer> }
			Show boot-time (BIOS-initialized) MSR settings.
			The parameter means the number of CPUs to show,
			for example 1 means boot CPU only.

	simeth=		[IA-64]
	simscsi=

	slram=		[HW,MTD]

	slab_nomerge	[MM]
			Disable merging of slabs with similar size. May be
			necessary if there is some reason to distinguish
			allocs to different slabs. Debug options disable
			merging on their own.
			For more information see Documentation/vm/slub.txt.

	slab_max_order=	[MM, SLAB]
			Determines the maximum allowed order for slabs.
			A high setting may cause OOMs due to memory
			fragmentation.  Defaults to 1 for systems with
			more than 32MB of RAM, 0 otherwise.

	slub_debug[=options[,slabs]]	[MM, SLUB]
			Enabling slub_debug allows one to determine the
			culprit if slab objects become corrupted. Enabling
			slub_debug can create guard zones around objects and
			may poison objects when not in use. Also tracks the
			last alloc / free. For more information see
			Documentation/vm/slub.txt.

	slub_max_order= [MM, SLUB]
			Determines the maximum allowed order for slabs.
			A high setting may cause OOMs due to memory
			fragmentation. For more information see
			Documentation/vm/slub.txt.

	slub_min_objects=	[MM, SLUB]
			The minimum number of objects per slab. SLUB will
			increase the slab order up to slub_max_order to
			generate a sufficiently large slab able to contain
			the number of objects indicated. The higher the number
			of objects the smaller the overhead of tracking slabs
			and the less frequently locks need to be acquired.
			For more information see Documentation/vm/slub.txt.

	slub_min_order=	[MM, SLUB]
			Determines the minimum page order for slabs. Must be
			lower than slub_max_order.
			For more information see Documentation/vm/slub.txt.

	slub_nomerge	[MM, SLUB]
			Same with slab_nomerge. This is supported for legacy.
			See slab_nomerge for more information.

	smart2=		[HW]
			Format: <io1>[,<io2>[,...,<io8>]]

	smsc-ircc2.nopnp	[HW] Don't use PNP to discover SMC devices
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_cfg=	[HW] Device configuration I/O port
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_sir=	[HW] SIR base I/O port
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_fir=	[HW] FIR base I/O port
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_irq=	[HW] IRQ line
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_dma=	[HW] DMA channel
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_transceiver= [HW] Transceiver type:
				0: Toshiba Satellite 1800 (GP data pin select)
				1: Fast pin select (default)
				2: ATC IRMode

	softlockup_panic=
			[KNL] Should the soft-lockup detector generate panics.
			Format: <integer>

	softlockup_all_cpu_backtrace=
			[KNL] Should the soft-lockup detector generate
			backtraces on all cpus.
			Format: <integer>

	sonypi.*=	[HW] Sony Programmable I/O Control Device driver
			See Documentation/laptops/sonypi.txt

	spia_io_base=	[HW,MTD]
	spia_fio_base=
	spia_pedr=
	spia_peddr=

	stacktrace	[FTRACE]
			Enabled the stack tracer on boot up.

	stacktrace_filter=[function-list]
			[FTRACE] Limit the functions that the stack tracer
			will trace at boot up. function-list is a comma separated
			list of functions. This list can be changed at run
			time by the stack_trace_filter file in the debugfs
			tracing directory. Note, this enables stack tracing
			and the stacktrace above is not needed.

	sti=		[PARISC,HW]
			Format: <num>
			Set the STI (builtin display/keyboard on the HP-PARISC
			machines) console (graphic card) which should be used
			as the initial boot-console.
			See also comment in drivers/video/console/sticore.c.

	sti_font=	[HW]
			See comment in drivers/video/console/sticore.c.

	stifb=		[HW]
			Format: bpp:<bpp1>[:<bpp2>[:<bpp3>...]]

