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-rw-r--r--kernel/kcsan/report.c634
1 files changed, 634 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/kernel/kcsan/report.c b/kernel/kcsan/report.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ac5f8345bae9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/kcsan/report.c
@@ -0,0 +1,634 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+#include <linux/debug_locks.h>
+#include <linux/delay.h>
+#include <linux/jiffies.h>
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/lockdep.h>
+#include <linux/preempt.h>
+#include <linux/printk.h>
+#include <linux/sched.h>
+#include <linux/spinlock.h>
+#include <linux/stacktrace.h>
+
+#include "kcsan.h"
+#include "encoding.h"
+
+/*
+ * Max. number of stack entries to show in the report.
+ */
+#define NUM_STACK_ENTRIES 64
+
+/* Common access info. */
+struct access_info {
+ const volatile void *ptr;
+ size_t size;
+ int access_type;
+ int task_pid;
+ int cpu_id;
+};
+
+/*
+ * Other thread info: communicated from other racing thread to thread that set
+ * up the watchpoint, which then prints the complete report atomically.
+ */
+struct other_info {
+ struct access_info ai;
+ unsigned long stack_entries[NUM_STACK_ENTRIES];
+ int num_stack_entries;
+
+ /*
+ * Optionally pass @current. Typically we do not need to pass @current
+ * via @other_info since just @task_pid is sufficient. Passing @current
+ * has additional overhead.
+ *
+ * To safely pass @current, we must either use get_task_struct/
+ * put_task_struct, or stall the thread that populated @other_info.
+ *
+ * We cannot rely on get_task_struct/put_task_struct in case
+ * release_report() races with a task being released, and would have to
+ * free it in release_report(). This may result in deadlock if we want
+ * to use KCSAN on the allocators.
+ *
+ * Since we also want to reliably print held locks for
+ * CONFIG_KCSAN_VERBOSE, the current implementation stalls the thread
+ * that populated @other_info until it has been consumed.
+ */
+ struct task_struct *task;
+};
+
+/*
+ * To never block any producers of struct other_info, we need as many elements
+ * as we have watchpoints (upper bound on concurrent races to report).
+ */
+static struct other_info other_infos[CONFIG_KCSAN_NUM_WATCHPOINTS + NUM_SLOTS-1];
+
+/*
+ * Information about reported races; used to rate limit reporting.
+ */
+struct report_time {
+ /*
+ * The last time the race was reported.
+ */
+ unsigned long time;
+
+ /*
+ * The frames of the 2 threads; if only 1 thread is known, one frame
+ * will be 0.
+ */
+ unsigned long frame1;
+ unsigned long frame2;
+};
+
+/*
+ * Since we also want to be able to debug allocators with KCSAN, to avoid
+ * deadlock, report_times cannot be dynamically resized with krealloc in
+ * rate_limit_report.
+ *
+ * Therefore, we use a fixed-size array, which at most will occupy a page. This
+ * still adequately rate limits reports, assuming that a) number of unique data
+ * races is not excessive, and b) occurrence of unique races within the
+ * same time window is limited.
+ */
+#define REPORT_TIMES_MAX (PAGE_SIZE / sizeof(struct report_time))
+#define REPORT_TIMES_SIZE \
+ (CONFIG_KCSAN_REPORT_ONCE_IN_MS > REPORT_TIMES_MAX ? \
+ REPORT_TIMES_MAX : \
+ CONFIG_KCSAN_REPORT_ONCE_IN_MS)
+static struct report_time report_times[REPORT_TIMES_SIZE];
+
+/*
+ * Spinlock serializing report generation, and access to @other_infos. Although
+ * it could make sense to have a finer-grained locking story for @other_infos,
+ * report generation needs to be serialized either way, so not much is gained.
+ */
+static DEFINE_RAW_SPINLOCK(report_lock);
+
+/*
+ * Checks if the race identified by thread frames frame1 and frame2 has
+ * been reported since (now - KCSAN_REPORT_ONCE_IN_MS).
+ */
+static bool rate_limit_report(unsigned long frame1, unsigned long frame2)
+{
+ struct report_time *use_entry = &report_times[0];
+ unsigned long invalid_before;
+ int i;
+
+ BUILD_BUG_ON(CONFIG_KCSAN_REPORT_ONCE_IN_MS != 0 && REPORT_TIMES_SIZE == 0);
+
+ if (CONFIG_KCSAN_REPORT_ONCE_IN_MS == 0)
+ return false;
+
+ invalid_before = jiffies - msecs_to_jiffies(CONFIG_KCSAN_REPORT_ONCE_IN_MS);
+
+ /* Check if a matching race report exists. */
+ for (i = 0; i < REPORT_TIMES_SIZE; ++i) {
+ struct report_time *rt = &report_times[i];
+
+ /*
+ * Must always select an entry for use to store info as we
+ * cannot resize report_times; at the end of the scan, use_entry
+ * will be the oldest entry, which ideally also happened before
+ * KCSAN_REPORT_ONCE_IN_MS ago.
