path: root/arch/x86/include/asm
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authorAndy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>2017-10-09 09:50:49 -0700
committerIngo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>2017-10-14 09:21:24 +0200
commitb956575bed91ecfb136a8300742ecbbf451471ab (patch)
treea32c32334f11a31573ffa9b0e335e65948cfb4cc /arch/x86/include/asm
parent616dd5872e52493863b0202632703eebd51243dc (diff)
x86/mm: Flush more aggressively in lazy TLB mode
Since commit: 94b1b03b519b ("x86/mm: Rework lazy TLB mode and TLB freshness tracking") x86's lazy TLB mode has been all the way lazy: when running a kernel thread (including the idle thread), the kernel keeps using the last user mm's page tables without attempting to maintain user TLB coherence at all. From a pure semantic perspective, this is fine -- kernel threads won't attempt to access user pages, so having stale TLB entries doesn't matter. Unfortunately, I forgot about a subtlety. By skipping TLB flushes, we also allow any paging-structure caches that may exist on the CPU to become incoherent. This means that we can have a paging-structure cache entry that references a freed page table, and the CPU is within its rights to do a speculative page walk starting at the freed page table. I can imagine this causing two different problems: - A speculative page walk starting from a bogus page table could read IO addresses. I haven't seen any reports of this causing problems. - A speculative page walk that involves a bogus page table can install garbage in the TLB. Such garbage would always be at a user VA, but some AMD CPUs have logic that triggers a machine check when it notices these bogus entries. I've seen a couple reports of this. Boris further explains the failure mode: > It is actually more of an optimization which assumes that paging-structure > entries are in WB DRAM: > > "TlbCacheDis: cacheable memory disable. Read-write. 0=Enables > performance optimization that assumes PML4, PDP, PDE, and PTE entries > are in cacheable WB-DRAM; memory type checks may be bypassed, and > addresses outside of WB-DRAM may result in undefined behavior or NB > protocol errors. 1=Disables performance optimization and allows PML4, > PDP, PDE and PTE entries to be in any memory type. Operating systems > that maintain page tables in memory types other than WB- DRAM must set > TlbCacheDis to insure proper operation." > > The MCE generated is an NB protocol error to signal that > > "Link: A specific coherent-only packet from a CPU was issued to an > IO link. This may be caused by software which addresses page table > structures in a memory type other than cacheable WB-DRAM without > properly configuring MSRC001_0015[TlbCacheDis]. This may occur, for > example, when page table structure addresses are above top of memory. In > such cases, the NB will generate an MCE if it sees a mismatch between > the memory operation generated by the core and the link type." > > I'm assuming coherent-only packets don't go out on IO links, thus the > error. To fix this, reinstate TLB coherence in lazy mode. With this patch applied, we do it in one of two ways: - If we have PCID, we simply switch back to init_mm's page tables when we enter a kernel thread -- this seems to be quite cheap except for the cost of serializing the CPU. - If we don't have PCID, then we set a flag and switch to init_mm the first time we would otherwise need to flush the TLB. The /sys/kernel/debug/x86/tlb_use_lazy_mode debug switch can be changed to override the default mode for benchmarking. In theory, we could optimize this better by only flushing the TLB in lazy CPUs when a page table is freed. Doing that would require auditing the mm code to make sure that all page table freeing goes through tlb_remove_page() as well as reworking some data structures to implement the improved flush logic. Reported-by: Markus Trippelsdorf <markus@trippelsdorf.de> Reported-by: Adam Borowski <kilobyte@angband.pl> Signed-off-by: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de> Cc: Brian Gerst <brgerst@gmail.com> Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@iogearbox.net> Cc: Eric Biggers <ebiggers@google.com> Cc: Johannes Hirte <johannes.hirte@datenkhaos.de> Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Cc: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Nadav Amit <nadav.amit@gmail.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Roman Kagan <rkagan@virtuozzo.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Fixes: 94b1b03b519b ("x86/mm: Rework lazy TLB mode and TLB freshness tracking") Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20171009170231.fkpraqokz6e4zeco@pd.tnic Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'arch/x86/include/asm')
2 files changed, 25 insertions, 7 deletions
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/mmu_context.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/mmu_context.h
index c120b5db178a..3c856a15b98e 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/mmu_context.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/mmu_context.h
@@ -126,13 +126,7 @@ static inline void switch_ldt(struct mm_struct *prev, struct mm_struct *next)
-static inline void enter_lazy_tlb(struct mm_struct *mm, struct task_struct *tsk)
- int cpu = smp_processor_id();
- if (cpumask_test_cpu(cpu, mm_cpumask(mm)))
- cpumask_clear_cpu(cpu, mm_cpumask(mm));
+void enter_lazy_tlb(struct mm_struct *mm, struct task_struct *tsk);
static inline int init_new_context(struct task_struct *tsk,
struct mm_struct *mm)
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/tlbflush.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/tlbflush.h
index 4893abf7f74f..d362161d3291 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/tlbflush.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/tlbflush.h
@@ -83,6 +83,13 @@ static inline u64 inc_mm_tlb_gen(struct mm_struct *mm)
+ * If tlb_use_lazy_mode is true, then we try to avoid switching CR3 to point
+ * to init_mm when we switch to a kernel thread (e.g. the idle thread). If
+ * it's false, then we immediately switch CR3 when entering a kernel thread.
+ */
* 6 because 6 should be plenty and struct tlb_state will fit in
* two cache lines.
@@ -105,6 +112,23 @@ struct tlb_state {
u16 next_asid;
+ * We can be in one of several states:
+ *
+ * - Actively using an mm. Our CPU's bit will be set in
+ * mm_cpumask(loaded_mm) and is_lazy == false;
+ *
+ * - Not using a real mm. loaded_mm == &init_mm. Our CPU's bit
+ * will not be set in mm_cpumask(&init_mm) and is_lazy == false.
+ *
+ * - Lazily using a real mm. loaded_mm != &init_mm, our bit
+ * is set in mm_cpumask(loaded_mm), but is_lazy == true.
+ * We're heuristically guessing that the CR3 load we
+ * skipped more than makes up for the overhead added by
+ * lazy mode.
+ */
+ bool is_lazy;
+ /*
* Access to this CR4 shadow and to H/W CR4 is protected by
* disabling interrupts when modifying either one.

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