	sunrpc.min_resvport=
	sunrpc.max_resvport=
			[NFS,SUNRPC]
			SunRPC servers often require that client requests
			originate from a privileged port (i.e. a port in the
			range 0 < portnr < 1024).
			An administrator who wishes to reserve some of these
			ports for other uses may adjust the range that the
			kernel's sunrpc client considers to be privileged
			using these two parameters to set the minimum and
			maximum port values.

	sunrpc.pool_mode=
			[NFS]
			Control how the NFS server code allocates CPUs to
			service thread pools.  Depending on how many NICs
			you have and where their interrupts are bound, this
			option will affect which CPUs will do NFS serving.
			Note: this parameter cannot be changed while the
			NFS server is running.

			auto	    the server chooses an appropriate mode
				    automatically using heuristics
			global	    a single global pool contains all CPUs
			percpu	    one pool for each CPU
			pernode	    one pool for each NUMA node (equivalent
				    to global on non-NUMA machines)

	sunrpc.tcp_slot_table_entries=
	sunrpc.udp_slot_table_entries=
			[NFS,SUNRPC]
			Sets the upper limit on the number of simultaneous
			RPC calls that can be sent from the client to a
			server. Increasing these values may allow you to
			improve throughput, but will also increase the
			amount of memory reserved for use by the client.

	swapaccount=[0|1]
			[KNL] Enable accounting of swap in memory resource
			controller if no parameter or 1 is given or disable
			it if 0 is given (See Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt)

	swiotlb=	[ARM,IA-64,PPC,MIPS,X86]
			Format: { <int> | force }
			<int> -- Number of I/O TLB slabs
			force -- force using of bounce buffers even if they
			         wouldn't be automatically used by the kernel

	switches=	[HW,M68k]

	sysfs.deprecated=0|1 [KNL]
			Enable/disable old style sysfs layout for old udev
			on older distributions. When this option is enabled
			very new udev will not work anymore. When this option
			is disabled (or CONFIG_SYSFS_DEPRECATED not compiled)
			in older udev will not work anymore.
			Default depends on CONFIG_SYSFS_DEPRECATED_V2 set in
			the kernel configuration.

	sysrq_always_enabled
			[KNL]
			Ignore sysrq setting - this boot parameter will
			neutralize any effect of /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq.
			Useful for debugging.

	tcpmhash_entries= [KNL,NET]
			Set the number of tcp_metrics_hash slots.
			Default value is 8192 or 16384 depending on total
			ram pages. This is used to specify the TCP metrics
			cache size. See Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt
			"tcp_no_metrics_save" section for more details.

	tdfx=		[HW,DRM]

	test_suspend=	[SUSPEND][,N]
			Specify "mem" (for Suspend-to-RAM) or "standby" (for
			standby suspend) or "freeze" (for suspend type freeze)
			as the system sleep state during system startup with
			the optional capability to repeat N number of times.
			The system is woken from this state using a
			wakeup-capable RTC alarm.

	thash_entries=	[KNL,NET]
			Set number of hash buckets for TCP connection

	thermal.act=	[HW,ACPI]
			-1: disable all active trip points in all thermal zones
			<degrees C>: override all lowest active trip points

	thermal.crt=	[HW,ACPI]
			-1: disable all critical trip points in all thermal zones
			<degrees C>: override all critical trip points

	thermal.nocrt=	[HW,ACPI]
			Set to disable actions on ACPI thermal zone
			critical and hot trip points.

	thermal.off=	[HW,ACPI]
			1: disable ACPI thermal control

	thermal.psv=	[HW,ACPI]
			-1: disable all passive trip points
			<degrees C>: override all passive trip points to this
			value

	thermal.tzp=	[HW,ACPI]
			Specify global default ACPI thermal zone polling rate
			<deci-seconds>: poll all this frequency
			0: no polling (default)

	threadirqs	[KNL]
			Force threading of all interrupt handlers except those
			marked explicitly IRQF_NO_THREAD.

	tmem		[KNL,XEN]
			Enable the Transcendent memory driver if built-in.

	tmem.cleancache=0|1 [KNL, XEN]
			Default is on (1). Disable the usage of the cleancache
			API to send anonymous pages to the hypervisor.