+ */
+ if (time_before(rt->time, use_entry->time))
+ use_entry = rt;
+
+ /*
+ * Initially, no need to check any further as this entry as well
+ * as following entries have never been used.
+ */
+ if (rt->time == 0)
+ break;
+
+ /* Check if entry expired. */
+ if (time_before(rt->time, invalid_before))
+ continue; /* before KCSAN_REPORT_ONCE_IN_MS ago */
+
+ /* Reported recently, check if race matches. */
+ if ((rt->frame1 == frame1 && rt->frame2 == frame2) ||
+ (rt->frame1 == frame2 && rt->frame2 == frame1))
+ return true;
+ }
+
+ use_entry->time = jiffies;
+ use_entry->frame1 = frame1;
+ use_entry->frame2 = frame2;
+ return false;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Special rules to skip reporting.
+ */
+static bool
+skip_report(enum kcsan_value_change value_change, unsigned long top_frame)
+{
+ /* Should never get here if value_change==FALSE. */
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(value_change == KCSAN_VALUE_CHANGE_FALSE);
+
+ /*
+ * The first call to skip_report always has value_change==TRUE, since we
+ * cannot know the value written of an instrumented access. For the 2nd
+ * call there are 6 cases with CONFIG_KCSAN_REPORT_VALUE_CHANGE_ONLY:
+ *
+ * 1. read watchpoint, conflicting write (value_change==TRUE): report;
+ * 2. read watchpoint, conflicting write (value_change==MAYBE): skip;
+ * 3. write watchpoint, conflicting write (value_change==TRUE): report;
+ * 4. write watchpoint, conflicting write (value_change==MAYBE): skip;
+ * 5. write watchpoint, conflicting read (value_change==MAYBE): skip;
+ * 6. write watchpoint, conflicting read (value_change==TRUE): report;
+ *
+ * Cases 1-4 are intuitive and expected; case 5 ensures we do not report
+ * data races where the write may have rewritten the same value; case 6
+ * is possible either if the size is larger than what we check value
+ * changes for or the access type is KCSAN_ACCESS_ASSERT.
+ */
+ if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_KCSAN_REPORT_VALUE_CHANGE_ONLY) &&
+ value_change == KCSAN_VALUE_CHANGE_MAYBE) {
+ /*
+ * The access is a write, but the data value did not change.
+ *
+ * We opt-out of this filter for certain functions at request of
+ * maintainers.
+ */
+ char buf[64];
+ int len = scnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%ps", (void *)top_frame);
+
+ if (!strnstr(buf, "rcu_", len) &&
+ !strnstr(buf, "_rcu", len) &&
+ !strnstr(buf, "_srcu", len))
+ return true;
+ }
+
+ return kcsan_skip_report_debugfs(top_frame);
+}
+
+static const char *get_access_type(int type)
+{
+ if (type & KCSAN_ACCESS_ASSERT) {
+ if (type & KCSAN_ACCESS_SCOPED) {
+ if (type & KCSAN_ACCESS_WRITE)
+ return "assert no accesses (scoped)";
+ else
+ return "assert no writes (scoped)";
+ } else {
+ if (type & KCSAN_ACCESS_WRITE)
+ return "assert no accesses";
+ else
+ return "assert no writes";
+ }
+ }
+
+ switch (type) {
+ case 0:
+ return "read";
+ case KCSAN_ACCESS_ATOMIC:
+ return "read (marked)";
+ case KCSAN_ACCESS_WRITE:
+ return "write";
+ case KCSAN_ACCESS_WRITE | KCSAN_ACCESS_ATOMIC:
+ return "write (marked)";
+ case KCSAN_ACCESS_SCOPED:
+ return "read (scoped)";
+ case KCSAN_ACCESS_SCOPED | KCSAN_ACCESS_ATOMIC:
+ return "read (marked, scoped)";
+ case KCSAN_ACCESS_SCOPED | KCSAN_ACCESS_WRITE:
+ return "write (scoped)";
+ case KCSAN_ACCESS_SCOPED | KCSAN_ACCESS_WRITE | KCSAN_ACCESS_ATOMIC:
+ return "write (marked, scoped)";
+ default:
+ BUG();
+ }
+}
+
+static const char *get_bug_type(int type)
+{
+ return (type & KCSAN_ACCESS_ASSERT) != 0 ? "assert: race" : "data-race";
+}
+
+/* Return thread description: in task or interrupt. */
+static const char *get_thread_desc(int task_id)
+{
+ if (task_id != -1) {
+ static char buf[32]; /* safe: protected by report_lock */
+
+ snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "task %i", task_id);
+ return buf;
+ }
+ return "interrupt";
+}
+
+/* Helper to skip KCSAN-related functions in stack-trace. */
+static int get_stack_skipnr(const unsigned long stack_entries[], int num_entries)
+{
+ char buf[64];
+ char *cur;
+ int len, skip;
+
+ for (skip = 0; skip < num_entries; ++skip) {
+ len = scnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%ps", (void *)stack_entries[skip]);
+
+ /* Never show tsan_* or {read,write}_once_size. */
+ if (strnstr(buf, "tsan_", len) ||
+ strnstr(buf, "_once_size", len))
+ continue;
+
+ cur = strnstr(buf, "kcsan_", len);
+ if (cur) {
+ cur += sizeof("kcsan_") - 1;
+ if (strncmp(cur, "test", sizeof("test") - 1))
+ continue; /* KCSAN runtime function. */
+ /* KCSAN related test. */
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * No match for runtime functions -- @skip entries to skip to
+ * get to first frame of interest.
+ */
+ break;
+ }
+
+ return skip;
+}
+
+/* Compares symbolized strings of addr1 and addr2. */
+static int sym_strcmp(void *addr1, void *addr2)
+{
+ char buf1[64];
+ char buf2[64];
+
+ snprintf(buf1, sizeof(buf1), "%pS", addr1);
+ snprintf(buf2, sizeof(buf2), "%pS", addr2);
+
+ return strncmp(buf1, buf2, sizeof(buf1));
+}
+
+static void print_verbose_info(struct task_struct *task)
+{
+ if (!task)
+ return;
+
+ pr_err("\n");
+ debug_show_held_locks(task);
+ print_irqtrace_events(task);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Returns true if a report was generated, false otherwise.
+ */
+static bool print_report(enum kcsan_value_change value_change,
+ enum kcsan_report_type type,
+ const struct access_info *ai,
+ const struct other_info *other_info)
+{
+ unsigned long stack_entries[NUM_STACK_ENTRIES] = { 0 };
+ int num_stack_entries = stack_trace_save(stack_entries, NUM_STACK_ENTRIES, 1);
+ int skipnr = get_stack_skipnr(stack_entries, num_stack_entries);
+ unsigned long this_frame = stack_entries[skipnr];
+ unsigned long other_frame = 0;
+ int other_skipnr = 0; /* silence uninit warnings */
+
+ /*
+ * Must check report filter rules before starting to print.
+ */
+ if (skip_report(KCSAN_VALUE_CHANGE_TRUE, stack_entries[skipnr]))
+ return false;
+
+ if (type == KCSAN_REPORT_RACE_SIGNAL) {
+ other_skipnr = get_stack_skipnr(other_info->stack_entries,
+ other_info->num_stack_entries);
+ other_frame = other_info->stack_entries[other_skipnr];
+
+ /* @value_change is only known for the other thread */
+ if (skip_report(value_change, other_frame))
+ return false;
+ }
+
+ if (rate_limit_report(this_frame, other_frame))
+ return false;
+
+ /* Print report header. */
+ pr_err("==================================================================\n");
+ switch (type) {
+ case KCSAN_REPORT_RACE_SIGNAL: {
+ int cmp;
+
+ /*
+ * Order functions lexographically for consistent bug titles.
+ * Do not print offset of functions to keep title short.