	tmem.frontswap=0|1 [KNL, XEN]
			Default is on (1). Disable the usage of the frontswap
			API to send swap pages to the hypervisor. If disabled
			the selfballooning and selfshrinking are force disabled.

	tmem.selfballooning=0|1 [KNL, XEN]
			Default is on (1). Disable the driving of swap pages
			to the hypervisor.

	tmem.selfshrinking=0|1 [KNL, XEN]
			Default is on (1). Partial swapoff that immediately
			transfers pages from Xen hypervisor back to the
			kernel based on different criteria.

	topology=	[S390]
			Format: {off | on}
			Specify if the kernel should make use of the cpu
			topology information if the hardware supports this.
			The scheduler will make use of this information and
			e.g. base its process migration decisions on it.
			Default is on.

	topology_updates= [KNL, PPC, NUMA]
			Format: {off}
			Specify if the kernel should ignore (off)
			topology updates sent by the hypervisor to this
			LPAR.

	tp720=		[HW,PS2]

	tpm_suspend_pcr=[HW,TPM]
			Format: integer pcr id
			Specify that at suspend time, the tpm driver
			should extend the specified pcr with zeros,
			as a workaround for some chips which fail to
			flush the last written pcr on TPM_SaveState.
			This will guarantee that all the other pcrs
			are saved.

	trace_buf_size=nn[KMG]
			[FTRACE] will set tracing buffer size on each cpu.

	trace_event=[event-list]
			[FTRACE] Set and start specified trace events in order
			to facilitate early boot debugging.
			See also Documentation/trace/events.txt

	trace_options=[option-list]
			[FTRACE] Enable or disable tracer options at boot.
			The option-list is a comma delimited list of options
			that can be enabled or disabled just as if you were
			to echo the option name into

			    /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace_options

			For example, to enable stacktrace option (to dump the
			stack trace of each event), add to the command line:

			      trace_options=stacktrace

			See also Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt "trace options"
			section.

	tp_printk[FTRACE]
			Have the tracepoints sent to printk as well as the
			tracing ring buffer. This is useful for early boot up
			where the system hangs or reboots and does not give the
			option for reading the tracing buffer or performing a
			ftrace_dump_on_oops.

			To turn off having tracepoints sent to printk,
			 echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/tracepoint_printk
			Note, echoing 1 into this file without the
			tracepoint_printk kernel cmdline option has no effect.

			** CAUTION **

			Having tracepoints sent to printk() and activating high
			frequency tracepoints such as irq or sched, can cause
			the system to live lock.

	traceoff_on_warning
			[FTRACE] enable this option to disable tracing when a
			warning is hit. This turns off "tracing_on". Tracing can
			be enabled again by echoing '1' into the "tracing_on"
			file located in /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/

			This option is useful, as it disables the trace before
			the WARNING dump is called, which prevents the trace to
			be filled with content caused by the warning output.

			This option can also be set at run time via the sysctl
			option:  kernel/traceoff_on_warning

	transparent_hugepage=
			[KNL]
			Format: [always|madvise|never]
			Can be used to control the default behavior of the system
			with respect to transparent hugepages.
			See Documentation/vm/transhuge.txt for more details.

	tsc=		Disable clocksource stability checks for TSC.
			Format: <string>
			[x86] reliable: mark tsc clocksource as reliable, this
			disables clocksource verification at runtime, as well
			as the stability checks done at bootup.	Used to enable
			high-resolution timer mode on older hardware, and in
			virtualized environment.
			[x86] noirqtime: Do not use TSC to do irq accounting.
			Used to run time disable IRQ_TIME_ACCOUNTING on any
			platforms where RDTSC is slow and this accounting
			can add overhead.

	turbografx.map[2|3]=	[HW,JOY]
			TurboGraFX parallel port interface
			Format:
			<port#>,<js1>,<js2>,<js3>,<js4>,<js5>,<js6>,<js7>
			See also Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt

	udbg-immortal	[PPC] When debugging early kernel crashes that
			happen after console_init() and before a proper 
			console driver takes over, this boot options might
			help "seeing" what's going on.

	uhash_entries=	[KNL,NET]
			Set number of hash buckets for UDP/UDP-Lite connections

	uhci-hcd.ignore_oc=
			[USB] Ignore overcurrent events (default N).
			Some badly-designed motherboards generate lots of
			bogus events, for ports that aren't wired to
			anything.  Set this parameter to avoid log spamming.
			Note that genuine overcurrent events won't be
			reported either.

	unknown_nmi_panic
			[X86] Cause panic on unknown NMI.

	usbcore.authorized_default=
			[USB] Default USB device authorization:
			(default -1 = authorized except for wireless USB,
			0 = not authorized, 1 = authorized)

	usbcore.autosuspend=
			[USB] The autosuspend time delay (in seconds) used
			for newly-detected USB devices (default 2).  This
			is the time required before an idle device will be
			autosuspended.  Devices for which the delay is set
			to a negative value won't be autosuspended at all.

	usbcore.usbfs_snoop=
			[USB] Set to log all usbfs traffic (default 0 = off).

	usbcore.blinkenlights=
			[USB] Set to cycle leds on hubs (default 0 = off).

	usbcore.old_scheme_first=
			[USB] Start with the old device initialization
			scheme (default 0 = off).

	usbcore.usbfs_memory_mb=
			[USB] Memory limit (in MB) for buffers allocated by
			usbfs (default = 16, 0 = max = 2047).

	usbcore.use_both_schemes=
			[USB] Try the other device initialization scheme
			if the first one fails (default 1 = enabled).

	usbcore.initial_descriptor_timeout=
			[USB] Specifies timeout for the initial 64-byte
                        USB_REQ_GET_DESCRIPTOR request in milliseconds
			(default 5000 = 5.0 seconds).

	usbhid.mousepoll=
			[USBHID] The interval which mice are to be polled at.

	usb-storage.delay_use=
			[UMS] The delay in seconds before a new device is
			scanned for Logical Units (default 1).

	usb-storage.quirks=
			[UMS] A list of quirks entries to supplement or
			override the built-in unusual_devs list.  List
			entries are separated by commas.  Each entry has
			the form VID:PID:Flags where VID and PID are Vendor
			and Product ID values (4-digit hex numbers) and
			Flags is a set of characters, each corresponding
			to a common usb-storage quirk flag as follows:
				a = SANE_SENSE (collect more than 18 bytes
					of sense data);
				b = BAD_SENSE (don't collect more than 18
					bytes of sense data);
				c = FIX_CAPACITY (decrease the reported
					device capacity by one sector);
				d = NO_READ_DISC_INFO (don't use
					READ_DISC_INFO command);
				e = NO_READ_CAPACITY_16 (don't use
					READ_CAPACITY_16 command);
				f = NO_REPORT_OPCODES (don't use report opcodes
					command, uas only);
				h = CAPACITY_HEURISTICS (decrease the
					reported device capacity by one
					sector if the number is odd);
				i = IGNORE_DEVICE (don't bind to this
					device);
				l = NOT_LOCKABLE (don't try to lock and
					unlock ejectable media);
				m = MAX_SECTORS_64 (don't transfer more
					than 64 sectors = 32 KB at a time);
				n = INITIAL_READ10 (force a retry of the
					initial READ(10) command);
				o = CAPACITY_OK (accept the capacity
					reported by the device);
				p = WRITE_CACHE (the device cache is ON
					by default);
				r = IGNORE_RESIDUE (the device reports
					bogus residue values);
				s = SINGLE_LUN (the device has only one
					Logical Unit);
				t = NO_ATA_1X (don't allow ATA(12) and ATA(16)
					commands, uas only);
				u = IGNORE_UAS (don't bind to the uas driver);
				w = NO_WP_DETECT (don't test whether the
					medium is write-protected).
			Example: quirks=0419:aaf5:rl,0421:0433:rc

	user_debug=	[KNL,ARM]
			Format: <int>
			See arch/arm/Kconfig.debug help text.
				 1 - undefined instruction events
				 2 - system calls
				 4 - invalid data aborts
				 8 - SIGSEGV faults
				16 - SIGBUS faults
			Example: user_debug=31

	userpte=
			[X86] Flags controlling user PTE allocations.