+ */
+ cmp = sym_strcmp((void *)other_frame, (void *)this_frame);
+ pr_err("BUG: KCSAN: %s in %ps / %ps\n",
+ get_bug_type(ai->access_type | other_info->ai.access_type),
+ (void *)(cmp < 0 ? other_frame : this_frame),
+ (void *)(cmp < 0 ? this_frame : other_frame));
+ } break;
+
+ case KCSAN_REPORT_RACE_UNKNOWN_ORIGIN:
+ pr_err("BUG: KCSAN: %s in %pS\n", get_bug_type(ai->access_type),
+ (void *)this_frame);
+ break;
+
+ default:
+ BUG();
+ }
+
+ pr_err("\n");
+
+ /* Print information about the racing accesses. */
+ switch (type) {
+ case KCSAN_REPORT_RACE_SIGNAL:
+ pr_err("%s to 0x%px of %zu bytes by %s on cpu %i:\n",
+ get_access_type(other_info->ai.access_type), other_info->ai.ptr,
+ other_info->ai.size, get_thread_desc(other_info->ai.task_pid),
+ other_info->ai.cpu_id);
+
+ /* Print the other thread's stack trace. */
+ stack_trace_print(other_info->stack_entries + other_skipnr,
+ other_info->num_stack_entries - other_skipnr,
+ 0);
+
+ if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_KCSAN_VERBOSE))
+ print_verbose_info(other_info->task);
+
+ pr_err("\n");
+ pr_err("%s to 0x%px of %zu bytes by %s on cpu %i:\n",
+ get_access_type(ai->access_type), ai->ptr, ai->size,
+ get_thread_desc(ai->task_pid), ai->cpu_id);
+ break;
+
+ case KCSAN_REPORT_RACE_UNKNOWN_ORIGIN:
+ pr_err("race at unknown origin, with %s to 0x%px of %zu bytes by %s on cpu %i:\n",
+ get_access_type(ai->access_type), ai->ptr, ai->size,
+ get_thread_desc(ai->task_pid), ai->cpu_id);
+ break;
+
+ default:
+ BUG();
+ }
+ /* Print stack trace of this thread. */
+ stack_trace_print(stack_entries + skipnr, num_stack_entries - skipnr,
+ 0);
+
+ if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_KCSAN_VERBOSE))
+ print_verbose_info(current);
+
+ /* Print report footer. */
+ pr_err("\n");
+ pr_err("Reported by Kernel Concurrency Sanitizer on:\n");
+ dump_stack_print_info(KERN_DEFAULT);
+ pr_err("==================================================================\n");
+
+ return true;
+}
+
+static void release_report(unsigned long *flags, struct other_info *other_info)
+{
+ if (other_info)
+ /*
+ * Use size to denote valid/invalid, since KCSAN entirely
+ * ignores 0-sized accesses.
+ */
+ other_info->ai.size = 0;
+
+ raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&report_lock, *flags);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Sets @other_info->task and awaits consumption of @other_info.
+ *
+ * Precondition: report_lock is held.
+ * Postcondition: report_lock is held.
+ */
+static void set_other_info_task_blocking(unsigned long *flags,
+ const struct access_info *ai,
+ struct other_info *other_info)
+{
+ /*
+ * We may be instrumenting a code-path where current->state is already
+ * something other than TASK_RUNNING.
+ */
+ const bool is_running = current->state == TASK_RUNNING;
+ /*
+ * To avoid deadlock in case we are in an interrupt here and this is a
+ * race with a task on the same CPU (KCSAN_INTERRUPT_WATCHER), provide a
+ * timeout to ensure this works in all contexts.
+ *
+ * Await approximately the worst case delay of the reporting thread (if
+ * we are not interrupted).
+ */
+ int timeout = max(kcsan_udelay_task, kcsan_udelay_interrupt);
+
+ other_info->task = current;
+ do {
+ if (is_running) {
+ /*
+ * Let lockdep know the real task is sleeping, to print
+ * the held locks (recall we turned lockdep off, so
+ * locking/unlocking @report_lock won't be recorded).
+ */
+ set_current_state(TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
+ }
+ raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&report_lock, *flags);
+ /*
+ * We cannot call schedule() since we also cannot reliably
+ * determine if sleeping here is permitted -- see in_atomic().
+ */
+
+ udelay(1);
+ raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&report_lock, *flags);
+ if (timeout-- < 0) {
+ /*
+ * Abort. Reset @other_info->task to NULL, since it
+ * appears the other thread is still going to consume
+ * it. It will result in no verbose info printed for
+ * this task.
+ */
+ other_info->task = NULL;
+ break;
+ }
+ /*
+ * If invalid, or @ptr nor @current matches, then @other_info
+ * has been consumed and we may continue. If not, retry.
+ */
+ } while (other_info->ai.size && other_info->ai.ptr == ai->ptr &&
+ other_info->task == current);
+ if (is_running)
+ set_current_state(TASK_RUNNING);
+}
+
+/* Populate @other_info; requires that the provided @other_info not in use. */
+static void prepare_report_producer(unsigned long *flags,
+ const struct access_info *ai,
+ struct other_info *other_info)
+{
+ raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&report_lock, *flags);
+
+ /*
+ * The same @other_infos entry cannot be used concurrently, because
+ * there is a one-to-one mapping to watchpoint slots (@watchpoints in
+ * core.c), and a watchpoint is only released for reuse after reporting
+ * is done by the consumer of @other_info. Therefore, it is impossible
+ * for another concurrent prepare_report_producer() to set the same
+ * @other_info, and are guaranteed exclusivity for the @other_infos
+ * entry pointed to by @other_info.