				nohigh = do not allocate PTE pages in
					HIGHMEM regardless of setting
					of CONFIG_HIGHPTE.

	vdso=		[X86,SH]
			On X86_32, this is an alias for vdso32=.  Otherwise:

			vdso=1: enable VDSO (the default)
			vdso=0: disable VDSO mapping

	vdso32=		[X86] Control the 32-bit vDSO
			vdso32=1: enable 32-bit VDSO
			vdso32=0 or vdso32=2: disable 32-bit VDSO

			See the help text for CONFIG_COMPAT_VDSO for more
			details.  If CONFIG_COMPAT_VDSO is set, the default is
			vdso32=0; otherwise, the default is vdso32=1.

			For compatibility with older kernels, vdso32=2 is an
			alias for vdso32=0.

			Try vdso32=0 if you encounter an error that says:
			dl_main: Assertion `(void *) ph->p_vaddr == _rtld_local._dl_sysinfo_dso' failed!

	vector=		[IA-64,SMP]
			vector=percpu: enable percpu vector domain

	video=		[FB] Frame buffer configuration
			See Documentation/fb/modedb.txt.

	video.brightness_switch_enabled= [0,1]
			If set to 1, on receiving an ACPI notify event
			generated by hotkey, video driver will adjust brightness
			level and then send out the event to user space through
			the allocated input device; If set to 0, video driver
			will only send out the event without touching backlight
			brightness level.
			default: 1

	virtio_mmio.device=
			[VMMIO] Memory mapped virtio (platform) device.

				<size>@<baseaddr>:<irq>[:<id>]
			where:
				<size>     := size (can use standard suffixes
						like K, M and G)
				<baseaddr> := physical base address
				<irq>      := interrupt number (as passed to
						request_irq())
				<id>       := (optional) platform device id
			example:
				virtio_mmio.device=1K@0x100b0000:48:7

			Can be used multiple times for multiple devices.

	vga=		[BOOT,X86-32] Select a particular video mode
			See Documentation/x86/boot.txt and
			Documentation/svga.txt.
			Use vga=ask for menu.
			This is actually a boot loader parameter; the value is
			passed to the kernel using a special protocol.

	vmalloc=nn[KMG]	[KNL,BOOT] Forces the vmalloc area to have an exact
			size of <nn>. This can be used to increase the
			minimum size (128MB on x86). It can also be used to
			decrease the size and leave more room for directly
			mapped kernel RAM.

	vmhalt=		[KNL,S390] Perform z/VM CP command after system halt.
			Format: <command>

	vmpanic=	[KNL,S390] Perform z/VM CP command after kernel panic.
			Format: <command>

	vmpoff=		[KNL,S390] Perform z/VM CP command after power off.
			Format: <command>

	vsyscall=	[X86-64]
			Controls the behavior of vsyscalls (i.e. calls to
			fixed addresses of 0xffffffffff600x00 from legacy
			code).  Most statically-linked binaries and older
			versions of glibc use these calls.  Because these
			functions are at fixed addresses, they make nice
			targets for exploits that can control RIP.

			emulate     [default] Vsyscalls turn into traps and are
			            emulated reasonably safely.

			native      Vsyscalls are native syscall instructions.
			            This is a little bit faster than trapping
			            and makes a few dynamic recompilers work
			            better than they would in emulation mode.
			            It also makes exploits much easier to write.

			none        Vsyscalls don't work at all.  This makes
			            them quite hard to use for exploits but
			            might break your system.

	vt.color=	[VT] Default text color.
			Format: 0xYX, X = foreground, Y = background.
			Default: 0x07 = light gray on black.