+ *
+ * To check this property holds, size should never be non-zero here,
+ * because every consumer of struct other_info resets size to 0 in
+ * release_report().
+ */
+ WARN_ON(other_info->ai.size);
+
+ other_info->ai = *ai;
+ other_info->num_stack_entries = stack_trace_save(other_info->stack_entries, NUM_STACK_ENTRIES, 2);
+
+ if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_KCSAN_VERBOSE))
+ set_other_info_task_blocking(flags, ai, other_info);
+
+ raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&report_lock, *flags);
+}
+
+/* Awaits producer to fill @other_info and then returns. */
+static bool prepare_report_consumer(unsigned long *flags,
+ const struct access_info *ai,
+ struct other_info *other_info)
+{
+
+ raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&report_lock, *flags);
+ while (!other_info->ai.size) { /* Await valid @other_info. */
+ raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&report_lock, *flags);
+ cpu_relax();
+ raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&report_lock, *flags);
+ }
+
+ /* Should always have a matching access based on watchpoint encoding. */
+ if (WARN_ON(!matching_access((unsigned long)other_info->ai.ptr & WATCHPOINT_ADDR_MASK, other_info->ai.size,
+ (unsigned long)ai->ptr & WATCHPOINT_ADDR_MASK, ai->size)))
+ goto discard;
+
+ if (!matching_access((unsigned long)other_info->ai.ptr, other_info->ai.size,
+ (unsigned long)ai->ptr, ai->size)) {
+ /*
+ * If the actual accesses to not match, this was a false
+ * positive due to watchpoint encoding.
+ */
+ kcsan_counter_inc(KCSAN_COUNTER_ENCODING_FALSE_POSITIVES);
+ goto discard;
+ }
+
+ return true;
+
+discard:
+ release_report(flags, other_info);
+ return false;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Depending on the report type either sets @other_info and returns false, or
+ * awaits @other_info and returns true. If @other_info is not required for the
+ * report type, simply acquires @report_lock and returns true.
+ */
+static noinline bool prepare_report(unsigned long *flags,
+ enum kcsan_report_type type,
+ const struct access_info *ai,
+ struct other_info *other_info)
+{
+ switch (type) {
+ case KCSAN_REPORT_CONSUMED_WATCHPOINT:
+ prepare_report_producer(flags, ai, other_info);
+ return false;
+ case KCSAN_REPORT_RACE_SIGNAL:
+ return prepare_report_consumer(flags, ai, other_info);
+ default:
+ /* @other_info not required; just acquire @report_lock. */
+ raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&report_lock, *flags);
+ return true;
+ }
+}
+
+void kcsan_report(const volatile void *ptr, size_t size, int access_type,
+ enum kcsan_value_change value_change,
+ enum kcsan_report_type type, int watchpoint_idx)
+{
+ unsigned long flags = 0;
+ const struct access_info ai = {
+ .ptr = ptr,
+ .size = size,
+ .access_type = access_type,
+ .task_pid = in_task() ? task_pid_nr(current) : -1,
+ .cpu_id = raw_smp_processor_id()
+ };
+ struct other_info *other_info = type == KCSAN_REPORT_RACE_UNKNOWN_ORIGIN
+ ? NULL : &other_infos[watchpoint_idx];
+
+ kcsan_disable_current();
+ if (WARN_ON(watchpoint_idx < 0 || watchpoint_idx >= ARRAY_SIZE(other_infos)))
+ goto out;
+
+ /*
+ * With TRACE_IRQFLAGS, lockdep's IRQ trace state becomes corrupted if
+ * we do not turn off lockdep here; this could happen due to recursion
+ * into lockdep via KCSAN if we detect a race in utilities used by
+ * lockdep.
+ */
+ lockdep_off();
+
+ if (prepare_report(&flags, type, &ai, other_info)) {
+ /*
+ * Never report if value_change is FALSE, only if we it is
+ * either TRUE or MAYBE. In case of MAYBE, further filtering may
+ * be done once we know the full stack trace in print_report().
+ */
+ bool reported = value_change != KCSAN_VALUE_CHANGE_FALSE &&
+ print_report(value_change, type, &ai, other_info);
+
+ if (reported && panic_on_warn)
+ panic("panic_on_warn set ...\n");
+
+ release_report(&flags, other_info);
+ }
+
+ lockdep_on();
+out:
+ kcsan_enable_current();
+}

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