	vt.cur_default=	[VT] Default cursor shape.
			Format: 0xCCBBAA, where AA, BB, and CC are the same as
			the parameters of the <Esc>[?A;B;Cc escape sequence;
			see VGA-softcursor.txt. Default: 2 = underline.

	vt.default_blu=	[VT]
			Format: <blue0>,<blue1>,<blue2>,...,<blue15>
			Change the default blue palette of the console.
			This is a 16-member array composed of values
			ranging from 0-255.

	vt.default_grn=	[VT]
			Format: <green0>,<green1>,<green2>,...,<green15>
			Change the default green palette of the console.
			This is a 16-member array composed of values
			ranging from 0-255.

	vt.default_red=	[VT]
			Format: <red0>,<red1>,<red2>,...,<red15>
			Change the default red palette of the console.
			This is a 16-member array composed of values
			ranging from 0-255.

	vt.default_utf8=
			[VT]
			Format=<0|1>
			Set system-wide default UTF-8 mode for all tty's.
			Default is 1, i.e. UTF-8 mode is enabled for all
			newly opened terminals.

	vt.global_cursor_default=
			[VT]
			Format=<-1|0|1>
			Set system-wide default for whether a cursor
			is shown on new VTs. Default is -1,
			i.e. cursors will be created by default unless
			overridden by individual drivers. 0 will hide
			cursors, 1 will display them.

	vt.italic=	[VT] Default color for italic text; 0-15.
			Default: 2 = green.

	vt.underline=	[VT] Default color for underlined text; 0-15.
			Default: 3 = cyan.

	watchdog timers	[HW,WDT] For information on watchdog timers,
			see Documentation/watchdog/watchdog-parameters.txt
			or other driver-specific files in the
			Documentation/watchdog/ directory.

	workqueue.disable_numa
			By default, all work items queued to unbound
			workqueues are affine to the NUMA nodes they're
			issued on, which results in better behavior in
			general.  If NUMA affinity needs to be disabled for
			whatever reason, this option can be used.  Note
			that this also can be controlled per-workqueue for
			workqueues visible under /sys/bus/workqueue/.

	workqueue.power_efficient
			Per-cpu workqueues are generally preferred because
			they show better performance thanks to cache
			locality; unfortunately, per-cpu workqueues tend to
			be more power hungry than unbound workqueues.

			Enabling this makes the per-cpu workqueues which
			were observed to contribute significantly to power
			consumption unbound, leading to measurably lower
			power usage at the cost of small performance
			overhead.

			The default value of this parameter is determined by
			the config option CONFIG_WQ_POWER_EFFICIENT_DEFAULT.

	x2apic_phys	[X86-64,APIC] Use x2apic physical mode instead of
			default x2apic cluster mode on platforms
			supporting x2apic.

	x86_intel_mid_timer= [X86-32,APBT]
			Choose timer option for x86 Intel MID platform.
			Two valid options are apbt timer only and lapic timer
			plus one apbt timer for broadcast timer.
			x86_intel_mid_timer=apbt_only | lapic_and_apbt

	xen_emul_unplug=		[HW,X86,XEN]
			Unplug Xen emulated devices
			Format: [unplug0,][unplug1]
			ide-disks -- unplug primary master IDE devices
			aux-ide-disks -- unplug non-primary-master IDE devices
			nics -- unplug network devices
			all -- unplug all emulated devices (NICs and IDE disks)
			unnecessary -- unplugging emulated devices is
				unnecessary even if the host did not respond to
				the unplug protocol
			never -- do not unplug even if version check succeeds

	xen_nopvspin	[X86,XEN]
			Disables the ticketlock slowpath using Xen PV
			optimizations.

	xen_nopv	[X86]
			Disables the PV optimizations forcing the HVM guest to
			run as generic HVM guest with no PV drivers.

	xirc2ps_cs=	[NET,PCMCIA]
			Format:
			<irq>,<irq_mask>,<io>,<full_duplex>,<do_sound>,<lockup_hack>[,<irq2>[,<irq3>[,<irq4>]]]

______________________________________________________________________

TODO:

	Add more DRM drivers.

Privacy Policy